I. Three Forms: A. Narrative poem – tells a story; literary elements apply common forms: ballads, epics B. Dramatic poem – an enactment; like a play C. Lyric poem – reveals thoughts and feelings common forms: haiku, ode, psalm, sonnet, etc.
II. Parts of a Poem: A. stanza – acts like a paragraph in prose; can be any length B. couplet – two consecutive rhyming lines expressing a complete thought C. quatrain – four lines that rhyme in different ways – ABCB, ABAB, ABBA, AABB, AAAA D. refrain – section of text repeated at intervals
III. Music of Poetry: A. stress – vocal emphasis / intensity given syllables B. meter – pattern of stresses in lines of a poem C. rhythm – how the words fit into the meter D. rhyme – words with the same ending sound E. onomatopoeia – words that sound like what they are F. alliteration – repetition of words with same beginning sound G. assonance – repetition of a vowel sound H. internal rhyme – words that rhyme within a line
IV. Figurative Language: personification – giving lifelike qualities to inanimate objects irony – what is said is the opposite of what is implied hyperbole - extreme exaggeration apostrophe – speaking directly to an absent person or object euphemism – understatement by using a softer term simile – comparison using “like” or “as” metaphor – direct comparison without “like” or “as” allusion – reference to something outside the poem
Because You Asked about the Line between Prose and Poetry (By Howard Nemerov) Sparrows were feeding in a freezing drizzle That while you watched turned into pieces of snow Riding a gradient invisible From silver aslant to random, white, and slow. There came a moment that you couldn't tell. And then they clearly flew instead of fell.