Presentation on theme: "LEARNING THEORIES LEARNING THEORIES. Behaviorist theories Behavior was defined as a muscle movement a result of a series of condition reflexes, and."— Presentation transcript:
Behaviorist theories Behavior was defined as a muscle movement a result of a series of condition reflexes, and all emotion and thought is a result of behavior learned through conditioning (subject can learn by conditioning). People or animals could learn to respond in a particular way if certain conditions exist. appropriate responses could be developed through " trail and error learning" or " stimulus and response"
CONTINUE…… -Stimulus and response bonds are strengthened by reinforcement like reward and punishment. - Behaviorism is concerned with the - Behaviorism is concerned with the observable actions (behaviors) of people observable actions (behaviors) of people in the learning process. You can only in the learning process. You can only know if your student has learned if they know if your student has learned if they can demonstrate new knowledge or can demonstrate new knowledge or skills. skills.
Humanistic theory it take a person-centered view of nursing by using manipulation to bring about learning. Humanists believe that it is the student who should determined what is to be learned, and that learning should relate to their own experiences.
ALSO Humanists believe that teacher as a facilitator of learning not as a foundation of all knowledge to their students.
(A person can learn a great deal if they reflect on their experiences)e.g. if a person wishes to be a nurse they put themselves into a position which will enable them to achieve that aim i.e. they enroll on a nursing courses.
Social learning theory: if people want to be accepted into a group they have to learn its norms and values, and adopt them as their own.
There are several key components of this theory people learn as they are in constant interaction with their environment (modeling behavior) people learn as they are in constant interaction with their environment (modeling behavior) Attention process determined which behaviors will be learned (selection) Attention process determined which behaviors will be learned (selection) Retention process refer to the ability to retain modeled behaviors in permanent memory. Retention process refer to the ability to retain modeled behaviors in permanent memory.
Cognitive learning theories: cognitive science is the study of how our brains work in the process of perceiving, thinking, remembering and learning (information processing). the focus is on mental process that are responsible for behavior and its meaning
Common concepts of cognitive theories learning: Acquisition of knowledge and skills that changes a person behavior. E.g. novices become more experts)
Meta cognition: Evolved from the study of information processing and is sometimes defined as thinking about ones thinking. It is a process learner use to gauge their thinking while reading, studying, trying to learn, or problem solving. Some people are intelligent novices. They know what they know and what they don’t know, and they plan to get the information and understanding they need.
memory: there is a consolidation function in the memory process (stationed in memory).
Transfer: it is the ability to take information learned in one situation and apply it to another in nursing we teach principles of infection so the students can apply then and adapt then to all clinical situation
Successful transfer depends on several factors the extents to which material was originally learned. the extents to which material was originally learned. The ability to retrieve information from memory The ability to retrieve information from memory The way in which the material was taught and learned. The way in which the material was taught and learned. The similarity of the new situation to the original The similarity of the new situation to the original
A model of A model of adult adult learning learning
Andragogy: Teaching of adults Pedagogy: Teaching of children
Andragogy Need to know why they need to learn something. feel responsible for their own learning. Adults learn from each others experience. Ready to learn when they feel the need to know. life-centered or task-centered orientation primarily internally motivated, with some external motivation.
We can state that the teacher who takes an adult learning model into consideration when teaching will be less of a disseminator of information and director of the learning process and more of a facilitator. The wards (guide, coach, mentor, role model, challenger, and motivator) are used in model of adult learning.
Learning proposition that are application to nursing education
1. Behavior which are rewarded (reinforced) are likely to occur 2. Sheer repetition without indications of improvement or any kind of reinforcement is a poor way to attempt to learn.
3. threat and punishment have variable and uncertain effects upon learning. they may make the punishment response more likely or less likely to recur; they may set up avoidance tendencies which prevent further learning.
4. Reward (reinforcement) to be effective must follow almost immediately after the desire behavior. 5. Learners progress in any area of learning only as far as they need to in order to achieve their purposes.
Forgetting proceeds rapidly at first- then more and more slowly; recall shortly after learning reduces the amount forgotten. Learning from reading is facilitated more by time spent recalling what has been read than by rereading.
8.what is learned is most likely to be available for use if it is learned in a situation much like that in which it is to be used and immediately preceding the time when it is needed.
9. Remember new information if it is confirms their previous attitudes 10. Adults need to know why they need to learn something before undertaking to learn it.