Presentation on theme: "Fire Service Professionals"— Presentation transcript:
1 Fire Service Professionals WelcomeFire Service ProfessionalsFire Service Professionals`
2 Facts On Fire3140 civilian fire deaths in residential occupancies, 80 in non-residential.84% of all fire deaths occur in the home.81% of fire deaths occur in single-family dwellings.103 Firefighters died in the line of duty (this does not include the 343 who died in the WTC Terrorist attack.The South has the highest fire death rate per-capita with 17.8 civilian deaths per million population compared to the average of 13.4.Direct property loss annually to fire is estimated at $10.6 billion.
3 U.S. Fire Statistics Source NFPA Fire Journal Sept -Oct - 2005 8U.S. Fire Statistics Source NFPA Fire Journal Sept -OctReference Materials:Annual NFPA Fire Journal, Sept./Oct.Over 1.55 Million FiresMore Than 3,900 Civilian Deaths17,785 Thousand Civilian InjuriesOver 8.3 Billion Dollars in Property LossTotal Cost of Fire Exceeds 88 Billion DollarsReview the facts depicted on the slideNote: Cost of fire per family equates to almost $600 per family based ona cost of $40 billion divided by a population of 280 million.
4 9Additional Fire FactsEvery 82 seconds fire occurs in a U.S. residence.Every 31 minutes a civilian is injured by fire.Eight out of ten fire deaths occur in the home.Review the facts depicted on the slide.
5 Fire Death and Injuries in One- & Two-family Dwellings Fire Death and Injuries in One- & Two-family Dwellings* (Percentage of Residential)Fire deaths: %Fire injuries: 74%Fire property damage: 83%Fireground firefighter deaths: 70%*2004 NFPAFire Deaths 2920/3445 = 85%Fire Injuries ,575/17,400 = 73%Fire Property Damage B/5.674B = 82%FF Deaths /18 = 78%Fire Injuries 11,550/16,425 = 70%Fire Property Damage $4.123B/5.092B = 81%Fireground FF Deaths 11/16 = 69%
6 More Fire Facts Young children, older adults, and physically and 10Young children, older adults, and physically andmentally challenged people face the highest risk ofinjury or death in residential fires.Too often, people fail to respond appropriately tothe sound of a smoke detector, because theyassume it is a false alarm. Rather that exiting thebuilding, they search to confirm the existence of afire, wasting the few precious minutes they mayhave to escape.Review the facts depicted on the slide.
7 Fire sprinkler factsOnly the sprinkler closest to the fire will activate, spraying water directly on the fire.Each sprinkler is individually activated by heat.90% of all home fires are contained with a single sprinkler.The odds of accidental activation are 1 in 16 million.
8 How does a home fire sprinklers’ discharge compare to a fire hose attack line discharge? A residential low flow pendant sprinkler head delivers approximately 13 to 18 gallons per minute of waterA fire hose attack line delivers 200 gallons per minute (this does not include a backup line which would double the flow of water)Sprinkler systems represent a choice, a little water when the fire starts or a lot of water when the fire department arrives
9 But what about Water Damage? Average water usage for sprinklered home gallonsAverage water usage for unsprinklered home 2935 gallonsAverage repair costs for sprinklered home $2,166 dollarsAverage repair costs for unsprinklered home $45,019 dollarsWith both smoke detection and sprinklers,death, injury by fire is reduced by 82%Sprinklers also have a “green value”. Since lesswater is applied to the fire, less contaminatedrunoff is produced, additionally water mains arenot disturbed creating water clarity issues.
10 Water Damage/ Accidental Release Not Needed/ Fire Unlikely Consideration of Home Fire SprinklerSystem InstallationRespondents indicating they thought home fire sprinkler systems were either very effective or somewhat effective were asked if they would consider installing a sprinkler system if they were building a new home.Reasons for Not ConsideringNo, WouldNot Consider32%Yes, WouldConsider64%Too ExpensiveWater Damage/ Accidental ReleaseNot Needed/ Fire UnlikelyAlarms AdequateAll OthersDon’t KnowDon’t Know5%Base: 457Base: 146
11 Degree of Trust Concerning Information about Home Fire Sprinkler Systems Respondents were asked how much they would trust the following individuals or organization to give them reliable information about home fire sprinkler systems.Firefighters garnered far and away the greatest amount of trust.A lotSomewhatA littleNot at allFirefighterFriend/RelativeHomeBuilderHomeBuildingMediaBuildingSupplyStoreRealtorBase: 500
12 It is time to realize that firefighting involves fighting time, not fire. 2 minutes4 minutes.7 minutes.The standard time-temperature curve shows that temperatures can reach over 1,000°F in five minutes and flashover can begin as early as 7½ minutes after ignition.
13 How does time affect the Fire Department’s ability to deliver service?
16 Firefighter Injuries / Deaths by Occupancy More injuries to firefighters occur in one and two family dwellings than any other occupancy44% of all Line of Duty deaths occur in one and two family dwellingsOne and two family dwellings are a greater danger to firefighters than all other occupancies combined
17 Effects of Injury / Death The costs to the community to rehabilitate a firefighter from injuries sustained in the line of duty are 10 times greater than that of a deathThis does not factor in the emotional issues to the family, friends, loved ones and fire department
18 But what about Smoke Detectors? Smoke detectors have a 10 year life expectancyIt is stated that there are more non functioning / aged out smoke detectors in homes than there are homes without any smoke detectors.When is the last time you personally checked your smoke detectors and what is the age of your device(s)?
19 But what about Smoke Detectors (cont.) Smoke detection is a “passive” device that only warns of impending dangerDependent on the type of fire and the specific smoke detection device, response to the condition could provide little time to initiate escape
20 How well does smoke detectors work? From 1989 to 1999, a fatality occurred in 1 of every 5 residential fires with working smoke detectorsFrom 1999 to 2001, a fatality occurred in 1 of every 3 residential fires with working smoke detectors
21 How well does smoke detection work (cont.) Only 58% of children ages 6 to 12 was awakened by the sound of a smoke detector activationOf this 58%, only 38% of those awakened successfully evacuated the residence
22 What about Residential Sprinklers? The purpose is to prevent Flashover, control / contain the fire, but will often extinguish sameKeeps smoke, heat and products of combustion at a survivable level for occupant egressTemp. at eye level degreesTemp. at ceiling level 500 degreesMaximum CO level ppm
23 How does NFPA 13 systems compare with NFPA 13 D systems?
24 NFPA 13 SystemsNFPA 13 systems are designed for commercial occupanciesThe average sprinkler head (SSP, SSU) discharges 25 to 35 gallons per minute.Sprinkler heads are located “everywhere” – attics, basements, crawl spaces, closets and concealed spacesSystems are designed for the flow of multiple heads (12-15 on average)Required FDC and hydrostatic test of 200 psiDesigned primarily for property conservationLife safety is a byproduct of the system
25 NFPA 13D systems Are designed for 1 and 2 family dwellings The average sprinkler head discharges 13 to 18 gallons per minuteRequired Sprinkler heads are located in paths of function / egress only – bedrooms, hallways, kitchens, dining rooms and laundry rooms - none in attics, crawl spaces - closets (size dependent, does not exceed 24 square ft. & least dimension does not exceed 3 ft.) or bathrooms (size dependent, 55 square ft. or less )This coverage provides fire protection from 83% of all areas fire originates – (Living room 41%, Bedroom 27%, Kitchen 15%)Systems are designed for the flow of 1 to 2 sprinkler heads – (typical k-factor 4.5 to 4.9). This represents a density of .05 gpm per square footTypically, no required FDC and hydrostatic test done at normal system operating pressuresDesigned primarily for life safety only but will contain or frequently extinguish the fire
26 How are Residential Sprinklers Different ? 25How are Residential Sprinklers Different ?Respond Approx. 5 Times FasterLess Water NeededDifferent Water ApplicationLower Cost to InstallMore Aesthetically PleasingReview the notes in this slide
27 Standard Spray Sprinkler High Wall Wetting CapabilityResidentialSprinklerStandard Spray Sprinkler
28 High Wall Wetting Capability Standard Spray SprinklerResidentialSprinkler36”30”
29 Sprinkler Activations Per Fire 27Reference Materials:Operation Life Safety NewsletterVol. 9, Number 8, Pg. 2365326327
30 What do Residential Sprinklers Cost ? 30What do Residential Sprinklers Cost ?Reference Materials:Home Fire Sprinkler Coalition BrochuresAverage cost of 1% - 1.5% of new constructionTHE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA11Retrofit would typically cost more.Due to recent reductions in the cost of residential sprinklers, currentinstallation processes and modern materials, a complete residential sprinklersystem may add only 1 to 1.5 percent to the total cost of new construction.What if there is not a good municipal or county water supply?Then we must add approximately $2,000 to $3,000 for a stored water supply andpressurizing device. Several companies currently have available “packaged”residential pump and tank systems.ONE11ONE DOLLAR
31 NFPA 13D Sprinkler system costs Typical cost for new construction in a single family home with a good municipal water supply – between $.50 and $2.00 per square footAuxiliary water supply is not needed due the domestic water supplying the sprinkler system**With the sprinkler system supplying the cold water distribution, additional cost is negligible**** multi-purpose system (sprinkler system is designed with a 5 gpm background demand for domestic water use)
32 What if I am on a Well?While a municipal water supply is the best water supply source, a stored water source is also permitted. A 10 minute water supply is needed for a 2 head activation (generally 300 to 400 gals.) The addition of a storage tank and pump assembly adds approximately $1,500 to 2,000 to the system cost.
33 Typical connection to municipal water 1” feed or greater
34 Additional Bonuses for Multi- Purpose systems Sprinkler system cannot be shut off independent of the domestic water useWith domestic water service being supplied by sprinkler system, the chance of system freezing is greatly reducedWith the domestic system supplying the sprinklers, additional swing check or backflow prevention valves are not necessary. This gives addition pressure and volume to the sprinklers and saves money on the installation of the system
35 Typical Layout of an NFPA 13D Compliant multi-purpose home fire sprinkler system Cold water domestic feedSprinkler Heads
36 Point of attachment of sprinkler system to domestic water entry To sprinkler system loop and all cold water domestic usesTo water heaterFeed from water meter
37 Manifold assembly – point of attachment of cold water domestic supply Cold water feed off sprinkler loop providing supply to water closet, shower and sink
38 How Are We Going to Reduce Costs? Reduce the number of sprinklers in the design to two(We know over 90% of the time only two go off, so only design for two)This results in less water requiredThis results in less pressure required to push itThis results in smaller (less expensive) pipe
39 How Else Are We Going to Reduce Costs? Reduce the cost of materials and installationLower schedules of steel pipeCPVC or PEX plastic pipeUse non listed components where not critical to life safetyTanks pumps, hangers, waterflow detection devices & waterflow valves
40 How Else Are We Going to Reduce Costs? Omit sprinklers in certain locationsAreas not critical to life safetyHow do we know where to omit them?We need to know, not just where fires start, but where fires start that KILL people
41 Where Fires Start That KILL People in 1 & 2 Family Dwellings & Mfg Where Fires Start That KILL People in 1 & 2 Family Dwellings & Mfg. HousingLiving Room 41%Bedroom %Kitchen %Storage Area 4%Heating Equipment Room 3%Structural Area 2%Other Areas 8%9
42 Here’s What’s At the Bottom of the List(other) Sprinklers shall be installed in all areas Except:Bathrooms less than 55 ft.2Clothes closets, linen closets and pantries less than 24 ft.2 least dimension 3 ft.Garages, carports & open attached porchesAttics, crawl spaces and concealed spacesEntrance foyers (if a second exit is provided)11
43 How Else Are We Going to Reduce Costs? Reduce the water supply requirementsWe’ve already reduced the number of heads in our design to twoLower the flow requirements from .10 to .05gpm/ft2Lower the duration requirement to 10 minutes (7 mins. if it is a single story home < ft.2)
44 How Else Are We Going to Reduce Costs? Regardless of what we do with the water supply,SPRINKLER SYSTEMS ARE ALWAYS DESIGNED TO MEET THE ABILITIES OF THE WATER SUPPLY, NOT VICE VERSA
45 Improve Aesthetics Make them smaller Make them concealed, recessed Offer them in various colors / shades
51 Pictures of sprinklers 29Special Equipment:A residential fire sprinklerto show the audience.(obtain from a local fire sprinkler contractor)Pictures of sprinklersSprinklers for residential installations are no longer the:“ugly things from the ceiling.”Today’s residential sprinklers may be concealed in ceilings out of sight untilneeded to extinguish a fire.They are available in a wide range of sizes and colors to blend into thebackground of almost any room.Pass around a residential fire sprinkler.
59 Promoting Home Fire Sprinklers by Education The NC Home Sprinkler Alliance was formed and our mission is to educate the fire service who can then turn and educate the public. Alliance is made up of fire service, fire and life safety educators, burn center rep, insurance rep, sprinkler representatives, OSFM code staff and Floyd. Presentations at conferences, FLSE, NCSFA, Fire Team USA.Starting training classes, Pinehurst, actual installation of a residential sprinkler system in Habitat for HumanityWebsiteResourcesMarketing techniques- working with USFA, NFPAFire Team USA/ World Burn CongressOutreach during National Burn Awarenss Week.
60 Who needs to be educated? Fire ServiceCode officialsHomeownersElected officialsInsurance agents/agenciesHomebuildersTechnical and Community collegesAll StakeholdersFire service. We need to educate ourselves. Learn what the facts are and be able to dispel myths that even fire service believes. What do your firefighters know about sprinklers other than what they learned in FF I and II. Do they know about multi purpose systems? We need to be able to talk about sprinklers to all of these stakeholders.Fire inspectors and building officials need to understand about multi purpose systems and the need for sprinklers. Need their support for push for code changes.Homeowners. If mom’s and grandma’s knew that they could be protecting their families better they would be asking questions. New home builders when asked about sprinklers will probably tell you…”Never thought about it”. We need to get them to start thinking about it.Elected officials- Especially with the BCC events we need to make sure that we educate all of the elected officials that we can.Insurance agents don’t even know a lot of times if there are any reductions to insurance cost, sometimes looked at as a flood hazard.Homebuilders. – Young homebuilders have no clue about sprinklers other than what they are hearing from NAHBTech and CC- educate homebuilders about sprinklers so they know when they start building
61 Promoting Sprinklers Educate yourself and firefighters in your dept AdvertiseMention sprinklers to press every opportunityEducate the firefighters about the need for sprinklers, be familiar with multi-purpose sprinkler systems, NFPA 13 D and be able to dispel myths associated with sprinklers.Place signs about fire sprinkler systems for the home in front of the fire stations. A lot of the public drives by fire stations everyday. If they read the signs everyday some of them will start asking about what fire sprinklers are and how can they install them. Signage can also help politically as far as obtaining support for fire sprinkler legislation.-Place bumper stickers on all apparatus stating "Fire Sprinklers save lives, fire-fighters and civilians" Everyone reads bumper stickers in traffic and waiting in traffic-Sponsor a billboard on the highway, on the walls at the little league ball fields, on buses with the message about fire sprinklers.-During fire scene interviews remember to add fire sprinklers into the discussion. Majority of people watch evening and late night news, especially when they cover local fires. Encourage all fire chiefs, PIO's and anyone talking to the press about a fire to mention if sprinklers were present or not and to promote sprinklers at every opportunity possible.
62 Resources Home Fire Sprinkler Coalition Free Educational Kit for public educatorsBuilt for Life Builder KitBrochuresHomeFireSprinkler.orgMarble Mountain DVD Orange Co Fire Authority
63 Resources Fire Team USA www.fireteamusa.com Radio psa’s Scottsdale reportFlyers- all reproducableOrdinancesPower point presentationsMotivating Fire ChiefsA New PerspectiveCommunity Fire ProtectionResidential Sprinklers-Not Rocket ScienceNAHB Point/Counterpoint