Presentation on theme: "Open Source Intelligence (OSINT): The Way Ahead"— Presentation transcript:
1 Open Source Intelligence (OSINT): The Way Ahead I grew up as the son of an oil man, with ten years in Latin America and ten years in Asia including ten coups d’ etat in Viet-Nam, and then returned after school to the overseas environment, first as a Marine Corps infantry officer and then as a clandestine case officer, one of the first assigned terrorism on a full-time basis, in the 1980’s The books that I have written or edited are focused on saving the world, and saving America, by being more intelligent about how we do intelligence. Collective open public intelligence is the foundation for our future, not secret intelligence.Presented to the Office of Naval Intelligence (ONI)Robert David Steele (Vivas)22 November 2006
2 Plan of the Brief Global Reality—Context for Intelligence Strategic Failure of Secret IntelligenceStatus of OSINT TodayWhat You Can Do Now to ImproveIntelligence & Information Operations (I2O)Where We Need to Go as a NationGO NAVY: 450-Ship Navy, Peace from the SeaFor everyone’s convenience, this briefing is already online, and it includes words for each slide in Notes format.A few other references are provided for those interested in the relationship between poverty, politics, collective intelligence, and leadership.
3 GLOBAL REALITYYour elected politicians and senior officers may not be interested in reality, but reality is most assuredly interested in us.
5 18 Genocide Campaigns On-Going Today Ethnic Fault Lines 200018 Genocide Campaigns On-Going TodayIt gets worse. Everyone knows about the Holocaust against those of the Jewish faith during World War II.What most people do not realize is that there have been over 70 genocides in history, and that there are 18 genocides taking place today as we gather here to consider national security and the future of America.Source: Dr. Greg Stanton
6 Water & WarAridSemi-AridWater Pollution123456Hyper-AridThese ethnic conflicts tend to coincide with conditions of severe deprivation.Note the red line---some of the worst water scarcity and some of the worst ethnic conflicts are along the Russian borders with both the Islamic states of Central Asia, and the Chinese state.Water scarcity is a national security threat that does not receive enough attention.Sub-HumidSource: The State of the World Atlas (1997), chart 54, 53
7 Global Threats to Local Survival Complex Emergencies32 CountriesRefugees/Displaced66 CountriesFood Security33 CountriesChild Soldiers41 CountriesModern Plagues*59 Countries & RisingWater Scarcity &Contaminated Water**Ethnic Conflict 18 Genocides Today**Resource Wars, Energy Waste & Pollution**Corruption Common80 CountriesCensorship Very High62 CountriesThe instability of the world is relevant to our homeland security because it spawns migrations, criminal activity, and disease as well as terrorism, all in part influences by climate change as well as corruption.There are 32 complex emergencies involving over 20 countries that are considered to be “failed states.” We have millions of refugees, millions of starving people, millions of people subject to plagues and epidemics.*State of the World Atlas (1997), ** Marq de Villier (Water), John Heidenrich and Greg Stanton (Genocide), Michael Klare et al (Resources), all others from PIOOM Map 2002
8 Taxpayer Dollars Focused on Just 10% of the ThreatWhen you evaluate the Pentagon and what we have today in our national security structure, against the real-world threats, you quickly establish that our capabilities are helpful only 10% of the time.The other 90% of the time we are forced, for lack of mature and considered advance planning, to jury-rig very expensive and always inadequate responses.We need a strong national security program, but it must be a smart program that is relevant to the full range of real world threats.
9 Presidential Trade-Offs $100 million will buy: 1 Small Navy Platform or Ground Unit or1,000 Potential George Kennan’s or10,000 Peace Corps Volunteers or1,000,000 cubic meters of desalinated water orOne day of war over water (or oil)The whole point of being President is to make trade-off decisions that are in the public interest. I can tell you with confidence that Virginia class submarines re-justified as covert troop transports, shooting nine marines in a torpedo on to the beach when the Israeli’s would use canvas canoes, make us a laughingstock in the real world. The decisions being made today favor special interests, not the public. They do not increase our security, the actually decrease our security and reduce our options for the future.
10 America is losing/has lost the moral high ground. We’re in a Six-Front 100-Year War of Our Own Making.America is losing ground! If bin Laden could have asked his maker for the most helpful possible American reaction to 9-11, he could not have done better than the Bush Administration’s failure to drop a Ranger battalion on him as he walked out of Afghanistan, and the oil-motivated invasion of Iraq.The US is now an occupying force in Iraq, and in Afghanistan it has lost control of the entire country, where under US “non-control” the opium crop has doubled, enriching all the warlords, who will be almost impossible to dislodge without resuming combat operations. The Taliban is making a come-back. We have started a six-front 100-year war.America is losing/has lost the moral high ground.
11 Policy/ThreatsPovertyDiseaseEcologyState WarCivil WarGenocideOth. Atroc.ProliferationTerrorismTrans. CrimeDiplomacyEconomyEducationImmigrationSoc. Sec.DebtEnergyRevenueFamilyJusticeSecurityWaterFor each Al Qaeda $1, US Spends $500K. Badly. They can dothis forever. Any Questions?DoDFocusI have embarked, after 18 years of trying to get the US Government to pay more attention to open sources of information in all languages, on a new campaign that I call the Ten Threats, Twelve Policies, and Eight Challengers.This illustration puts Bin Laden in perspective. In relation to the totality of our needs and concerns, Bin Laden is exactly 1/96th of what our government should be focusing on.GWOT
12 Policy/ThreatsPovertyDiseaseEcologyState WarCivil WarGenocideOth. Atroc.ProliferationTerrorismTrans. CrimeDiplomacyEducationImmigrationSoc. Sec.EconomyEnergyRevenueDebtFamilyJusticeSecurityWaterBig DogsBrazilChinaIndiaIndonesiaIranRussiaVenezuelaWild CardsIn Grand Strategy terms, Al Qaeda shrinks to zip.In the context of the Eight Challengers, Bin Laden should be, but is not, below the line for Presidential attention, EXCEPT when the President needs to instill fear in the population and needs a bogie man to justify ideological adventurism.If you believe in President Bush and Vice President Cheney, this may make you uncomfortable. I specialize in reality, not in ideological fantasies, and I can tell you with certainty that America is going bankrupt both financially and morally. We have lost eight years, and time is the one strategic factor that cannot be bought and cannot be replaced.
13 Policy/ThreatsPovertyDiseaseEcologyState WarCivil WarGenocideOth. Atroc.ProliferationTerrorismTrans. CrimeDiplomacyEconomyEducationImmigrationSoc. Sec.DebtEnergyRevenueFamilyJusticeSecurityWaterBig DogsBrazilChinaIndiaIndonesiaIranRussiaVenezuelaWild CardsCan't Fix Stupid!From left : Larry the Cable Guy , Bill Engvall , Jeff Foxworthy and Ron White.The Administration is not stupid. The bureaucracy is not stupid. The American people are not stupid. What is stupid is “the system” that President and General Ike Eisenhower warned us of in the 1950’s. The system, notably the Pentagon and its military-industrial-congressional complex, has taken on a life of its own, and good people are swept along in the fast strong current of this out of control monolith. More on that as we go on.
14 STRATEGIC FAILURE OF NATIONAL SECRET INTELLIGENCE I have an entire lecture on this topic, here I will just focus on a few high-level failures.There are two kinds of intelligence failures:Failing to achieve warning or getting it wrong; andFailing to be heard or respected by the policymaker
15 Global Intelligence Failure Breakdown in Collection and Understanding DigitalAnalogOral/UnpublishedEnglishLanguageForeignLanguages**31 predominant languages, over 3,000 distinct languages in all.NSAFBISUN/STATECascading Deficiencies:1) Don’t even try to access most information2) Can’t process hard-copy into digital3) Can’t translate most of what we collectCIA/DONRONow we look briefly at intelligence, which is supposed to speak truth to power.The federal government is spending almost $60 billion dollars a year of your hard-earned dollars to “do” national intelligence, and they are doing it badly.We collect less than 10 to 20% of the information we need to understand, in part because we are obsessed with spies and secret satellites and ignoring open sources of information in 31 important languages.
16 Global Processing Failure Breakdown in Exploitation, Dissemination 50%Less CostlyMore SatisfyingSIGINTOSINT0%HUMINTIMINTMASINTSTATEDoes Not ExistWe don’t process what we collect in any coherent or integrated way.Not only do we not integrate our secrets from different sources, we don’t integrate secret information with open source information, and we don’t integrate government information, such as visa applications, with intelligence, such as terrorist watchlists (Able Danger is now dead, may be revised, will not be shared).Worse, what we do know is locked up in vaults and not available to state troopers and others who have a need to know.We have a dysfunctional intelligence system.
17 Threats vs. Sources Threat #1: Poverty 95% Threat #2: Infectious Disease %Threat #3: Environmental Degradation 90%Threat #4: Inter-State Conflict %Threat #5 Civil War %Threat #6: Genocide %Threat #7: Other Large-Scale Atrocities 95%Threat #8: Nuclear, bio-chemical weapons 75%Threat #9: Terrorism %Threat #10: Transnational organized crime 80%Average Importance of “OSINT” %As the Ministry of Defence in Singapore discovered with SARS, we must defend the Nation against all threats, not just military threats.This list of threats is based on the report of the High-level Panel on Threats, Challenges, and Change (A more secure world: Our shared responsibility, United Nations, 2004) where LtGen Dr. Brent Scowcroft was the US representative.The percentages are my own judgment, but sufficient in my view to justify an “80-20” spread and therefore to inquire why we are spending $60 billion a year on the 20% that is secret, and less than $600 million on the other 80%.
18 Policy/ThreatsPovertyDiseaseEcologyState WarCivil WarGenocideOth. Atroc.ProliferationTerrorismTrans. CrimeDiplomacyEducationImmigrationSoc. Sec.EconomyEnergyRevenueDebtFamilyJusticeSecurityWaterBig DogsBrazilChinaIndiaIndonesiaIranRussiaVenezuelaWild CardsThe Administration is not stupid. The bureaucracy is not stupid. The American people are not stupid. What is stupid is “the system” that President and General Ike Eisenhower warned us of in the 1950’s. The system, notably the Pentagon and its military-industrial-congressional complex, has taken on a life of its own, and good people are swept along in the fast strong current of this out of control monolith. More on that as we go on.
19 OPEN SOURCE INTELLIGENCE Secret Intelligence Misses 80% of the Relevant Information!ALL-SOURCE ANALYSISHUMINTSIGINTIMINTMASINT95% of cost20% of value5% of cost80% of valueI created this slide long ago, but it took the U.S. Government 18 years to agree with those of us, now led by Congressman Simmons on the Hill, yet the ADDNI/OS who has been appointed has less than $25M per year in new money to oversee when we need $3B a year. If the Intelligence Community were a business it would have been bankrupt long ago, and its managers put in jail with Enron, WorldCom, and other worthies who pulled much lesser scams on the public.Sadly, despite my beating the entire IC in an exercise for the Aspin-Brown Commission, in spite of the 9-11 Commission calling for an independent Open Source Agency, these people remain in denial.OPEN SOURCE INTELLIGENCEOPEN SOURCE INFORMATION
20 Baseball Analogy Harnessing the Power of the Crowd OSINTHUMINTSIGINTIMINTMASINTOpen Source Intelligence changes the rules of the game. The old way of doing business no longer works at the level of detail and constant coverage that we require. You cannot win this baseball game by bribing one player, bugging the dug-out of the opposing team, sniffing for the ball’s direction, or taking a satellite picture of the field every three days and trying to call the game that way.Instead, we harness the Collective Intelligence, the distributed intelligence, of the audience. We give them all a glove (a 119 or 114 number to deliver the ball to) and any catch by anyone is an “out.”
21 Policy-Intelligence Failure: Unbalanced Instruments of Power Too much of:Military heavy metalSecret satellitesNot enough of:Humans on groundHuman expert analysisTechnical processingState & local intelligencePublic health, water, etc.We are spending as much on national defense as Russia, China, the axis of evil countries, and the next 20 governments all put together. We spend too much on salaries while foregoing the cultural integration benefits of a universal draft.We are spending too much on a heavy-metal military and not enough on salaries for our Armed Forces, on human experts, on technical processing, on state & local intelligence, and on public health and clean water supplies.The real budget is the real policy.Citizens must vote and provide constant oversight if the taxpayer dollar is to be spent wisely.
22 Policy-Intelligence Failure Public is Neither Engaged Nor Informed Why This MattersHomeland security--”A Nation’s best defense is an educated citizenry.” (Thomas Jefferson)Prosperity--the financial value of ethics, trust, strategic cultureGlobal security--the long-term value of public intelligence to multi-cultural policy initiatives, the best pre-emption is moral.NationsInc.BacteriaJonathan Schell makes the point in “Unconquerable World” that there are not enough guns on the planet to force our way. This is common sense for you and me, but anathema to the military-industrial complex. The only antidote to corruption in our government is public engagement.Pre-emptive attacks are destructive; pre-emptive overtures from the moral high ground are the only affordable sustainable strategy in today’s asymmetric environment.CitizensGangsWorld War III Players
24 OSINT Matters I"By `intelligence' we mean every sort of information about the enemy and his country--the basis, in short, of our own plans and operations."Clausewitz, On War, 1832Emphasis Added.You get no points for just knowingsecrets when they are less than 2%of what you need to know.
25 OSINT Matters II What’s on the other side of the hill? All the business of war, and indeed all the business of life, is to endeavor to find out what you don’t know by what you do; that’s what I called “guessing what was at the other side of the hill”.Duke of Wellingtonquoted in John Wilson Croker, The Croker Papers (1884)
26 This is what got General Schoomaker’s attention in 1997. OSINT Matters IIIThis is what got General Schoomaker’s attention in 1997.Strategic PlanningOperational CoordinationTactical EmploymentAcquisitionDesignHistoryContextCurrent AwarenessKey Personalities/MotivatorsImagery & Image MapsTranslation SupportStrategic GeneralizationsCritical Technologies
27 Brief History of OSINT Diplomats diminished FBIS in WW II FBIS going, going….FRD on the marginER&A cut, cut, cutWe do secrets“On your own time…”“Use the Internet”
28 USMC Intelligence Experience 1988 MCIC start-up$10M on DODIISLearned 90% raw infoNot secretNot onlineNot in EnglishNot available from DCNo DoD focal pointNo knowledge base
29 US IC Response HPSCI Forced the Issue in 1992 FBIS claimed the turf and promptly blew itCOSPO created, DIA led & screwed it upMarkowitz tried hard, Dempsey blocked NFIP line for yearsTenet June 1997 refused Global Coverage recommendation of $1.5M ($10M/year per 150 lower tier targets)2005 DNI appoints ADDNI/OS, never heard from again….
30 Meanwhile…. 1994 Steve Emerson got it right on jihad within the US 1996 Yossef Bodansky got it right on BL’s declaration of war1997 Pete Schoomaker established SOCOM OSINT2005 Col Vince Stewart USMC does super job for USDI, they offer SOCOM Executive Agency, declined
31 DoD OSINT Today OSD POC Back to FMF DIA lip-service to OSINT No DoD Doctrine (Army contractor wrote garbage)No DoD Program, Budget, or TO&EVaried parties spending around $25M in complete disorder & mostly on data miningSOCOM & CENTCOM good but limited fundingSTRATCOM wasting $65M on 36 US on-site buttsPACOM destroyed VIC, SOUTHCOM 2 bodies…FSMO tries when not diverting funds to MILCON
32 Data Mining is not Data Capture Spending $250M on data mining, and less than $10M on open source data capture, is not cool.80% of what we need is not available to FBIS or anyone else as we are now unled, un- funded, and untrained.Forget about the letter, which requires reading the language,I’ve got the stamp…so pretty!
33 Meanwhile….2003 SecDef quotes Bin Laden training manual as saying Al Qaeda gets 80% of its intelligence from OSINT but…Ramps up OPSEC (good) but does not establish DoD OSINT
34 ADDNI/OS & OSS CEO ADDNI/OS View of OSINT OSS CEO View of OSINT Humint SigintOsintHumintSigintImintMasintFIMake no mistake about it: OSINT is a separate discipline! It is also unique as a discipline in that it is the only discipline that is fully multi-disciplinary, including overt HUMINT, overt signals monitoring, commercial imagery and geospatial, and overt measurements & signatures collection.The ADDNI/OS has one view of how OSINT supports the secret disciplines, and I have a different but complementary view, except that I focus on OSINT being public intelligence.Unfortunately, while the Open Source Center at CIA is spending $20M a year on a four year Large Scale Internet Exploitation initiative, this is a drop in the bucket or “lipstick on the pig.” Fortunately the Department of Defense is taking OSINT seriously in support of both Public Diplomacy and Strategic Communication, and a few of the Combatant Commanders really understand the value of this discipline as the foundation for inter-agency and coalition campaign planning.ImintMasintOSINT is both a supporting discipline, and an all-source discipline.OSINT
36 WWW.OSS.NET www.oss.net/BASIC See especially the Context & Practice sectionsSee the briefings, especially New RulesSee especially the Training section (this is Word table, can sort by columns, search)Believe it or not, CIA & DIA and the Services have fought me on this since 1988.
38 New Craft of Intelligence Lessons of HistoryIIGlobal CoverageIIINational IntelligenceIVSpies & SecrecyChina, Islam, Ethnic, Etc.Cost-Sharing with Others--Shared Early WarningNarrowly focused!Harness distributed intelligence of NationMy second book, THE NEW CRAFT OF INTELLIGENCE: Personal, Public, & Political, lays out the future of intelligence as I believe it must be.Specifically, we can no longer afford to ignore either history or the historical statements of other players in their own languages; we must devise a means of sharing the burden of monitoring all open sources in all languages all the time; we must harness the considerable knowledge we have in our private sector; and we must focus our spies on the hard stuff. Open standards for information sharing will make all of this possible at an affordable cost.
39 Focus of Global Effort Strategic Forecasting 10% Need, 40% Cost Primary Research & Experts on Demand20% Need, 30% CostHelp Desk (Tell Me More Right Now)30% Need, 20% CostDaily/Weekly Reports40% Need, 10% CostTop SecretTribal SecretGlobal coverage of all open sources in all languages is something that we should share completely--share the cost, share the take. Regional or national help desks can share the knowledge of best prices, best practices, while protecting the nature of the inquiries. At the top two levels, also the most expensive and exclusive, you get and keep what you pay for.No one organization, or tribe, or country, can come to grips with global coverage through open sources. Sharing the burden by establishing standards for coordinating investments, collection efforts, distributed processing (including translation), and appropriate copyright and other legal aspects, is vital to creating a global information society.Partial SharingShared Among Tribes
40 Creating the World Brain: Web-Based Virtual Intelligence Teams OPG VPNWeekly ReviewExpert ForumDistance LearningVirtual LibraryShared CalendarVirtual BudgetShared 24/7 PlotShared RolodexA World Brain exists but it is immature, lacking leadership. Absent some basic information sharing concepts, governments and corporations around the world are wasting billions of dollars every year.A single global information commons, perhaps under US leadership, could quickly provide a weekly open source intelligence report on every topic imaginable, while bringing together a virtual world university, a structured library of links and documents, and a forum where pre-qualified experts respond to policymakers.Shared directories, calendars, budgets, and maps are easy. We lack right now is leadership and standards.
41 Internet Competency Now a serious source “All-source” means all sources--the Internet is now a major sourceSearch engines vary.Find images and maps.Find experts and groups.Limit to 1-hour efforts.Need an Internet specialist on call.
42 Commercial Online Competency 100X more important than Internet Italian intelligence chief puts Al- Qa'idah's assets at 5bn dollars BBC Monitoring, 05/16/2002, words.Google rapidly displacing, but still need foreign language monitoring that OSC/FBIS simply will not do for the military.Need a specialist.CIA 'Probably' Helps Italian Subversive Groups. Xinhua News Agency, 03/20/2001, words.
43 Gray Literature Competency Limited edition, must know to ask Pre-prints, technical reports, company telephone books, university yearbooks, “niche” references.Generally requires human access and special knowledge of availability.Unique and useful.
44 Primary Research Competency Knowing Who Knows, Direct Contacts Citation Analysis is key to finding top experts across different nations.Using the telephone (and the Internet) to reach top experts yields powerful results.
45 Citation Analysis Example DIALOG, SSCI, $1000 = Savings DIALOG access to Social Science Citation IndexUse OSS methodology$500 in access charges + $500 in analyst time = list of top experts on any country or topicThen you call them...
46 Analytic Toolkit Competency Software can be a curse or a help Digital conversion, storage, visualization, and retrieval toolsGeospatial toolsStructured analysis and detection toolsMulti-media publication and presentation tools
47 Geospatial Competency Maps & images make a difference Commercial imagery cheaper than ignoranceRussian military maps of Third World vitalPost-processing support from private sectorDesktop tools for plotting information in time & space contextSuch as plotting ships onGoogle Earth….
48 Analytic Tradecraft Emerging appreciation for its value CIA University tryingMoving away from “cutting and pasting”Moving away from hard-copy filesFocus on learning how to think, and how to structure digital dataStill not there.
49 Creating an OSINT Cell Central discovery, distributed exploitation Senior All-Source Collection ManagerInternet SpecialistCommercial Online ExpertPrimary ResearchExternal ContractsAll-Source Analyst/ Presentation ManagerSix people can leverage global OSINT for an entire Ministry or Service or CommandThis eliminates need for duplicate open source infrastructureAlso saves money
51 7th Generation Warfare First Generation Low Tech Attrition Second GenerationRelatively Higher TechAttrition and/or ManeuverThird GenerationFrom Hard to Soft PowerFrom Force to Brain PowerFourth GenerationNon-State ThreatsAsymmetryFifth GenerationInformation andHigh-TechKnowledge & Technology & OrganizationSixth GenerationMilitary-Technical RevolutionBio-InformationalSeventh GenerationBelief Systems & Global AccountabilityAll Information, All Languages, All the Time
52 GRAND STRATEGY: Understanding Ways, Means, and Ends
53 Reference www.oss.net IOP ’07 Portal Page Link dated 17 Nov 06: I2O Draft 3.4Includes table for monitoring & predicting revolution, levels of analysis figure
55 New Strategy: 1 + iii: Need better balance 45% % % %248B vs. 550B B vs 20B B vs. 20B B vs. 36BCINCWARCINCSOLICCINCPEACECINCHOMEStrategic NBCSmall WarsState/USIAIntelligenceBig War(s)ConstabularyPeace CorpsBorder PatrolGround TruthEconomic AidPort Security1iElectronicReserveEnvironmentPublic HealthPeace NavyAmerica must of course be strong. Our challenges are so great that there is no possibility of reducing our investment in national security. We should, however, be smart strong, not stupid strong.We should cancel missile defense and the $70B in gold-plated weapons systems, and reduce our “big war” force to $248B a year. We should dramatically increase both our special operations and our expeditionary capabilities, with draconian increases in our ability to render humanitarian assistance and reconstruction under combat conditions. We must invest at least $110B a year in peaceful preventive measures--including a Navy for peacekeeping and disaster relief, and we must triple spending on homeland security, to include state intelligence centers and comprehensive border security.
56 Modern Presidential Leadership CongressJudiciaryChief of StaffDirector-General forNational PolicyGlobal StrategyNational IntelligenceNational ResearchDirector of ClassifiedIntelligence (DCI)Chairman, NationalIntelligence CouncilDirector, Global Knowledge FoundationA modern president must have a modern staff. The National Security Council and staff is a relic of the Cold War.A modern president needs a single integrated policy staff that can trade-off and manage ways, means, and ends across both domestic and foreign programs.A modern president needs a modern intelligence community that places greater emphasis on open sources of information and on a truly national network of expertise. The DNI and the kludge that has the three national agencies in DoD and “off limits” by order of the Vice President, is a mess. It is a laughingstock and ineffective.
57 Modern Strategic Governance Director GeneralGlobal StrategyDeputy DirectorResponse ManagementAssociate DirectorsStrategic CouncilLeadership RetreatsGlobal ReserveSpecial ProjectsResponse CenterPublic LiaisonCivilian ReserveNon-State ActorsA modern president must understand the importance of strategic thinking, and will create a strategic staff that is both able to manage inter-agency responses to complex problems, and able to plan longer-term campaigns that are in the best interests of the American people.At the same time, when something like Katrina or the South Asian tsunami hits, a modern president must be able to mobilize and manage all the sources of national power, in quick time.
59 450-Ship Navy 6 Slides -- Global, local, OOTW -- Navy Message: Must be able to put force on target within 24, 48 hours; must do sustained littoral ops in multiple languages; and instream Humanitarian Assistance.
60 Global Reach, Local Service Must be able to put air-ground team anywhere24 hrs: Platoon/Cobra48 hrs: Company/Harrier72 hrs: BLT “Swarm”7 days: MAGTF (-)Increase Littoral capabilities to 31%Create Humanitarian Assistance Fleet
61 Big Decks Fence subs at 15 ballistic & 50 attack Fence carriers at 12 but dedicate four to littoral/VSTOL opsRestore 2 battleships for low-cost naval gunfire support and big stick diplomacy
62 Heavy Duty Platforms Protect cruisers/ destroyers. Create 25 new Expediters, air-capable SPRUANCEs.Increase WHIDBEY ISLAND class LHDsCreate 25 three-ship squadrons of brown water fire, air, troop interdiction platforms
63 Mine Warfare & Port Security Distribute helo-borne anti-mine capabilities throughout the fleetDevise comprehensive new port security concepts with USCGConsider Port of Houston as a CIO-Intel testbed for global information aspects.
64 Humanitarian Fleet16 roll-on, roll-off bulk carriers with integrated engineering, police, and hospital spaces--half ready to do instream ops onlyProtect two large hospital ships, create five small hospital ships
65 Global Reach, Local Service Blue Water CarrierBrown Water CarrierBig AmphibsSmall AmphibsPatrol SquadronHumanitarian Fleet
66 References www.oss.net/BASIC www.oss.net/LIBRARY www.oss.net Has the article on the 450-ship Navy (EE21)Has MCIA model for expeditionary analysisHas 67+2 country summaries of WF factorsOver 600 speakers, 15 years, 30,000 pagesWatch the portal pages, updated dailyUse the Public Daily Brief, check the weekly summaries of 30 factors, bookmark the threat, policy, and challenger forecasts and cummulative weeky summaries for each factor.
67 Will speak for sushi. Tell others. God Bless America.Will speak for sushi. Tell others.