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Soil Tests - Basis for Soil Testing - Result Interpretation.

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Presentation on theme: "Soil Tests - Basis for Soil Testing - Result Interpretation."— Presentation transcript:

1 Soil Tests - Basis for Soil Testing - Result Interpretation

2 Outline Reasons for Soil Testing Reasons for Soil Testing Sampling Procedures Sampling Procedures Result Analysis Result Analysis Remedial Treatments Remedial Treatments Conclusions Conclusions

3 Why Carry Out a Soil Test? Aid in providing the optimum availability of nutrients for turf growth Aid in providing the optimum availability of nutrients for turf growth Identifies nutrient deficiencies and problems which can be addressed before a maintenance program is initiated Identifies nutrient deficiencies and problems which can be addressed before a maintenance program is initiated Opportunity to create and/or maintain optimal soil chemistry for turf growth Opportunity to create and/or maintain optimal soil chemistry for turf growth

4 Benefits of Soil Testing Optimise plant health Optimise plant health Reduce unnecessary maintenance practices and fertiliser applications Reduce unnecessary maintenance practices and fertiliser applications Opportunity to save both time and money Opportunity to save both time and money Removes guesswork from formulating fertiliser programs Removes guesswork from formulating fertiliser programs

5 Sampling Procedure Reliable results depends on correct sampling Reliable results depends on correct sampling Aim to provide a representative sample Aim to provide a representative sample Sampling depth important due to profile horizon variation Sampling depth important due to profile horizon variation

6 Sampling Instructions Approximately 200g of soil necessary for nutrient analysis Approximately 200g of soil necessary for nutrient analysis Depth of cores should measure 10cm Depth of cores should measure 10cm Small cores more suitable than hole changer- sized cores Small cores more suitable than hole changer- sized cores

7 Sampling Instructions cont. Take samples from areas of average growth Take samples from areas of average growth Take cores from poorer spots only if they are numerous Take cores from poorer spots only if they are numerous Cores should not be taken from recently fertilised areas Cores should not be taken from recently fertilised areas Time of year is important for historical analysis Time of year is important for historical analysis

8 Soil Properties Analysed Soil pH (water, and CaCl 2 ) Soil pH (water, and CaCl 2 ) Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) or Sum of Cations Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) or Sum of Cations Total Soluble Salts (TSS)/Electrical Conductivity (EC) Total Soluble Salts (TSS)/Electrical Conductivity (EC) Phosphorus (Olsen) Phosphorus (Olsen)

9 Soil Properties Analysed cont. Potassium (Skene) Potassium (Skene) Ca/Mg Ratio Ca/Mg Ratio % Base Saturation Ca, Mg, Na, K % Base Saturation Ca, Mg, Na, K

10 Interpretation of Results Results interpreted specifically in relation to turf growth Results interpreted specifically in relation to turf growth Turf has specific nutrient requirements and tolerance to toxicities of various elements Turf has specific nutrient requirements and tolerance to toxicities of various elements Turf Use is used to assist in determining recommendations Turf Use is used to assist in determining recommendations

11 pH

12 Total Soluble Salts (TSS)/ Electrical Conductivity(EC) Reports the TSS in parts per million and the EC in dS/m. Reports the TSS in parts per million and the EC in dS/m. TSS(ppm) = EC (dS/m) x 2970 TSS(ppm) = EC (dS/m) x 2970 Ideal TSS level is <1000ppm or EC<0.34 Ideal TSS level is <1000ppm or EC<0.34

13 Salinity Salinity

14 Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) Is equal to the sum of the of the 4 major cations (Ca, Mg, Na, K) measured in milli- equivalents/100g Is equal to the sum of the of the 4 major cations (Ca, Mg, Na, K) measured in milli- equivalents/100g Is largely dependent on soil type Is largely dependent on soil type low CEC:< 4 meq/100g (sands) low CEC:< 4 meq/100g (sands) moderate CEC:4-10 meq/100g (loams) moderate CEC:4-10 meq/100g (loams) high CEC:>10 meq/100g (clays) high CEC:>10 meq/100g (clays)

15 To Raise CEC Incorporate organic matter Incorporate organic matter Increase % of loam and clay-sized particles in soil Increase % of loam and clay-sized particles in soil

16 Phosphorus (P)

17 Potassium (K)

18 Base Saturation Used to assess the levels of Ca, Mg, Na and K as percentages of the total CEC. Used to assess the levels of Ca, Mg, Na and K as percentages of the total CEC. Optimum Extractable level of an ion such as Ca is dependent on the CEC of the soil Optimum Extractable level of an ion such as Ca is dependent on the CEC of the soil Presenting levels as Base Saturation (or % of CEC) eliminates the need to consider CEC. Presenting levels as Base Saturation (or % of CEC) eliminates the need to consider CEC. Recommendations based on ideal ranges of % base saturations Recommendations based on ideal ranges of % base saturations

19 Base Saturations

20 Ca/Mg Ratio Low:<2Apply Gypsum Low:<2Apply Gypsum Optimal:2-5 Optimal:2-5 High:>5Apply Dolomite High:>5Apply Dolomite

21 Remedial Action Products used in remedial treatments can have complimenting or conflicting effects on other soil properties. Products used in remedial treatments can have complimenting or conflicting effects on other soil properties. Must take into account this range of effects when recommending remedial action. Must take into account this range of effects when recommending remedial action. Eg. Treatment of pH can effect the Ca/Mg Ratio Eg. Treatment of pH can effect the Ca/Mg Ratio

22 E.g. Remedial Treatments knowing the pH and Ca/Mg ratio

23 Nutrition Targets Soil MixpHE.C dSmP mg/kgNa %CECK %CECCa %CECMg %CECO.M % A < <

24 Conclusion Soil testing is an important tool for turf management. Soil testing is an important tool for turf management. Results are most useful prior to renovation, but can be conducted year round Results are most useful prior to renovation, but can be conducted year round


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