Presentation on theme: "` Fire Service Professionals Welcome Fire Service Professionals."— Presentation transcript:
` Fire Service Professionals Welcome Fire Service Professionals
Facts On Fire 3140 civilian fire deaths in residential occupancies, 80 in non-residential. 84% of all fire deaths occur in the home. 81% of fire deaths occur in single-family dwellings. 103 Firefighters died in the line of duty (this does not include the 343 who died in the WTC Terrorist attack. The South has the highest fire death rate per- capita with 17.8 civilian deaths per million population compared to the average of Direct property loss annually to fire is estimated at $10.6 billion.
2004 U.S. Fire Statistics Source NFPA Fire Journal Sept -Oct Over 1.55 Million Fires Over 1.55 Million Fires More Than 3,900 Civilian Deaths More Than 3,900 Civilian Deaths m 17,785 Thousand Civilian Injuries Over 8.3 Billion Dollars in Property Loss Over 8.3 Billion Dollars in Property Loss m Total Cost of Fire Exceeds 88 Billion Dollars
Additional Fire Facts m Every 82 seconds fire occurs in a U.S. residence. m Every 31 minutes a civilian is injured by fire. m Eight out of ten fire deaths occur in the home.
Fire Death and Injuries in One- & Two-family Dwellings* (Percentage of Residential) Fire deaths: 83%Fire deaths: 83% Fire injuries:74%Fire injuries:74% Fire property damage:83%Fire property damage:83% Fireground firefighter deaths:70%Fireground firefighter deaths:70% *2004 NFPA
m Young children, older adults, and physically and mentally challenged people face the highest risk of mentally challenged people face the highest risk of injury or death in residential fires. injury or death in residential fires. m Too often, people fail to respond appropriately to the sound of a smoke detector, because they the sound of a smoke detector, because they assume it is a false alarm. Rather that exiting the assume it is a false alarm. Rather that exiting the building, they search to confirm the existence of a building, they search to confirm the existence of a fire, wasting the few precious minutes they may fire, wasting the few precious minutes they may have to escape. have to escape. More Fire Facts
Fire sprinkler facts Only the sprinkler closest to the fire will activate, spraying water directly on the fire. Each sprinkler is individually activated by heat. 90% of all home fires are contained with a single sprinkler. The odds of accidental activation are 1 in 16 million.
How does a home fire sprinklers discharge compare to a fire hose attack line discharge? A residential low flow pendant sprinkler head delivers approximately 13 to 18 gallons per minute of water A fire hose attack line delivers 200 gallons per minute (this does not include a backup line which would double the flow of water) Sprinkler systems represent a choice, a little water when the fire starts or a lot of water when the fire department arrives
Average water usage for sprinklered home gallons Average water usage for unsprinklered home 2935 gallons Average repair costs for sprinklered home $2,166 dollars Average repair costs for unsprinklered home $45,019 dollars With both smoke detection and sprinklers, death, injury by fire is reduced by 82% Sprinklers also have a green value. Since less water is applied to the fire, less contaminated runoff is produced, additionally water mains are not disturbed creating water clarity issues. But what about Water Damage?
Respondents indicating they thought home fire sprinkler systems were either very effective or somewhat effective were asked if they would consider installing a sprinkler system if they were building a new home. Yes, Would Consider 64% No, Would Not Consider 32% Dont Know 5% Reasons for Not Considering Base: 457 Base: 146 Too Expensive Water Damage/ Accidental Release Not Needed/ Fire Unlikely Alarms Adequate All Others Dont Know Consideration of Home Fire Sprinkler System Installation
Base: 500 RealtorHome Builder Fire fighter Building Supply Store Home Building Media A lot Somewhat A little Not at all Friend/ Relative Degree of Trust Concerning Information about Home Fire Sprinkler Systems Respondents were asked how much they would trust the following individuals or organization to give them reliable information about home fire sprinkler systems. Firefighters garnered far and away the greatest amount of trust.
It is time to realize that firefighting involves fighting time, not fire. The standard time-temperature curve shows that temperatures can reach over 1,000°F in five minutes and flashover can begin as early as 7½ minutes after ignition. 2 minutes 4 minutes.7 minutes.
How does time affect the Fire Departments ability to deliver service?
Home Fire Sprinklers and Firefighter Safety
Firefighter Injuries / Deaths by Occupancy More injuries to firefighters occur in one and two family dwellings than any other occupancy 44% of all Line of Duty deaths occur in one and two family dwellings One and two family dwellings are a greater danger to firefighters than all other occupancies combined
Effects of Injury / Death The costs to the community to rehabilitate a firefighter from injuries sustained in the line of duty are 10 times greater than that of a death This does not factor in the emotional issues to the family, friends, loved ones and fire department
But what about Smoke Detectors? Smoke detectors have a 10 year life expectancy It is stated that there are more non functioning / aged out smoke detectors in homes than there are homes without any smoke detectors. When is the last time you personally checked your smoke detectors and what is the age of your device(s)?
But what about Smoke Detectors (cont.) Smoke detection is a passive device that only warns of impending danger Dependent on the type of fire and the specific smoke detection device, response to the condition could provide little time to initiate escape
How well does smoke detectors work? From 1989 to 1999, a fatality occurred in 1 of every 5 residential fires with working smoke detectors From 1999 to 2001, a fatality occurred in 1 of every 3 residential fires with working smoke detectors
How well does smoke detection work (cont.) Only 58% of children ages 6 to 12 was awakened by the sound of a smoke detector activation Of this 58%, only 38% of those awakened successfully evacuated the residence
What about Residential Sprinklers? The purpose is to prevent Flashover, control / contain the fire, but will often extinguish same Keeps smoke, heat and products of combustion at a survivable level for occupant egress Temp. at eye level 200 degrees Temp. at ceiling level500 degrees Maximum CO level1500 ppm
How does NFPA 13 systems compare with NFPA 13 D systems?
NFPA 13 Systems NFPA 13 systems are designed for commercial occupancies The average sprinkler head (SSP, SSU) discharges 25 to 35 gallons per minute. Sprinkler heads are located everywhere – attics, basements, crawl spaces, closets and concealed spaces Systems are designed for the flow of multiple heads (12-15 on average) Required FDC and hydrostatic test of 200 psi Designed primarily for property conservation Life safety is a byproduct of the system
NFPA 13D systems Are designed for 1 and 2 family dwellings The average sprinkler head discharges 13 to 18 gallons per minute Required Sprinkler heads are located in paths of function / egress only – bedrooms, hallways, kitchens, dining rooms and laundry rooms - none in attics, crawl spaces - closets (size dependent, does not exceed 24 square ft. & least dimension does not exceed 3 ft.) or bathrooms (size dependent, 55 square ft. or less ) This coverage provides fire protection from 83% of all areas fire originates – (Living room 41%, Bedroom 27%, Kitchen 15%) Systems are designed for the flow of 1 to 2 sprinkler heads – (typical k-factor 4.5 to 4.9). This represents a density of.05 gpm per square foot Typically, no required FDC and hydrostatic test done at normal system operating pressures Designed primarily for life safety only but will contain or frequently extinguish the fire
How are Residential Sprinklers Different ? m Respond Approx. 5 Times Faster m Less Water Needed m Different Water Application m Lower Cost to Install m More Aesthetically Pleasing
Standard Spray Sprinkler Residential Sprinkler High Wall Wetting Capability
30 36 Standard Spray Sprinkler Residential Sprinkler
Sprinkler Activations Per Fire
What do Residential Sprinklers Cost ? Average cost of 1% - 1.5% of new construction ONE DOLLAR THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA ONE
NFPA 13D Sprinkler system costs Typical cost for new construction in a single family home with a good municipal water supply – between $.50 and $2.00 per square foot Auxiliary water supply is not needed due the domestic water supplying the sprinkler system** With the sprinkler system supplying the cold water distribution, additional cost is negligible** ** multi-purpose system (sprinkler system is designed with a 5 gpm background demand for domestic water use)
What if I am on a Well? While a municipal water supply is the best water supply source, a stored water source is also permitted. A 10 minute water supply is needed for a 2 head activation (generally 300 to 400 gals.) The addition of a storage tank and pump assembly adds approximately $1,500 to 2,000 to the system cost.
Typical connection to municipal water 1 feed or greater
Additional Bonuses for Multi- Purpose systems Sprinkler system cannot be shut off independent of the domestic water use With domestic water service being supplied by sprinkler system, the chance of system freezing is greatly reduced With the domestic system supplying the sprinklers, additional swing check or backflow prevention valves are not necessary. This gives addition pressure and volume to the sprinklers and saves money on the installation of the system
Typical Layout of an NFPA 13D Compliant multi- purpose home fire sprinkler system Sprinkler Heads Cold water domestic feed
Point of attachment of sprinkler system to domestic water entry Feed from water meter To sprinkler system loop and all cold water domestic uses To water heater
Manifold assembly – point of attachment of cold water domestic supply Cold water feed off sprinkler loop providing supply to water closet, shower and sink
How Are We Going to Reduce Costs? Reduce the number of sprinklers in the design to two(We know over 90% of the time only two go off, so only design for two) This results in less water required This results in less pressure required to push it This results in smaller (less expensive) pipe
How Else Are We Going to Reduce Costs? Reduce the cost of materials and installation Lower schedules of steel pipe CPVC or PEX plastic pipe Use non listed components where not critical to life safety Tanks pumps, hangers, waterflow detection devices & waterflow valves
How Else Are We Going to Reduce Costs? Omit sprinklers in certain locations Areas not critical to life safety How do we know where to omit them? We need to know, not just where fires start, but where fires start that KILL people
Where Fires Start That KILL People in 1 & 2 Family Dwellings & Mfg. Housing Living Room41% Bedroom25.6% Kitchen15% Storage Area4% Heating Equipment Room3% Structural Area2% Other Areas8%
Heres Whats At the Bottom of the List (other) Sprinklers shall be installed in all areas Except: Bathrooms less than 55 ft. 2 Clothes closets, linen closets and pantries less than 24 ft. 2 least dimension 3 ft. Garages, carports & open attached porches Attics, crawl spaces and concealed spaces Entrance foyers (if a second exit is provided)
How Else Are We Going to Reduce Costs? Reduce the water supply requirements Weve already reduced the number of heads in our design to two Lower the flow requirements from.10 to.05gpm/ft 2 Lower the duration requirement to 10 minutes (7 mins. if it is a single story home < 2000 ft. 2 )
How Else Are We Going to Reduce Costs? Regardless of what we do with the water supply, SPRINKLER SYSTEMS ARE ALWAYS DESIGNED TO MEET THE ABILITIES OF THE WATER SUPPLY, NOT VICE VERSA
Improve Aesthetics Make them smaller Make them concealed, recessed Offer them in various colors / shades
From this To These
Within this project firefighters and homeowners learn about sprinklers.
Homes with 13D Sprinklers Chief Dan Jones – Chapel Hill FD
Habitat Home – Southern Pines
Lee Home - Mocksville
Pictures of sprinklers
Can you spot the sprinkler?
Do we want this? OR……
Do we continue to protect our citizens like this?
Promoting Home Fire Sprinklers by Education
Who needs to be educated? Fire Service Code officials Homeowners Elected officials Insurance agents/agencies Homebuilders Technical and Community colleges All Stakeholders
Promoting Sprinklers Educate yourself and firefighters in your dept Advertise Mention sprinklers to press every opportunity
Resources Home Fire Sprinkler Coalition –Free Educational Kit for public educators –Built for Life Builder Kit –Brochures HomeFireSprinkler.org Marble Mountain DVD Orange Co Fire Authority
Resources Fire Team USA –Radio psas –Scottsdale report –Flyers- all reproducable –Ordinances –Power point presentations Motivating Fire Chiefs A New Perspective Community Fire Protection Residential Sprinklers-Not Rocket Science –NAHB Point/Counterpoint