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Criminal Street Gangs In the “MILITARY”

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1 Criminal Street Gangs In the “MILITARY”
Security Threat Groups Overview Criminal Street Gangs In the “MILITARY” MAJ ACKLEN Division Provost Marshal 1st Infantry Divison NOTE: No changes will be made to this briefing without the permission of the author.

2 Kenneth F. Kelly, MHR Security Threat Group Advisor
Author/Lecturer Masters Degree in Human Relations - University of Oklahoma Bachelor of Science Degree in Criminal Justice - Troy State University Security Threat Groups Investigations in Rural & Small Towns Master Level 1 Gang Specialist Training Behavioral Science Threat Analysis: Gang and Terrorism Certified in Gang Problems Grades K-12 Certified in Gang Counseling Techniques International Association of Chiefs of Police Military Police Corps Regiment Association Honorable Order of Kentucky Colonels National Fraternal Order of Police National Major Gang Task Force National Alliance of Gang Investigators Association Florida Gang Investigators Association Tennessee Gang Investigators Association Correctional Peace Officers Foundation, Inc. Colorado Security Threat Intelligence Network Group Website: NOTE: No changes will be made to this briefing without the permission of the author.

The goal of this “overview” is to provide general knowledge of gang related activities and the military connection.

4 WHAT is a gang? There is no single, accepted nationwide definition of youth gangs. It has been firmly established that the characteristics and behaviors of gangs are exceptionally varied within and across geographical areas. A community’s gang problem (however affected from other areas) is primarily and inherently homegrown. Nationwide there is no single definition that defines charactewristics of gangs (Klein, 2002)

5 State Statutory Definition of the term "Gang"

6 The claim a territory or neighborhood.
A gang is defined as a group of three or more people, male or female, who interact among themselves to the exclusion of others. They have a group name. The claim a territory or neighborhood. They may have recognizable symbols or graffiti. They engage in crime or anti-social behavior that supports the gang’s existence. General gang membership structure we see in the military? Potentials or "Could-be's." These are youngsters who are getting close to an age where they might decide to join a gang (middle school high school age), live close to an area where there are gangs, or have a family member who is involved with gangs. Potentials do not have to join gangs, they can choose alternatives and avoid gangs completely. Claimers, Associates or "Wanna-be's." These are the majority of what we see These young people are not officially members of the gang but they act, walk, talk, and claim to be from the gang. They may begin to dress in gang attire, hang around with the gang and become involved in some of its activities. Regular Members. They are already initiated in to the gang. Tend to back up the hard-core gang members. If they survive long enough, they could become hard-core. Hard-core. Comprise about 5 to 10% of the gang. They are in the gang the longest and frequently are in and out of jail, unemployed, and involved with drug distribution and use. These are the Officers. They are very influential in the gang.

7 Gangs And The Military The military has been labeled as a major contributor to gang, extremist and hate groups “WHY” Recruitment 4 reasons Why…..the military has been labeled Recruit pool for gangs Military equipment available for theft Skill sets Training ground for gangs Stealing of Military Equipment Learn New Skills Training

Attempt to leave the Gang Life Seeking Legal Employment Recruitment of Dependents and Soldiers Weapons Acquisition/Trafficking Learn Tactics Drug Trafficking There is a felony waiver process for joining the military so not all soldiers that come into the army have a clean past some are trying to leave the gangs but others are using the military job as a cover. Joining a gang requires being beat into the gang Leaving a gang requires the same

9 Gangs and the Military There is ample evidence that members of the Armed Forces have had previous, or have current and active contact with criminal street gangs and extremist groups. Let me read a quote from 2004 FT HUACHUCA “You gotta be realistic, it’s in the Army,” a former gang member said. “Even when I was in Germany, I was reppin’ (representing a gang) a little bit at my first duty station. Went over there and wanted to be part of the crew, part of the ‘in’ crowd. People bring baggage. You bring baggage wherever you go.” So instead of serving their country they are learning a trade

10 Gangs and the Military Societal problems cross over into military life. Army leaders fight gangs with education, training, positive influence. “You gotta be realistic, it’s in the Army,” a former gang member said. “Even when I was in Germany, I was reppin’ (representing a gang) a little bit at my first duty station. Went over there and wanted to be part of the crew, part of the ‘in’ crowd. People bring baggage. You bring baggage wherever you go.” FORT HUACHUCA, Ariz. (TRADOC News Service, April 13, 2004)

11 In The News NBC17 February 24, 2005
Gangs and the Military Some of America's most notorious street gangs are turning up in the military. But they aren't just serving their country. Instead, many are taking the opportunity to learn a very deadly trade. In The News NBC17 February 24, 2005

12 Military weapons in hands of gangs
Gangs and the Military Military weapons in hands of gangs By John Kidman, Frank Walker and Eamonn Duff October 19, 2003 The Sun-Herald Grenades have been found at the scenes of two recent gang attacks, while police are investigating reports that one group has acquired an assault rifle fitted with a grenade launcher. Some believe the weapons to have been imported from the war zones of the Middle East. Unlimited access to handguns and in some cases, military-styled assault weapons. State of lawlessness as a form of "urban terrorism“. Semi-automatic pistols and a military assault rifle were used to execute 34-year-old father-of-four. Grenades and other weapons found 2003

13 Effects on the U.S. NAVY Several black males came to San Angelo from Houston, Texas, to establish a branch of the “Lynch Mob.” One active duty U.S. Navy E-5 was been identified associating with these gang members In Shreveport, Louisiana, a U. S. Navy active duty member and a civilian were shot while attending a cookout at a friend’s residence. This was a known area for drugs and street gang presence. In Los Angeles a known gang member just back from Iraq firing on two California police officers -- he kills one quickly using tactics perfected on the battlefield. "Using strictly military tactics he learned in the Marine Corps, he applies suppressive fire power right into the corner," "He didn't learn those tactics as a gang member." US navy gang related incidents Texas/ Louisiana / California

14 Effects on the U.S. AIR FORCE
Two separate groups, the “Black Hawks” and the “Rebels” were comprised of dependent males between age 14 and 20. They committed vandalism and attempted auto theft. In the three months of existence, 28 cases were initiated. 10 to 15 off-post Philippino and Black males carrying bats, chains and numchucks came on base to assault a dependent Black male gang member. Pope AFB, North Carolina: a homicide was committed involving several active duty Army personnel and a civilian, all were members of local gangs. Alaska: Several Security Policemen were identified as recruiters for the Klux Ku Klan Air force dependants in gangs related incidents Air force Security Police recruiting for KKK in ALaska

15 Effects on the U.S. ARMY Fort Hood: An active duty service member (female) identified as a high ranking gang member in the State of Texas was convicted for 2 counts of Homicide (gang related). Fort Carson: An active duty service member (male) identified as the #2 gang leader for the Gangster Disciples in the State of Colorado was convicted for purchasing guns for other gang members in Chicago and Gary, Indiana. He also paid Soldiers to bring drug from Mexico by way of Fort Bliss. Germany: Death to a soldier in Kaiserslauten was gang related. Us Army Ft hood 2 hits committed we got lucky with a traffic stop on this one Ft Carson # 2 gang leader for gangster disciples busted for ATF violations running weapons…… military or state authorities didn’t catch him in is other occupations 2

16 Effects on the U.S. ARMY Fort Polk: An active duty member who claimed to a member of the “Zulu Warriors” was involved in a drive-by shooting. Fort Polk: An active duty member entered the on-post club and flashed his Blood gang signs and two Black males pistol whipped the soldier. It was discovered later that the two males were members of a Crips gang located in Shreveport. Fort Bragg: Several Soldiers with extremist views were convicted for killing two Blacks in Fayetteville. Fort Lewis: Family Member/Husband and his three children were hacked to death by two members of the Cedar Block Piru Bloods of Los Angeles. They were accompanied by a United States Army Specialist.

Increase in graffiti Slang talk/sign flashing New clothing styles Increase in narcotics There are signs for unit supervisors and family members to look out for Some of the signs are a sudden change in routine, new larger groups of friends, sudden change in dress or similar appearance to others in peer groups, increase in money with no viable source, drug abuse and or trafficking, alcohol abuse or a rebellious attitude toward work or others. New tattoos or brands, the displaying of graffiti or gang signs in drawings or pictures even a sudden interest in knives and guns can be a tell-tale sign of an interest in becoming a member of a group. soldiers need to be educated of the dangers of becoming members of gangs and extremists groups or associating with them.

18 Pages from a “Gang Knowledge Book”
031 = LOVE FOR BLOOD CODE MEANING 31 I’M BLOOD 031 LOVE FOR BLOOD 404 SEND MONEY Taken from students that had displayed gang like activities… basically the dictionary for graffitti and gang signs Courtesy of K. Ferguson Kelly, STG-A

19 “Gang-related activities appear to be more pervasive than extremist activities as defined in Army Regulation Gang activity both off post and on post (i.e., billets, military housing areas, schools, and Morale, Welfare, and Recreation facilities), sometimes involve family members and young soldiers.

20 The Secretary of the Army’s Task Force (TF) on Extremist Activities
> “Gang-related activities appear to be more pervasive than extremist activities as defined in Army Regulation > Gang activity both off post and on post (i.e., billets, military housing areas, schools, and Morale, Welfare, and Recreation facilities), sometimes involve family members and young soldiers.

21 1 AD soldiers on Guard Duty 2002
Hand signals and gang slang are a means of communication. Symbols formed and flashed with the fingers, hands, and body have very specific meaning to the gang. The same goes for buzz words or phrases. Remember all of these may be area or geographic region specific and meanings may vary.

22 Health & Welfare Kitzingen 2003
Confiscated photos Health & Welfare Kitzingen 2003

23 Confiscated photos Kitzingen 2003

24 Subject in Drug Case 2003

25 Alliances Think of this as the American and National leagues of gangs
Currently all documented gangs aligned under these two People Nation Folk Nation Latin Kings Black Gangster Disciples Vicelords Black Disciples Spanish Lords Gangster Disciples El Rukns Imperial Gangsters Bishops La Raza Gaylords Spanish Cobras Latin Counts Latin Eagles Kents Latin Disciples Gangs (30,000+) membership in US documented at over 1 million + The People Nation and Folk Nation are not gangs - they are alliances under which gangs are aligned. A simple comparison might be the National and American baseball leagues.

26 CLOTHING Wears primary or secondary colors
Colored Handkerchiefs “Flags” Baseball caps worn to the side or slightly tilted Loose shoe strings, pushed up pant legs, and rolled up T-shirt sleeve Uses Designer logos What are gang colors and gang signs? Colors refers to a gang member representing his/her membership by wearing a specific gang logo, particular colors of clothing, a specific brand name of clothing or clothing worn in a predefined manner. This may also include hair styles, jewelry, or even the way a person stands, walks or folds arms and hands. Colors identify the gang member and show member pride and affiliation.

27 Folk Nation and People Nation
Dress to the Right Blue/Black Six Pointed Star Upside Down Crowns Bent Rabbit Ears Pitch Forks pointed Up People Nation: Dress To The Left Red/Black Five Pointed Star Right Side Up Crown Straight Rabbit Ears Pitch Forks Pointed Down

28 "Black Gangster Disciples and Folk Gangs"
The Black Gangster Disciples are originally a Chicago gang. Founder was David "King David" Barksdale and they considered themselves a "Nation" (BGDN) not a gang. Came from two different organizations that combined forces, the Black Disciples and the Gangster Disciples. In an effort to improve their image they are also known as Better Growth and Development President was David Barksdale and Vice President was Larry Hoover. Folk nation affiliation from chicago…. Larry Hoover tried to legitimize his gang and is often referred to as the modern day Al Capone complete with corporate memos from the CEO…. He is currently serving a year sentence for the 1973 murder of William Young…. He ran his business from prison 1997 he was moved to Fed Pen in Colorado(cut down on his comms )

29 "Latin Kings" The Latin Kings grew out of the 1940 and 50’s Chicago gang wars. One of their slogans, Amor De Rey, means "King Love". They developed a philosophy of "Kingism" and became a part of the "People Nation" under the 5-point star during the 1960’s polarization of Chicago gangs. They will also use a 5-point crown or 3-pointed crown. They have an established "Charter" and have well documented rules which members must strictly adhere to. Latin Kings (18th street gang)They are the oldest and largest Hispanic-led street gang in Chicago. People nation affiliation Gender Makeup: Male and Female Racial Makeup: Multiracial Current estimates regarding active Latin Kings members within the city of Chicago run as high as 25,000-30,000. Members have actually traveled to locations to assist in the formation of new Latin King factions or chapters.(they PCS) currently tracked in 13 states. Have known ties/training from FALN terrorists and have Intelligence indicates the main factions in Chicago, Connecticut, Massachusetts, and New York communicate with each other when expanding their operations to other cities.

30 "Bloods and Pirus" In 1972, some Centennial High School youth in the City of Compton from Piru Street fought Crip gang members who were expanding throughout South Central Los Angeles. The Pirus beat the feared Crips that day. In their honor ever since, Black gang members from Compton who were not Crips referred to themselves as Pirus. Other Black gangs (many of whom were already in existence for years) who did not become aligned with the Crips, became known as Bloods. Bloods will usually wear red, but not always, for instance Limehood Pirus are known to wear green. The Los Angeles (LA)-based Bloods and Crips are probably the most widely recognized gangs in America due to the media exposure received in the 1980's. These groups have migrated throughout the country and are seen in most states and their prison populations. There are literally hundreds of sets or individual gangs under the main Blood and Crip names. They are no longer racially specific.

31 "Crips" This gang was founded about 1968 by Raymond Washington and his crime partners from the East Side (of Interstate-110) in South Central Los Angeles. Washington originally started up a gang called the "Baby Avenues", but after he got into a beef with another member, he decided to start his own gang called the "Crips". By 1971, Stanley "Tookie" Williams from the West Side joined Washington and the "Crips". Bloods traditionally align themselves with the People Nation and Crips with the Folk Nation. This alignment may vary for local jurisdictions due to competition for drug territory or violence against one another.

32 Soldiers who were members of the
Gangster Disciples had this made at a German/American FEST This refers to a case in 2001 where the Gangster disciples in Bamberg had commemorative cups made. Kinda like the gifts we take home at the division ball.

33 Why do gangs use graffiti and what does it mean?
As gang activity increases so does their graffiti. Graffiti has been called the "newspaper of the streets." Each gang has its unique symbols and cryptic types of writing. Graffiti is not art work; it is sophisticated communication that publicizes the gang's power, status, delineates territory, sends messages, and warns intruders. Graffiti upside down or crossed out is generally a 'put down' or threat to a rival gang or person. 'Death warrants' for police officers are known to have been posted with graffiti.

FOUND NEAR THE HELI-PAD LEIGHTON BARRACKS 2001 DISRESPECT TO PEOPLE NATION RESPECT TO FOLK NATION What do you do about gang graffiti? Read It! Record It! Report It! And Remove It!! Gang graffiti left unchecked can be dangerous. Remember it can communicate an outright threat against an opposing gang or person. First the graffiti must be read and interpreted for danger signals. Second, it should be photographed. Then, a police report should be made for tracking purposes. Finally, the graffiti should be removed to reduce the likelihood of continued violence.

360 degree of PROTECTION

36 Photographed in 2001

37 Also photographed in 2001

38 Gang Identification The extent to which gangs have infiltrated the military community is difficult to assess for a number of reasons: The majority of gang activities take place outside the confines of the military bases and during hours of darkness. Military personnel participating in these activities may not be identified by local law enforcement as being in the armed forces or dependents Activities that do take place on the installations, such as thefts, assaults or drug trafficking, are often viewed as singular incidents and not recognized as gang related. Gang members are not easily identifiable. Jumped in (let into a gang) basically getting beat up Jumped out (let out of the gang). cutting ties. Sexed in (gang rape) for female recruits

MOTIVATORS FOR JOINING CRIMINAL STREET GANGS Protection Money & Drugs Control of the Environment Racial Similarities Cultural Similarities Acceptance by Peers Loyalty and Reward Recruitment Intimidation Control of Turf Common Enemies ** FINALLY A SENSE OF BELONGING**

40 UCMJ Action Art. 81 - Conspiracy
Art Failure to Obey a Lawful Order Art Rioting and Breach of Peace Art Provoking Speeches and Gestures Art General Article (Discredit to Armed Forces) Art Soliciting Another to Commit an Offense Active participation in gang or extremist groups is prohibited by AR , Army Command Policy active participation includes: Participating in demonstrations or rallies, knowingly attending a meeting or activity while on duty, when in uniform, when in a foreign country or in violation of off-limits sanctions or a commander’s order. Conducting fundraising activities for the group or recruiting (or encouraging other Soldiers to join), training members of the group, or participating in any activity that is in violation of regulations also constitutes participation. These article are the ones commonly used against gang members Although there are no laws against passively participating with gangs or extremist groups, it is strongly discouraged. Company commanders can order Soldiers not to participate in these activities that are contrary to good order and discipline or morale of the unit or pose a threat to health, safety, and security of military personnel or a military installation

41 ** SHARE-SHARE-SHARE!!!!!!!!**
PROACTIVE RESPONSES Avoid denial of gang dynamics Develop standard procedures Know/enforce Policies and regulations Educate leaders and organization members of the consequences for participation Consider involuntary separation of violators Initiate UCMJ actions for violations of military law “The best way to counter gangs is enforcement plus information dissemination.” Making sure the leadership is aware of the issues is key to this and of course sharing the information with others “As a result of this effort, proactive ‘policing’ and appropriate information provided to our soldiers and our dependants at the DODDS schools through the DARE (Drug and Alcohol Resistant Education) program, and a active Drug suppression program have kept this in check DISCUSSION TOPICS *Have you encountered any indicators of gang or extremist activity *What were your success or failures……. *How can we prevent or educate our Commanders & Leaders!! ` ** SHARE-SHARE-SHARE!!!!!!!!**

42 Online Resources California Gang Investigator's Association Provides a forum for all law enforcement officers (including corrections, prosecutors, parole and probation) to exchange ideas. Florida Gang Investigators Association An association of law enforcement and criminal justice professionals who are dedicated to the prevention of gangs and suppression of gang-related activity within the state of Florida. Gangs in Los Angeles County Gang Graffiti, brief history, homicides, and more. Gang Prevention Incorporated Street gang identification awareness and activity training for Law Enforcement, Military, Prosecution, Corrections, and Probation and Parole. Training is offered to educational institutions and selectively provided to the private sector as well. A 400-page street gang identification manual is available to Law Enforcement only. A 3-day gang specialist course is offered at various times throughout the year. IAACI Web The International Association of Asian Crime Investigators, in association with the International Asian Organized Crime Conferences, provide focus on the criminal justice system's response to organized crime in Asia. Massachusetts Department of Corrections STG Massachusetts DOC has a similar program documented on the web. Midwest Gang Investigators Association A non-profit organization comprised of law enforcement officers and members of the criminal justice community from Michigan, Illinois, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Indiana, Ohio, Iowa and Missouri. National Gang Crime Research Center Provides research on gangs and gang members, disseminate information through publications and reports, and provide training and consulting services. National Major Gang Task Force A consortium of criminal justice professionals from Federal, state and local government agencies who specialize in gang interdiction and suppression. National Youth Gang Center A comprehensive, coordinated response to America's gang problem by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP). Southeastern Connecticut Gang Activities Group Non-profit law enforcement association focused on disseminating information to combat the rise in violent youth and gang activities. Tennessee Gang Investigators Association Provides an online outlet for information relating to TNGIA, links to other associations, online resources, and a public forum relating to gangs. Texas Gang Investigators Association The TGIA was formed to promote a closer working relationship among gang investigators with a view towards the rapid dissemination and exchange of information concerning gang related incidents, suspects and investigations `

43 Courtesy of K. Ferguson Kelly, STG-A
"QUESTIONS" *Have you encountered any indicators of gang or extremist activity *What were your success or failures……. *How can we prevent or educate our Commanders & Leaders!! Courtesy of K. Ferguson Kelly, STG-A

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