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Policy, Legislation and Institutional Arrangements: An ADPC Commentary on Innovation and Good Practice in DRR Governance in Asia Presentation by A.J Rego.

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Presentation on theme: "Policy, Legislation and Institutional Arrangements: An ADPC Commentary on Innovation and Good Practice in DRR Governance in Asia Presentation by A.J Rego."— Presentation transcript:

1 Policy, Legislation and Institutional Arrangements: An ADPC Commentary on Innovation and Good Practice in DRR Governance in Asia Presentation by A.J Rego (ADPC) for the Seventh IIASA -DPRI Forum on Integrated Disaster Risk Management Asian Conference for Disaster Reduction 21st September 2007 - Italy

2 The Importance of Good Practice in DM Legislation Background on Disasters in the Region - Asia - most disaster prone continent in the world - over 50% of total world disasters Disasters exacerbated by Asias rising population, increased development + urban expansion Asia is home to nearly two thirds of the worlds population

3 The 2 deadliest disasters of 2006 were both in Asia -Indonesian EQ (May) killing 5,778 -Typhoon Durian (Philippines, Dec.) killing 1,399 Typically DM activities in Asia have been focused around relief + response efforts on mitigation, preparedness and DRR measures

4 Catastrophes As Turning Points 1880s - run up to IDNDR 1990/91 - Mt. Pinatubo eruption & Bagiou EQ saw start of NDCC in Philippines 1991 - Bangladesh cyclone prompted separate DM Bureau (93) 1994 - Yokohama conference stimulated national & sub regional action plans for DM 1995 - Kobe EQ -changes in building control 1996 - Typhoon Linda led to better implementation of 1993 Water Disaster Management Plan

5 1997 - El Nino induced fires showed regional scale of disaster & response 1998 - China adopted Natural Disaster Reduction Plan 1998 - IDNDR catalysed new commitment and action 2000 - floods, EQs and cyclones in India promoted formation of high powered committee on DM policy 2000 - Mekong floods in Cambodia & Vietnam led to regional river basin approach to FMM led by MRC 2001 -Gujarat EQ accelerated HPC report Catastrophes As Turning Points

6 UNDP Global Review on DRM ILS (2004) A Global Review:UNDP Support to Institutional and Legislative Systems (ILS) for Disaster Risk Management

7 Institutional and Legislative Systems (ILS) for Disaster Risk Management are important components of good governance and should be guided by the same basic principles, (i.e. accountability, participation, rule of law, effectiveness and sustainability). For the purpose of this review, ILS have been broken down into five important dimensions: legal and regulatory frameworks policy and planning organizational aspects resources and capacities partnerships (international and national levels) ILS for DRM

8 HFA (2005-15) - Priority on Governance Priority 1: Ensures that disaster risk reduction is a national and local priority with strong institutional basis for implementation. Strong national and local commitment is required to save lives and livelihoods threatened by natural disasters. Countries to develop or modify policies, laws and organisational arrangements, as well as plans, programs and projects, to integrate DRR and allocation of sufficient resources to support and maintain them.

9 HFA Priority no. 1 calls for Institutionalization of DRR and establishment of mechanisms to mainstream it Creation of effective multi-sector national platforms to provide policy guidance and to coordinate activities Community participation so that local needs are met

10 UNISDR Guiding Principles for National Platforms DRR should be regarded as a national and cross-cutting issue within the field of sustainable development. National platforms should utilize a participatory process that includes multidisciplinary and multi-sectoral perspectives and actions that are linked to existing systems. National platforms should influence positive changes by making concerted and coordinated efforts, particularly in policy, planning and decision-making processes. National platforms should encourage the national adaptation and ownership of the HFA.

11 ADPC interest in Policy and Legislation for DRR 1988-91: Disaster Managers Handbook for ADB 1990-94: UN Inter Agency DM Training Program was implemented in 56 countries -ADPC involved with 7 workshops in Asia Identified need for information sharing on institutional design of national DM offices and National DM Plans

12 ADPC interest in Policy and Legislation for DRR 1999 - AUDMP Regional Sharing Workshop Identified need for enhanced institutional arrangements for DM in Asia, at both national and city level Key concern at ADPC Regional Consultative Committee on DM (RCC) ADPC Regional Workshop and Study on Policy, Legal and Institutional Arrangements for DM in Asia (Bangkok, 2002) - to share information on good practices and successful strategies b/w countries UNDP DM Institutional Strengthening Projects in Sri Lanka and Cambodia implemented by ADPC

13 RCC 2 Priorities for Capacity Building for National Systems Integrating disaster management into national planning Strengthening national disaster management committees/agencies Developing disaster management plans Exchanging experience on legal and institutional arrangements Creating awareness and political support (As prioritized during RCC 1 and RCC 2, for implementation by RCC Member countries and ADPC)

14 RCC 2 Priorities for Capacity Building for National Systems Building national disaster management information systems Improving disaster management training and capacity building Promoting public awareness and media coverage of disaster risk reduction Enhancing scientific and technical cooperation in disaster management (As prioritized during RCC 1 and RCC 2, for implementation by RCC Member countries and ADPC)

15 Study on National Platforms for Disaster Reduction 2006 analyses the current institutional arrangements and potentials of national platforms for disaster reduction in three South (East) Asian countries, namely Bangladesh, Cambodia and Sri Lanka. DKKV-GTZ-ADPC Study

16 Analysis National agencies (MoFDM in Bangladesh, NCDM in Cambodia, MDMHR and DMC in Sri Lanka) should serve as the cornerstone of a national platform Advancing risk reduction through program implementation in Bangladesh and Sri Lanka Specific Actions in Cambodia Integration of DRR issues into development planning process in each country National Reporting on HFA Implementation Benefits from Regional Linkages

17 Importance of Integrating DRR Measures into Government Policy Best use of scarce response resources - ensure responsible use of resources + implement DRR + mitigation activities Disaster resilience - ensure limited disruption to community post disaster by maintaining essential services Sustainability of publicly funded assets + infrastructure - hazard adjustments to protect government investments Risk management coordinator - effective DM depends on this for resource + communication coordination

18 National level planning and execution - realisation that disasters affect all levels of society Regulatory requirements and enforcement -change societal values through government legislature Economic benefits of mitigation - risk reduction + disaster prevention are cheaper then recovery costs Developing national strategies -government can plan counter measures + has authority to commit resources

19 Importance of Legislation Defines actions to be taken during emergencies Provides formal support to preparedness measures and organisational arrangements Delegation of responsibilities/resources Creates a uniform national effect

20 National DM Policy Establish national agency/ organisation to deal with national risks/hazards - disaster counter measure a)Coordinate DM activities eg. define roles/responsibilities and allocate resources b)Provide framework for action c)Implement pre-disaster mitigation + preparedness measures d)Coordinate relief activities + assessments in disaster aftermath

21 National DM policy clearly defines methods and means of mitigating and dealing with disaster threats whether by action enforcing policies, attention focusing or recovery policies Institutions and arrangements regarding DM need to be adaptable to changing times/circumstances/ developments/competencies/DRR knowledge and need to recognise the potential of every individual/ organisation to contribute to DRR strategies - allocate necessary responsibility/resources

22 Good DRR Governance Practices in Asia SNAP Thailand Cambodia's CBDRR strategy Sri Lanka road map Indonesia DRR NAP Laos National Action Plan Vietnam DRR Strategy Bangladesh CDMP India DRR framework Pakistan DRR framework

23 Bangladesh Comprehensive Disaster Management Plan (CDMP) is articulated through the Ministrys Corporate Plan: A Framework of Action 2005- 2009, which highlights a road map for the development of internal strategic plans for its three operational directorates. The plans are based on collaborative partnerships, particularly with NGOs, and seek ensure the effective and sustainable delivery of services in each sector.

24 India Disaster Management Act 2005Disaster Management Act 2005 National DM Framework 2002National DM Framework 2002 High Powered Committee 1999 - improving countrys DM systems to develop culture of quick response, strategic thinking and preventionHigh Powered Committee 1999 - improving countrys DM systems to develop culture of quick response, strategic thinking and prevention

25 Indonesia Disaster Management Law 2006Disaster Management Law 2006 – Implementing Rules and Regulation National Action Plan for Disaster ReductionNational Action Plan for Disaster Reduction

26 Sri Lanka Disaster Management Act. No. 13 of 2005 Road Map for Safer Sri Lanka (2005- 2015)

27 Guidelines of Sri Lanka

28 Lao PDR National DM Committee 1995 National DM Plan 2015 (2003) – Targets on wide range including Provincial DM Strategies and District DM Plans Khamouane Province DM Strategy (2004) Nong Bok DM Plan (2006)

29 Cambodia Flood Preparedness Program (FPP) of Prey Vent, Kandal and Kratie Provinces (2005- 2006) District level FPP in 4 Districts (May, 2006) Priority FPP Projects proposed for consideration under Commune Development Plan (Nov 2006)

30 Cambodia Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction Strategy (2007-2012) for Flood and Drought Guidance for Promoting and Implementing Community level Action for Self Reliance and Flood and Drought risk reduction Strategic Framework and Road Map for developing and implementing an Action Program (2007- 2012) by a multi stake holder partnership

31 RCC Program on MDRD launched at WCDR Registered as post WCDR Partnership 5th Meeting: Issued Hanoi RCC 5 Statement on Mainstreaming disaster risk reduction into development policy, planning and implementation in Asia RCC MDRD Program Brochure and Towards a Tool Kit launched at RCC 6 Meeting RCC MDRD Program

32 Mainstreaming DRR into Priority Sectors Mainstreaming DRM in priority sectors such as: Agriculture Urban Planning and Infrastructure Housing Financial Services Education Health Environment and Natural Resources

33 Mainstreaming DRR into Agriculture and Education Guidelines and Implementation Plan for Mainstreaming Disaster Risk Reduction into Agriculture sector of Lao PDR and Education sector in Cambodia In partnership with National Disaster Management Office (NDMO) and Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry in Lao PDR; National Committee of Disaster Management (NCDM) and Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports (MoEYS) in Cambodia

34 Mainstreaming Disaster Reduction in Infrastructure Sector by incorporating Risk Impact Assessment procedures into planning process before construction of new Road and Bridges in Philippines in partnership with National Disaster Coordinating Council (NDCC) and Department of Public Works and Highways (DPWH) Analysis on past damages suffered by the Road and Bridge infrastructure in Philippines in the last 10-15 years due to different hazards like Landslides, Earthquake, Volcanoes and Typhoons/Cyclones Identification of specific steps for incorporation in the present project cycle for construction of Roads and Bridges to address the use of disaster risk assessment Proposing areas of revision in the existing national structural codes and DPWH specifications for design standards of hazard resilient construction and provide comments on how to improve compliance and enforcement with these specifications Mainstreaming DRR into Roads and Bridges

35 RCC MDRD Phase II Title: Partnerships for Safe Development and Good Governance in Asia Implementation Period: 2008-2012 Based on 4 principles of : Multi donor funding, Internal contribution of RCC Member countries, Active partnership with UN agencies, IFIs, donors and partners, Synergistic lessons learning partnership between the RCC Program and other national and regional DRR programs running on different scales, timelines and donor funding


37 Sub Components of Component 1 Mainstreaming DRR National Development Plans and PRSP In-Country Assessments and the Multi-year Program Framework of International Development Agencies (ADB, EU, World Bank and Bilateral Donors); the UN Common Country Assessment and UN Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF) Process; Developing and Implementing the National Disaster Risk Reduction Plan Institutionalizing of Community-Based Disaster Risk Management in Government Policy and programs at National, Provincial and District levels. Mainstreaming DRR into Environment Mainstreaming DRR into Local Governance Sub Components of Component 2 SAFER EDUCATION SYSTEM SAFER HEALTH FACILITY SAFER INFRASTRUCTURE (ROADS) SECURE LIVELIHOOD SAFER SHELTER (HOUSING) SAFER WATER AND SANITATION

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