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Wireless Location Technologies Nobuo Kawaguchi Graduate School of Eng. Nagoya University.

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Presentation on theme: "Wireless Location Technologies Nobuo Kawaguchi Graduate School of Eng. Nagoya University."— Presentation transcript:

1 Wireless Location Technologies Nobuo Kawaguchi Graduate School of Eng. Nagoya University

2 About me Nobuo Kawaguchi Associate Professor Dept. Engineering, Nagoya University Research Topics Wireless Location Systems ( ) Scalable Adaptive Multicast (SAM), XCAST6 UbiCompEnvironment and Communication Middleware named cogma Mobile agent based system

3 Todays Topic Wireless Location Technologies What is WiFi based Positioning History Characteristics WiFi Location Database Wireless Location Information Systems PlaceLab Skyhook Wireless Loki PlaceEngine Apple iPhone Location Enhanced Services

4 1m 10m100m Estimation Accuracy Environment PHS GPS Outdoors Indoors Cell Phone Ultra Sonic RFID UWB Wireless LAN Wireless Location Technologies Tech. for both Indoor / Outdoor is required

5 WiFi Everywhere Wireless LAN has become popular infrastructure A large number of position estimation system using wireless LAN have been developed Station Home Restaurant Airport Wide spread of wireless LAN RSSI BSSID, Latitude, Longitude University Company WiFi location

6 WiFi Location Technology Every WiFi Access Point(AP) has followings ESSID (String) BSSID 6 byte vendor assigned unique address (MAC) Construct a database with BSSID and Position One can estimate the position just receive a WiFi BSSID. A lot of WiFi APs are already exist in the Wild. One can easily add new APs by oneself. Can increase accuracy by adding APs. Each AP do not requires network access for positioning. Important Points

7 now 2000:RADAR (Microsoft) 2000:Ekahau 2005/ (Nagoya Univ) 2006/7:PlaceEngine (Sony CSL) History of WLAN positioning Start around 2000 (MS RADER) 2006/3:Loki (Skyhook Wireless) 2003:AirLocation (Hitachi) 2003:PlaceLab (Intel) Service/Activities Products Technology 2007/9:Digial Camera (Sony) 2008/1:iPhone (Apple)

8 Triangulation Lateration (RSSI or TDOA) RADAR (MS Research), WiPS (Kyusyu Univ. Japan) AirLocation (TDOA) (Hitachi) Angulation (AOA) Proximity GUIDE Project (Keith et al) Scene Analysis RADAR(MS Research), Ekahau (Ekahau corp.) Place Lab (Intel Research) Existing methods are classified into following three types. Positioning methods using WLAN

9 Positioning Access Point Triangulation Using more than 3 reference points distance Using more than 2 reference points direction A B C a b c E A B E α β (Lateration) (Angulation) Reference Point Estimated Point Reference Direction

10 Positioning Access Point Proximity Consider the position of most powerful AP as a current position. Transmission range of Wireless LAN is about 100 meters in the open air Not good accuracy but simple. Scene Analysis Consider Difficult to construct learning data as target area is spread Inappropriate for our objective

11 Terminal s location AP n (x n,y n ) AP 2 (x 2,y 2 ) Reference Point AP 1 (x 1,y 1 ) Communication Area of Reference Point This method consider communication area of AP as users position. Proximity

12 Lecture Room A Lecture Room B Lecture Room C Lecture Room D Lecture Room E This method use pre-observation wireless information called radio map. Most system use Monte Carlo family method (ex. Bayesian filter, particle filter) and radio map. Scene Analysis

13 GPS vs WiFi Location From, Delivering Real-World Ubiquitous Location Systems, C. ACM 2006.

14 WiFi Location: Characteristics WiFi characteristics Difference of WLAN Adapter/Antennas Difference on Orientation WiFi Signal Strength Distribtion WiFi Positioning Acitivities Project WiFi AP positioning

15 Difference on WLAN Adapter

16 Distribution Difference

17 0º0º 45º 315º 225º 135º 90º 270º 180º Wireless LAN Card A Wireless LAN Card B Wireless LAN Card C Difference on Orientation

18 Received Signal Strength (dBm) Probability Density Distribution Pattern of WiFi RSSI

19 WiFi Location Database Required for wide area location system. Acquisition Method Accuracy Efficiency How to construct a large Database

20 Acquisition Methods Variety of acquisition methods with different transportation Car 30km/h Bicycle 15km/h Walking 5km/h Near to the buildings and houses Influenced by traffic jams and regulations

21 Estimation Accuracy The position estimation using the learning data acquired by walking can make estimates at less than 30m in 63% of the area The estimation data by car is worse by about 5% in all ranges Beyond 40 m, the bicycle data can estimate almost as well as that obtained by walking Cumulative estimation accuracy of evaluative data by walking Accuracy(m) Cumulative rate

22 Car Motor Bike Bicycle Accuracy of WiFi location

23 Result: Bicycle is more suitable than Others Bicycle has better efficiency than others Walking (5km/h) Bicycle (15km/h) Car (30km/h) All data No. of APs Accuracy (m) Coverage (%) First-round data No. of APs Accuracy (m) Coverage (%) Strong signal APs (1 st round) (RSSI > - 90) No. of APs Accuracy (m) Coverage (%) Table: Position Estimation of Experimental data Walking, Proximity

24 GPS Note PC WiFi Antenna / Card Battery Stumbler WarDriving using bycicle

25 Project

26 WiFi Location Portal for Japan Data Collection of WiFi AP(BSSID) + Location Place Information Begins July 2005 Currently, we have collected 369,045 APs currently

27 Goals of Wide-area WiFi Location acquisition by collaboration with user Creation of position estimation system using WiFi Location database Producing Low-Cost positioning system for everywhere everybody Activity Research on positioning system Public relations of positioning system Creation of acquisition assistance tools Environment full of wireless LAN Users WiFi Location Database Information Service WiFi Location Effect on … Service area Estimation accuracy WiFi Location

28 Collecting APs by Collaborators 300 over members collecting AP Mainly for Tokyo/Osaka/Nagoya - Ranking

29 Trend of No. of AP in Over 530,000 WiFi locations in Japan Month No. of collaborator No. of AP

30 Tokyo area ( over AP)

31 Tokyo APs plotted on GoogleEarth

32 View from Tokyo-Castle

33 Nagoya Area, Over 40000APs

34 Access Point Total unit / 100m×100m 1km Access Points in Nagoya City Area 1km Square 878 APs Center of Nagoya JAPAN

35 Access Point Total unit /100m×100m Residential Area APs in Residential Area 1km Residential area Height is restricted 278 APs in 1km square area

36 upload page

37 Tools for Locky Stumbler KML converter Log KML (Google Earth)

38 Wireless Location Lib for WLDB Locky Toolkit By using Locky Toolkit, one can easily develop a WiFi Location Application Just a few line of Java code. // Creation of LockyToolkit object LockyToolkit lockyToolkit = new LockyToolkit(); // Load a WiFi Location DB lockyToolkit.openDB(); // Get Locky Code from current wireless measurement LockyCode lockyCode = lockyToolkit.getLockyCode(); // Get latitide, Longitude double latitude = lockyCode.getLatitude(); double longitude = lockyCode.getLongitude(); Locky Toolkit example program Java

39 Bootstrapping Location-enhanced Computing Enabling privacy-observant, wide scale, indoor & outdoor device positioning with low barriers to participation Research Agenda Previous research: small communities, high cost systems Our goal: enable large communities by reducing barriers to adoption Provide low-cost, highly convenient position-sensing technology Make users comfortable with respect to their location privacy Develop services and toolkits to make it easy to build location-aware applications Usage Model Client devices cache snapshots of WiFi Beacon Databases Applications use location to provide customized, dynamic content and services Devices that hear WiFi beacons estimate location locally & privately. New beacons get added to user- contributed database Urban areas have dense WiFi coverage PlaceLab Approach Rely on increasing WiFi densities to provide low-cost device positioning Build a public user-contributed data store to map RF beacons to geographic locations Improve quality of positioning data via Bayesian filter and sensor fusion techniques Understand privacy management tradeoffs by studying use of location-aware applications Provide a PlaceLab for educators with toolkits and curriculum for web and ubicomp courses Offer developers a mechanism to use place abstractions in addition to low-level coordinates (Reference ) PlaceLab ~ Intel Research)

40 Skyhook wireless Loki 200 employee 8million APs Loki Toolbar By using the Loki toolbar, one can locate the place of the terminal in major cities in U.S.


42 PlaceEngine by Sony CSL You can upload the WiFi Info to PlaceEngine Server using Web Service

43 (Reference ) PlaceEngine Web service for WLAN location 200,000 access point in Tokyo area.

44 (Reference ) PlaceEngine 150,000 access point in Tokyo area.

45 Mash up with PlaceEngine PlaceEngine can be used as a Web parts. PlaceEngine Client Web Browser PlaceEngine Web DB Web Service PE button Your PC

46 PlaceEngine×Station Info. PlaceEngine can be used as a Web parts.

47 PlaceEngine × Restaurant Search

48 Asked to send location to Web Application

49 PlaceEngine × Restaurant Search

50 Apple iPhone Apple iPhone utilize WiFi Positioning System by Skyhook Wireless and GSM Location System by Google.

51 Google Maps for Mobile "My Location" Technology _maps_mobile_my_location.html Adds a GSM Location technology onto mobile phones Do not require GPS (only 15% of mobile phone has GPS)

52 Community: War Driving Community 12,886,129 points from 796,376,798 person (2008/01/23) Mostly for use WiFi Hotspot. Not for positioning.



55 Applications of WLAN Positioning Beacon Print (Intel Research: UbiComp2005) Detect Users Preferred Places Do not require pre-acquisition NearMe (MS Research:UbiComp2004) Wireless Proximity Detect near person using BSSID Self organization of WLAN AP data PlaceEngine uses this technology

56 WiFi Tagged Photo Exif for JPEG Date, Time, other photo data add WiFi BSSID.. || Location Enhanced Photo If you put photos on Flickr with BSSID, You can find the closer photos. With WiFi tag, and WiFi Location DB, You can find the photo using Place. This does not require offline WiFi location database Digital camera with WiFi is now on Market

57 Utilization of WiFi Location System Location systems are widely spread But not for WiFi Location System GPS is primary location source A lot of GPS application are public NMEA format We need integrate WLS with GPS

58 Implementation of Virtual GPS Virtual COM driver GPS Application Get NMEA data from COM port Virtual COM Driver Locky VirtualGPS WiFi WLDB COM X COM Y NMEA output

59 Hybrid Positioning with GPS Virtual COM driver GPS Application Get NMEA data from COM port Virtual COM Driver Locky VirtualGPS WiFi WLDB COM X COM Y NMEA output GPS Selection module

60 Indoor positioning for public area Outdoors data can be easily collected tool (GPS+ WiFi) How to collect data for indoor area. There is no way to locate position. We need some tool for data acquisition. Which place we should collect? Public place with WiFi

61 Subway of Nagoya

62 We have WiFi on all stations

63 We collected underground WiFi Map of underground Use a photo of floor map. Plot a location by Hand on the photo. Any place can be collected with this tool. Other data can be offered with Photo.

64 Subway Stumbler We have developed a tool for indoors

65 How many data have we collected? Current Subway WiFi data. 83 Nagoya Subway Stations 30 person-day 2000 Unique APs point of locations

66 How many data have we collected? Current Subway WiFi data. 83 Nagoya Subway Stations 30 day collection 2000 Unique APs point of locations Only 30 day are required to collect subway data in Nagoya ( 2 million city )

67 Location Processing Subway knowledge Time table Arrival time can be estimate There are shops in the station. Restrooms Exchange station It is not only a location information

68 Possible Applications Train Navigation with Time Exit navigation If you collect WiFi data every seconds, Your route is stored in the device. Station/Route can be estimated. Train fee is easily calculated.

69 Underground Map of Nagoya ALPSLAB Underground(Since 2007/12)

70 We already collected WiFi Total Unique Sakae Area AP = 160 Nagoya Station AP 241

71 Experiment with iPod Touch

72 Writing Enquate

73 FriendMap Shows the position of Friends and Chat

74 iNavi Location Dependent Database Input QueryResult setInfomation

75 NextTrain Realtime TimeTable Station MapCountdown for next train

76 Realtime Train Map Shows position of trains by time-table Shows current positionTrace the train

77 Station Map Maps for underground station

78 U Underground Map

79 Summary Wireless Location Technology With WiFi, one can easily estimate ones position Collection of WiFi Location Database Experiment in Real In-door Environment Nagoya Subway

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