3 Contrastive Analysis GOAL MEANS Explanation of L2 learning Description of the languagePsychologyLinguistic
4 MICROLINGUISTICS:It is a branch of linguistics that concerns itself with the study of language systems in the abstract, without regard to the meaning of expressions. The language is reduced to the abstract elements of syntax and phonology. Thus the language is analyzed for their own sake and without reference to their social function.MACROLINGUISTICS:It is a field of study concerned with the language in its broadest sense and including cultural and behavioural features associated with language.It embraces different aspects of language.
5 Semantics: the study of meaning, changes in meaning and the principles that govern the relation ship between sentences or words and their meanings.Sociolinguistics: a descriptive study of the effects of any and all aspects of society on the way language is used and the effects of language used on society.Ethnomethodology: It refers to the analysis and interpretation of every spoken interaction.Macrolinguistics
6 Discourse Analysis: It is concerned with how we build up “meaning” in the larger communicative rather than grammatical units, meaning in a text, paragraph, conversation, etc rather than a single sentence.Speech-act Theory: an approach to the meaning of language which stresses the use made of language, rather than the literal meaning of the combined words. Emphasis what we do with language rather than what we say.Macrolinguistics
7 FRAMEWORK Levels Categories Models Structural or Taxonomic Phonology UnitStructureGrammarTransformationalGenerativeClassLexisContrastiveGenerativeSystemCase
8 LEVELS OF LANGUAGE Level of phonology Level of lexis Level of morphologyLevel of syntaxProcedural Orientation:SyntaxPhonologyMorphologyNowadays mixing is sometimes necessary to account for some fact of language.Mixing Levels:
9 The stage of juxtaposition for comparison TWO STEPSThe stage of descriptionThe stage of juxtaposition for comparison
10 FRAMEWORK Levels Categories Models Structural or Taxonomic Phonology UnitStructureGrammarTransformationalGenerativeClassLexisContrastiveGenerativeSystemCase
11 There are four categories : unit, structure, class and system. CATEGORIES OF GRAMMARLinguistic descriptions are in terms of these categories.There are four categories : unit, structure, class and system.They are universal , that is they are necessary and sufficient as a basis for the description of any language.
12 Sentence – Clause – Phrase – Word - Morpheme Category: 1- UNITThe Units of grammar are:Sentence – Clause – Phrase – Word - MorphemeRank Scale
13 In CA usually single sentences are juxtaposed, UNITIn CA usually single sentences are juxtaposed,But the shortcoming is that sometime one word in L1 is equivalent to a sentence in L2.CA is concerned with the possibilities of maintaining 1:1 correspondence of units at ranks below sentence.Example:The pupil (who has fallen asleep) is Peter. (E)Der eingeschlafene Schuler ist Peter. (G)Two clauses in English while one in GermanInterlingual RankShift
14 FRAMEWORK Levels Categories Models Structural or Taxonomic Phonology UnitStructureGrammarTransformationalGenerativeClassLexisContrastiveGenerativeSystemCase
15 Category: 2- STRUCTURE“A structure is an arrangement of elements ordered in “places” (Halliday)Four syntactic structures in a sentence: subject, predicate, complement, adjunctFour syntactic structures in a sentence: subject, predicate, complement, adjunctExample:Tom (S) took (P) the keys(C) from the table (A)
16 Structure A Structure in the level of phonology: cccvc: strict contrast in word structure:apple: applesApfel: Äpfel
17 STRUCTURECA have traditionally focused on the category structure: linear arrangement of clauses, phrases and wordsExamples:1)- My father, who plays chess, is very patient.Mein Vater, der Schach spielt, ist sehr geduldig.Clause3)- Past participle: gespielt / playedNouns plurals: Apfel-Apfel: / Apple-ApplesWord
18 FRAMEWORK Levels Categories Models Structural or Taxonomic Phonology UnitStructureGrammarTransformationalGenerativeClassLexisContrastiveGenerativeSystemCase
19 Category: 3- CLASS London is foggy There are restrictions on which units can operate at given places in structures.Example:V Londone tumano (R) : * In London is foggy (E)London is foggy…eine unter meinem Wagen schelafende Katze… : * a sleeping under my car cat……A cat sleeping undermy car…
20 classa certain group of words which can be used in the same place in sentence.like the class of verbs, or nounsThey have no …… .They can …… .
21 FRAMEWORK Levels Categories Models Structural or Taxonomic Phonology UnitStructureGrammarTransformationalGenerativeClassLexisContrastiveGenerativeSystemCase
22 Category: SYSTEMEach language allows its speaker choices from sets of elements which are not determined by the place which the element occupies in the structure.CHOICE: “The selection of one particular term at one particular place on the chain in preference to another term or other terms which are also possible at that place” (paradigmatic)Systems operate over the domains of units: systems of sentences, of clauses, of groups, of words and of morphemes.Example: systems at clause rank: “mood”IndicativeImperativeDeclarative Interrogative
23 Language may differ, not in demanding different structural exponents, but in offering different ranges of options.System numberSystem of caseSingular,Plural,Dual (A)Singularvs.Plural (E)Nominative, accusative, genitive, instrumental, prepositional and dative (R)CommonandGenitive (E)
24 FRAMEWORK Levels Categories Models Structural or Taxonomic Phonology UnitStructureGrammarTransformationalGenerativeClassLexisContrastiveGenerativeSystemCase
25 Model A theoretical framework for description of language. In description phase we should use the same model.Two linguists, can produce different analyses of the same language data if they use different models in their analysis.
26 2.Bsed on item - and – arrangement take took1- 1.Based on an item - and - process(/Ʊ/ei/ /) +teik//=//tƱkpast = present+ diphthong /eI/ replaced by the vowel Ʊ2.Bsed on item - and – arrangement//tƱk /=/t-k/+/-Ʊ-Past=root+/Ʊ/inserted to mark past tense
27 Four main models Structural or Taxonomic Transformational Generative ContrastiveCase
28 1- Structuralist Model Disgraceful disgrace + ful ABC AB + C Unit developed and elaborated by Bloomfield and Harris.Immediate constituent (IC ) is the analytic technique =any grammatical construction which can be reduced to pairs of constituent.e.g.Disgraceful disgrace + fulABC AB + C Unitii) Ungraceful un + gracefulABC A+BC
29 The same procedure applies to larger constructions : phrases or sentences e.gi) Nice old womanA B C Structureii) Very old womanA B C
30 John is the nicest boy who speaks French. It has two Ics ,the main clause and the dependent clause
31 rather nice girl rather nice girl In such analysis no reference is made to the meaning of the constructions.Definitions are based on distribution: what goes with what.e.g.N ii) Adv Adj N i) Adv Adjrather nice girl rather nice girlA construction A non-constructionAdj + N Adv + N
32 The weaknesses in the structural model : She is a beautiful dancer.This sentence contains an ambiguity which can not be accounted for by IC.The identity of the position or distribution is no guarantee of identity of function. Structural models confine themselves to observations about surface structure.a) John is easy to please = It is easy to please John.John stands in an Object-Verb relation to pleaseb)John is eager to please = *It is eager to please John.John is in a Subject-Verb relation to please.
33 Fries (1952) (a structuralist), defines grammar as “the devices of form and arrangement”. Arrangement: relative order of elements in constructions.Formal devices operating at the level of grammarare of three kinds:1.Morphological markers like affixes2.Function words Articles, preposition, conjunction3.Suprasegmental Stress and intonationIn CA, we are likely to discover that L1 renders a certain meaning by one device, while L2 conveys the same meaning by another device.
34 eg. She gave the cat a rat. S + V + IO + DO S + V + IO + DO In English direct object nouns are differentiated from indirect objects by the later coming before the former.Sie gab der Katze eine Ratte.S V IO DOGerman exploits morphology to achieve the same ends.
35 1.Level shifts 2.Rank shifts 3.Medium shifts So there are three different ways for talking about how pairs of language:can differ1.Level shifts2.Rank shifts3.Medium shiftsIn the same level but different tools
36 Transformational –generative grammar T-GG elaborated by ChomskySyntactic Structure(1957)Aspects of the Theory of Syntax(1965)The most important feature of this grammar:Recognizing two levels of deep and surface structureThe two levels are related by transformationsReason for using T-GG in CAExplicitness: An explicit rule must be formulated for each step in deriving Surface from deep structures.
37 Universal Base Hypothesis: Deep structure are Universal Transformations as Formal UniversalEnglish GermanDS: I have an apple +The apple is red DS: Ich habe einen apfel. Der apfel ist rotRelativisation a. RelativisationI have an apple which is redb. whiz- deletion b. dist deletionI have an apple redc. adjective shifting c. adjective shiftingI have a red apple .SS Ich habe einen roten Apfel. SS
38 Explanation for sentential ambiguities : It provides for the two languages identical, means for explaining the nature of sentential ambiguities.The two different readings are derived from two different deep structures.The industrious Chinese dominate the economy of Asia.1- The Chinese who are industrious: restrictive2- the Chinese, who are industrous: nonrestrictive
39 Reference to deep structure can explain different surface-structure possibilities between languages. GermanDer ganzen Nachmittag unter dem Wagen Schlafende HundEnglishThe dog sleeping under the carThe sleeping dog under the carSo in TG we explain the difference between two languages through difference in application of TRANSFORMATIONS on deep structures.
40 Types of differences in rule application: 1.One of the languages applies the rule, whereas the other doesn't .S S S S2I know it+ they see him Ich weiß es + Sie sehen ihn1- Embed S2 in S1I know that they see him Ich weiß, daß Sie sehen ihn2 O-V permutation in S2(Does not apply) Ich weiß, daß Sie ihn sehen
41 Types of differences in rule application: 2. In L1, the rules is obligatory ,but in L2 it’s optional (or vice versa)Optional: The grammar generates equally correct sentences irrespective of wheather the transformation is applied.That was the film (which) I sawDas war the Film, DEN ich gesehen habe*Das war the Film, ich gesehen habeObject Relative Pronoun insertion
42 Types of differences in rule application: 3- Difference in the order of applicationTransformational are extrinsically ordered ,or apply in a certain fixed order.In English, Reflexivisation should apply before Imperative rule.You wash you.You wash yourself. (Reflexivisation)Wash yourserf! (Imperative)While in German it can apply after that.Sie waschen SieWaschen Sie Sie! (Imperative)Waschen Sie sich! (Reflexivisation)
43 Types of differences in rule application: 4- different scope of applicationSome transformational are less specialised or have a border scope, than others.Copula Insertion rule in Engish & Russianاصولا باور بر این است که در زیرساخت فعل to be وجود ندارد.In English CIR applies, whenever there is no verb or auxiliary in deep structure.But in Russian the application of this rule is more limited. It applies only if the auxiliary is non-present in tense (past or future)moj brat student(My brother student)
44 Types of differences in rule application: 5- Two different areas of the grammar call for the application of one and the same transformational ruleEnglishThe problem, about which John thought . . .The problem which John thought about . . .GermanDas Problem, über das Hans dachte . . .*Das Problem ,das Hans dachte über . . .
45 Types of differences in rule application: 6- Some rules imply others:Not only do some transformational rules strictly precede or follow others but sometimes some rules produce proper input for the application of others.e.g:Raising generates structures that undergo passivization in English:1.They believe that John is a clever boy.2.They believe John to be a clever boy. (raising)3.John is believed(by them) to be a clever boy. (Passivisation)GermanNo 2 is practically Non –existent. So No 3 does not exist.*Hans Wird geglaubt, ein kluger zu sein.
46 Microlinguistic Contrastive Analysis Practical steps of doing CAs.No total ca of two languages sofar. Not feasableSo its better to do relevant parts of CA not two whole languages.According to Corder, description should be parallel: describing parallel levels through the same model.Although different models are suitable for different facet of language.مثلا یک مدل خاص ممکن است بهتر بتواند یک زبان خاص را توصیف کند.If you don’t use the same model: it is not clear whether 1- the observed differences are because of difference in models: description induced contrast2- or because of difference in linguistic structures: data induced contrast
47 Dilemma: On one hand good reasons for using the same model On the other hand practical reasons for using different models2ways out of this dilemma:1- using two models but then translating the 2 description into a form which is model-neutral. : a language which is a composite of the two, a ‘supralingua’ containing features of both languages.2- no need to describe the 2 languages equally.since usually the second language need more description.Less attention needs to be paid to l1. So chose a model which is more suitable for L2.
48 Types or Tokens? In the second phase we describe types not tokens. structures rather than soundsPronoun+1st Person+Sing- Auxiliary –Past, ParticipleI have arrived.Pronoun+1st Person+Sing-Prefix+Verb+Perfective+Past+FeminineYa prishlaA type is an idealisation which represents an infinite number of realisations.A sentence is the basis of many utterances.Utterances : stretches of parole produced by native speakers out of sentences generated by system of elements and rules which constitute the Langue
49 Practical steps of doing CA 1- Assemble relevant data in two languages2- State the realisation of each grammatical category for each language3- Supplement more data.4- Formulate the contrast:either in terms of imbalanced equations: Item and Arrangementor in terms of operations: Item and Process: a set of instructions which , when applied to the grammar of one language , will yield the grammar of another language
50 Phonological CAPhonetics is concerned with three types of physical reality.1- articulatory phonetics: movement of speech organs2- acoustic phonetics: acoustic features (aspiration of p in French and English)3- auditory phonetics: hearing process + brain activityPhonology: the way sounds function in a language.how many of them are used in a language.not he physical reality but the mental realitydark l in English and Russian
51 Four steps in a contrastive sound system 1- draw up the phonemic inventory of L1 and L22- equate phonems interlingually3- list the phonemic variants (allophones)4- determine the distributional restrictions
52 Phonological Models: taxonomic vs. generative Determining the phonemic system, combinational possibilities of phonems (phonotactics) and allophonesThrough comparison of two systems it provides the relative difficulties of pronunciation hypothetically.But not always ture:Consonant clusters in German which are not present in English. Sm, Sp, StOr claim that whenever a sound is not present in one language the native speakers cannot perceive that sound but the sound x...
53 Generative PhonologySurface structure phonology is derived from the deep structure phonology by transformation.: phonological rules mediate between phonetic and phonemic level.Distinctive features: with plus minus valuesUniversality of features
54 Macrolinguistics and CA Microlinguistic has a traditional approach. Like mathematic and formal logic; deals with abstract formal aspect of language. An idealization of data (in micro): 1- regularization: Lang is full of mixed constructions, hesitations, fals starts and etc. because of memory limitations, distractions, and shift of attention. These should be regularized out of data. 2- standardization: Selection of standard dialect for description
55 3-decontextualization: studing isolated sentences a: by removing the sentence from preceding and following Ss: cotextb: by seperating it from the real-world situation:contextIn Mac. ; study of language in relation to social, psychological, and cultural context.Mac ; scientific understanding of how people communicateShift of attention from code to processfrom langue to paroleObject of linguistic studies: Communicative Competence
56 Hymes (1974) identifies six variables which he suggests the ethnographer of speaking must refer to in characterizing any particular speech event: setting, participants, purpose, key, content and channel.Setting: the time and place of speechPARTICIPANTS: Addressor, speaker, addresse and audiencePURPOSE: persuasion, commandingKEY : ‘tone, manner or spirit’ in which the speech act is performedCONTENT: what one is talking about: tabooCHANNEL:speech and writing
57 Two areas of Macrolinguistics Broadening of scope: units of linguistic organization larger than the single sentence.1- On formal level: text linguistics:Concerned with formal devices used for establishing inter-sentential connections and units above sentence2- On functional level: discourse analysis:Correlation of situational variables with linguistic variables
58 Widdowson’s distinction between use and usage Use : grammaticality of sentenceUsage : use in appropriate contextAppropriacy:1- formal: not violating textual organization= cohesive text2- functional: communicates what its speaker intends= coherenceViolation of this principle = incoherence= breakdown in communicationExample:A: Who broke the window.B1: What John broke was the window.= incohesiveB2: John has studied Biophysics. = incoherent
59 Text AnalysisText Analysis is concerned with different types of relationship among sentences in a text. : intertextuality of sentences in the text.The following text demonstrates lake of cohesion in the text:He will give you the name of one or two suitable doctors.Should there be any hitch, ask to speak to the physician-in-chief.If you need a doctor for your child in a strange town, find the name of the best hospital.The physician-in-chief will in all probability not be a children’s specialist.Telephone and ask for the name of a pediatrician on the staff.
60 Formal devices of textuality: LexicalForemost among the lexical cohesive devices are the relations of synonymy and hyponym.Doctor for your child = pediatriciandoctor = pediatrician + physician + specialistcohyponymeUsually hypernymy which is more general is used at the beginning of the text in more general sentences = in topic sentencesThere are also simple to complex lexical correspondencesLexical items which summarize complete propositionsOne hundred hours a week were devoted to study and 45 minutes to football. This bias was not wholly popular.
61 GrammaticalHalliday and hasan identify four major grammatical means of textual cohesion in English:reference, substitution, ellipsis, conjunction1- REFERENCE:A. exophoric: refence to real world1- anaphoric: back-referring (p )B. endophoric: reference in text2- cataphoric: anticipatory reference (p )2- ELLIPSIS: creating cohesion by leaving out what can be inferred by preceding discourseEllipsis can be either anaphoric or cataphoric. (page )
62 3- Comparison 4- parallel structure Comparison is not invariably located in one sentences, although this is probably the most economical and most explicit way of stating comparison, as in:John is more intelligent than his sister.There are ten boys in his class. John is the most intelligent.4- parallel structureTwo or three sentences with parallel structureTo tie the sentences together conceptuallyHave you ever seen a pig? Have you ever seen a fish walk?My painting the visitors admired. My sculptures they dislike.(sov)To indicate that the two sentences are to be read as contrast
63 Functional Sentences Perspective Analysis of sentences in perspective of their functionSuccessive sentences in the text must do two things: they must be informative, and , at the same time be relevant.Informative: presenting ‘new’ informationRelevant: information which is already known to the reader , ‘given’ either by preceding context or by the situational context.
64 In FSP terms, ‘given’ information are ascribed to the function Theme, and ‘new’ information to the function Rheme.In English usually Subject is Theme and Object is Rheme and verb is referred to as the Transition between the two. (in unmarked structures)But this order can be different in marked sentences, through transposing object to sentences-initial position (page110)Or through Tonic StressBut since the word order is relatively fixed in English, there are other linguistic tools used for the same function.Cleft Sentences: It was John who red the lessonPseudo-cleft: starting with WHAT
65 PASSIVISATION:The basic function of the passive transformation is to reorder, relative to one another, the two semantic categories Agent and Goal.John has picked these strawberriesAgent Active GoalTheme Transformation Rhemeii) These strawberries were picked by johnGoal passive AgentTheme Transformation Rheme
66 DEFINITNESS-MARKING: In English Theme or Given information is presented with a definite article. (page 112)However the Slavonic languages, while they enjoy a greater freedom of word-order than English, have no article system, unlike English, and word order shows the definiteness of the words.
67 Contrastive Text Analysis three possible approaches:Textual characterizationText typeTranslated textWhat types of devices for achieving textual cohesionEvery language uses certain set of devices for cohesionWhile ellipsis is a mark of “good style” in English,In Mayan languages, repetition is a sign of “good style” .Put a ring on his hand and put shoes on his feet.The job of CA is to explore the type and the frequency of these devices in each language.
68 Text typology: Different types of text perform different function According to Nida:functions: 1- expressive: poems, narratives2- informative: news reports, journal papers, text books3- imperative: instructionsPoint: Texts are seldom pure: not just one of the three functionsOne single text: maybe of three functionsBut what concerns CA is what the features of each type in each language are.Institutionalised text types: texts that perform certain conventional function in the daily life of a society, such as , commercials, official letters, maintenance instructions,…
69 Translated texts: Can be a basis for textual CA. But limitations interference from source language transferring features of the source language to the target language.Another case: in bilingual society paired text:In road signs and press announcements usually independently produced text.But even these text may suffer from impaired translation.
70 Discourse Analysis I advise you to see a doctor. is not one about form but about its use.Discourse analysis functionalitySpeech Acts: we do things through languages,Such as, asking, refusing, describing, condemningFunctions of speech act:1- marked: by specific verbs like warn2- implicit: without explicit wordsI advise you to see a doctor.I’d see doctor if I were you.
71 According to Austin:All performatives can be reduced to a sentence beginning with a performative verb.Discourse Markers: show the function of sentences and the logical relationships between sentences.Discourse Markers are optional (120)Depending on context and how precise we need to be.