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Norwegian Institute of International Affairs Norsk Utenrikspolitisk Institutt Root Causes of Terrorism Presentation by Dr. Tore Bjørgo Senior Research.

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Presentation on theme: "Norwegian Institute of International Affairs Norsk Utenrikspolitisk Institutt Root Causes of Terrorism Presentation by Dr. Tore Bjørgo Senior Research."— Presentation transcript:

1 Norwegian Institute of International Affairs Norsk Utenrikspolitisk Institutt Root Causes of Terrorism Presentation by Dr. Tore Bjørgo Senior Research Fellow, Norwegian Institute of International Affairs and Professor of Police Science, National Police Academy, Oslo

2 Norwegian Institute of International Affairs Norsk Utenrikspolitisk Institutt Invalidated myths about causes of terrorism: Poverty: There are only a weak and indirect relationships between poverty and terrorism State sponsorship of terrorism: not a root cause to terrorism, but an enabling factor Religious fanaticism: Suicidal terrorism is not caused by religion as such, but religion may give shape to and justification of political extremism Madness: Terrorists are not insane or irrational actors

3 Norwegian Institute of International Affairs Norsk Utenrikspolitisk Institutt Preconditions for terrorism: Lack of democracy, civil rights and the rule of law Failed or weak states Rapid modernization Illegitimate and corrupt governments Powerful external actors upholding corrupt regimes Extremist ideologies (secular or religious)

4 Norwegian Institute of International Affairs Norsk Utenrikspolitisk Institutt More preconditions for terrorism… Historical traditions of political violance, civil war, revolutions, dictatorship or occupation Hegemony and inequality in power Repression by foreign occupation or colonial powers Failure by the state to integrate dissident groups or emerging social classes The experience of social injustice The experience of discrimination on the basis of ethnic or religious origin

5 Norwegian Institute of International Affairs Norsk Utenrikspolitisk Institutt Precipitants of terrorism: The presence of charismatic ideological leaders Provocative events triggering violent responses

6 Norwegian Institute of International Affairs Norsk Utenrikspolitisk Institutt Factors sustaining terrorism: Terrorism may continue for other reasons than what gave birth to it, such as… The need of the group to provide for its members or for the survival of the group Profitable criminal activities No exit from violence and extremism Cycles of revenge

7 Norwegian Institute of International Affairs Norsk Utenrikspolitisk Institutt For more information… Check our Knowledge Base on Terrorism and International Crime: (click Research on the top menu)


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