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1 © NOKIA NORDUNET_2000-ipv6.PPT/ / TKn IPv6 Core technology for the future Internet Timo Knuutila Nokia Research Center
2 © NOKIA NORDUNET_2000-ipv6.PPT/ / TKn Presentation outline What future Internet ? Short history of the Internet IPv6 essentials Next generation mobile networks (2G/3G/etc) Current IPv6 technology status Summary
3 © NOKIA NORDUNET_2000-ipv6.PPT/ / TKn Millions ,400 1,200 1, Internet Outlook More handsets than PCs connected to the Internet by the end of 2003 ! Projected cellular subscribers (Nokia 1999) Projected PCs connected to the Internet (Dataquest 10/98) Projected Web handsets (Nokia 1999)
4 © NOKIA NORDUNET_2000-ipv6.PPT/ / TKn Mobile Internet will be always-on Sessions / Month / cellular sub (leading markets) Usage Mobile Web (WAP) Fixed Web WAP GPRS IPv6 Optimizing radio capacity usage Scaling up address space
5 © NOKIA NORDUNET_2000-ipv6.PPT/ / TKn Why IPv6: Cost of patching IPv4 is too high It is possible to implement new services using IPv4 But, it is becoming more and more expensive to patch IPv4 IPv6 can bend the cost curve Mobile players will face the cost challenge sooner because of more terminals, mobility, push, location Cellular focus * 1000M handsets * always-on * mobility * peer-to-peer * push & location Operator cost (CAPEX+OPEX) # of subs 100M1000M IPv4 IPv6 Current fixed IP focus * 100M PCs * dial-in / power on-off * wireline * client-server * retrieval services
6 © NOKIA NORDUNET_2000-ipv6.PPT/ / TKn QoS support through Diff. Serv. and/or MPLS. Gradual IPv4 evolution 2002 Disruptive IPv6 leverage Mobile devices with need to be "always- connected" to the Internet, dynamic DNSs New directory servers and VoIP gateways interworking with telco ntw billion of mobile devices with IP connectivity IP level security roaming btw heterogeneous networks IPv6 - Shortcut to Global IP Mobility
7 © NOKIA NORDUNET_2000-ipv6.PPT/ / TKn Presentation outline What future Internet ? Short history of the Internet IPv6 essentials Next generation mobile networks (2G/3G) Current IPv6 technology status Summary
8 © NOKIA NORDUNET_2000-ipv6.PPT/ / TKn A view of Internet History 1970s Arpanet / Internet Technology Invented 1980s Research / Non-Commercial Internet Service 1990s The Web and the Internet Everywhere Bill Gates decided he Invented it! 2000s The Mobile and Wireless Internet
9 © NOKIA NORDUNET_2000-ipv6.PPT/ / TKn The Internet model End-to-End Communication Intelligence in Hosts Simple / Fast forwarding in Routers All Services run over IP IP runs over Everything IPs Success based on Solid Architecture Technology Evolution
10 © NOKIA NORDUNET_2000-ipv6.PPT/ / TKn Presentation outline What future Internet ? Short history of the Internet IPv6 essentials Next generation mobile networks (2G/3G) Current IPv6 technology status Summary
11 © NOKIA NORDUNET_2000-ipv6.PPT/ / TKn Initial motivation behind IPv6 IPv4 addressing inefficiencies: Class B addresses are nearly exhausted. CIDR (classless inter-domain routing) provides a short-term solution Efficient corporate networking requires more class A addresses or complicated workouts (NATs, DDNS, DHCP) Routing tables are growing extremely fast. More hierarchical addressing levels are required. IPv6 provides a good platform for added-value features like security and mobility. Inefficient manual configuration management of IPv4: IPv6 autoconfiguration.
12 © NOKIA NORDUNET_2000-ipv6.PPT/ / TKn IPv4 address structure IPv4 addresses are 32 bit long The address contains two parts: network & host Class A contains 24 bits for host number Class B contains 16 bits for host number Class C contains 8 bits for host number Class C addresses have been allocated to small organizations (max. 256) Most organizations viewed Class C addresses as too small and received Class B addresse (wasting most of its address space)
13 © NOKIA NORDUNET_2000-ipv6.PPT/ / TKn Non optimal IPv4 address allocation Theoretically 4,3 Billion Adresses, Currently 60 Million in use Allocations: US Government~168 Million Europe~80 Million IBM~33 Million UK Government~33 Million Stanford University~17 Million China ~ 9 Million Lucent~ 6 Million Unlucky large users:Use Net 10 and NATs
14 © NOKIA NORDUNET_2000-ipv6.PPT/ / TKn IPv6 address is made of two parts: prefix and suffix (I.e interface-ids) and hierachical structure (that depends on format prefix, FP) prefix: suffix: Link-local address (mandatory) is unique within a "link". IPv6 address 64 bits suffix64 bits prefix FPTLANLASLA interface ID 64 bits suffix54 '0' bits
15 © NOKIA NORDUNET_2000-ipv6.PPT/ / TKn Hierarchy solves routing table explosion TOP Next level Site Link Host Provider, Exchange
16 © NOKIA NORDUNET_2000-ipv6.PPT/ / TKn IPv6 address types Link local, site local, globally routable Unicast (1:1) Anycast addresses (1: nearest node of a set of nodes): currently only used to address routers Multicast (1:n) IPv4 compatible: ::/96:IPv4address IPv4 mapped: ::/80:FF:IPv4address
17 © NOKIA NORDUNET_2000-ipv6.PPT/ / TKn Header Format: Main Differences to IPv4 Streamlined Header Format Fixed format IPv6 Header and Extension Headers elimination of header checksum, flags, options, IHL, hop-by- hop segmentation procedure,... Vers Flags Type of serviceTotal length Identification HLen Fragment offset Time to live Protocol Header checksum Source IP address Destination IP address IP options (if any)Padding IPv4 header (20 bytes or more…) Source IP address Destination IP address VersClass Next headerHop limitPayload length Flow label IPv6 header (40 bytes)
18 © NOKIA NORDUNET_2000-ipv6.PPT/ / TKn Extension Header Purpose: only those nodes process the extension headers for which they are relevant Intermediate routers care only hop-by-hop options and routing header Six extension headers Hop-by-Hop Routing header Fragment header Authentication header Encrypted security payload Destination option headers implements mobility options Source IP address Destination IP address VersClass Next hdr: 43Hop limitPayload length Flow label Routing Information Authentication Data TCP Header and data Nxt hdr: 51 Nxt hdr: 6 Header length
19 © NOKIA NORDUNET_2000-ipv6.PPT/ / TKn Address Autoconfiguration Stateless address autoconfiguration No central server needed to aid in address configuration Node forms its own suffix, checks if it is unique Node obtains prefix(es) from the nearest router Stateful address autoconfiguration Central server allocates full addresses to nodes on request DHCPv6 is the current protocol for stateful address autoconfiguration
20 © NOKIA NORDUNET_2000-ipv6.PPT/ / TKn Neighbor Discovery Messages Router Solicitation request to all routers multicast address for router advertisement messages Router Advertisement are sent periodically to the all nodes multicast address or to the source of a router solicitation message contains prefix value/length, router address, lifetime, link/Internet parameters, stateful/ stateless address autoconfiguration flag Neighbor Solicitation sent to solicited-nodes multicast address or to unicast address Neighbor Advertisement response to neighbor solicitation message or propagation of new information (e.g., link address modification) to all-nodes multicast address Redirects to indicate a better next hop for a specific destination
21 © NOKIA NORDUNET_2000-ipv6.PPT/ / TKn Routing longest prefix match routing like IPv4 CIDR Inter Domain Routing Protocol (IDRP) Modification of unicast (OSPF, RIP, BGP) and multicast routing protocols (PIM, DVMRP, MOSPF) to handle larger addresses Routing headers to route packets through particular regions
22 © NOKIA NORDUNET_2000-ipv6.PPT/ / TKn Design Advantages Hierarchical addressing allows route aggregation Smaller routing tables in the backbone, containing aggregated routes only Address autoconfiguration reduces administration overhead No need to have a dedicated address allocator Extensible headers allow introduction of new features without loss of performance IPv4 had only one mechanism for customization: IP options IPv4 routers tend to treat IP options in the slow path
23 © NOKIA NORDUNET_2000-ipv6.PPT/ / TKn Moving to IPv6 Changes to Domain Name Service Changes to Applications Interoperability with IPv4 with IPv4 correspondents (e.g., legacy IPv4 servers) over IPv4 routers
24 © NOKIA NORDUNET_2000-ipv6.PPT/ / TKn Changes to Domain Name Service New DNS records to support IPv6 have been defined A4 records: fields have full IPv6 addresses (similar to A records for IPv4) A6 records: fields map a name to a suffix and a partial name ("non-terminal literal") e.g., a node doing DNS lookup for "www.nokia.com" finds -> nokia-isp.nokia.com, p1:s1 nokia-isp.nokia.com -> p2 Therefore, IP address of is p2:p1:s1 A6 records make it easy to renumber IP network e.g., when changing from one ISP to another, change only the p2 DNS entry.
25 © NOKIA NORDUNET_2000-ipv6.PPT/ / TKn Changes to Applications Non-network applications need no change Network applications need to use new DNS record types for IPv6 addresses use the new socket API Bump-in-the-stack approach for transition introduces an inter-operability module as a "bump" in the network stack, between the application/transport layers and the IP layer. allows IPv4 applications to work unchanged on IPv6 networks
26 © NOKIA NORDUNET_2000-ipv6.PPT/ / TKn Interoperability with IPv4 Interoperability with IPv4 correspondents Dual stack operation May need mechanisms for temporary IPv4 address acqusition scheme: RSIP Protocol-and-address translators IP level: NAT-PT Transport level: SOCKS Application level: Application level gateways (ALGs) Interoperability over IPv4 routing infrastructure IPv6-in-IPv4 tunneling Various mechanisms: automatic tunneling, configured tunneling, 6to4, and 6-over-4
27 © NOKIA NORDUNET_2000-ipv6.PPT/ / TKn Transition to IPv6 Users IPv4 Services Public/Private IPv6 network Public IPv4 Internet Users NAT 6/4 IPv6 Services
28 © NOKIA NORDUNET_2000-ipv6.PPT/ / TKn IPv6 Dominates Users V4 Services Public/Private IPv6 network Public v4 Internet IPv6 Services Users NAT
29 © NOKIA NORDUNET_2000-ipv6.PPT/ / TKn Summary: Transition from IPv4 to IPv6 A number of mechanisms exist; applicability depends on the interworking scenario. Main mechanisms Dual stack, IPv6-in-IPv4 tunnelling: automatic, configured, 6over4, 6to4 Bump in the stack: legacy applications in a IPv6 host Protocol translators: NAT-PT RSIP (Realm Specific IP) application level gateways, Socks Updates on Upper Layers Upper layer checksums: TCPv6, UDPv6, DNS "AAAA" and "A6" records DHCPv6 IPv6 socket
30 © NOKIA NORDUNET_2000-ipv6.PPT/ / TKn Presentation outline What future Internet ? Short history of the Internet IPv6 essentials Next generation mobile networks (2G/3G) Current IPv6 technology status Summary
31 © NOKIA NORDUNET_2000-ipv6.PPT/ / TKn UMTS Rel. 99 Reference Architecture
32 © NOKIA NORDUNET_2000-ipv6.PPT/ / TKn R99 Interfaces and Protocols UMTS User Plane
33 © NOKIA NORDUNET_2000-ipv6.PPT/ / TKn Rel. 00 All-IP Reference Architecture
34 © NOKIA NORDUNET_2000-ipv6.PPT/ / TKn Presentation outline What future Internet ? Short history of the Internet IPv6 essentials Next generation mobile networks (Mobile Internet) Current IPv6 technology status Summary
35 © NOKIA NORDUNET_2000-ipv6.PPT/ / TKn Target scenario for mobile IPv6 development Sub net Internet Interactive (e.g. VoIP) session
36 © NOKIA NORDUNET_2000-ipv6.PPT/ / TKn Mobile IPv6 development Future Internet is largely wireless/mobile IPv6 needed for billions of wireless devices Mobile IPv6 meets mobility requirements better than mobile IPv4 Current mobile IP (v4 or v6) specifications are not alone sufficient to construct a network that offers VoIP type of services (real time requirements, no packet loss) with mobile nodes changing their point of attachment frequently. Following extensions necessary regional registrations header compression buffer management authentication infrastructure AAA/HLR interactions
37 © NOKIA NORDUNET_2000-ipv6.PPT/ / TKn Regional registrations Problem: how to reduce latency due to signaling associated with mobile ip handovers Solution: Localize signaling to Visited Domain Method: Regional Registrations, registrations between the MN and the Visited Domain implies: signalling between visited domain routers authentication between MN, visited network routers and home agent new IETF draft, draft for mobile IPv4 exists
38 © NOKIA NORDUNET_2000-ipv6.PPT/ / TKn Presentation outline What future Internet ? Short history of the Internet IPv6 essentials Next generation mobile networks Current IPv6 technology status Summary
39 © NOKIA NORDUNET_2000-ipv6.PPT/ / TKn IPv6 IETF standards status IPv6 IETF Standards IPv6 Protocol Addressing Architecture ICMP DNS Security Unicast Address Formats Transition Mechanisms Neighbor Discovery Address Auto-configuration IPv6 over Ethernet IPv6 over FDDI IPv6 over PPP IPv6 over Token Ring IPv6 over ARCNET IPv6 over Frame Relay Routing Protocols (RIPng, OSPFv3, ISIS, BGP4++) Tunneling MIBs Jumbo Grams Header Compression Literal URL format Mobility Support IETF Completing Work Routing Protocols (PIM) More MIBs IPv6 over Router Renumbering DHCP Service Location Multihoming Cellular Header Compression
40 © NOKIA NORDUNET_2000-ipv6.PPT/ / TKn IPv6 implementations Host Systems BSDI Digital/Compaq Epiloque FreeBSD HP-UX IBM (AIX) INRIA (NetBSD, FreeBSD) Linux Mentat (Streams) Microsoft Novell NRL (4.4-lite BSD) Pacific Softworks Process Software (VMS) SCO Siemens Nixdorf Sun Microsystems UNH WIDE Consortium (KAME, NAIST, Hitachi, Sony, NTT) Routers 3Com Nortel Cisco Systems Digital Hitachi, Ltd. Merit Nokia NTH University Sumitomo Electric Telebit AS
41 © NOKIA NORDUNET_2000-ipv6.PPT/ / TKn IPv6 applications Chat software IRC: BitchX client - now supports IPv6 RAT and SDR - Win vers of the UCL conf. ports DNS BIND 9 totd - a DNS proxy to support IPv4/IPv6 translation Firewalls ipfilter - supports IPv6 filtering IPFW - included within the FreeBSD 4.0 release netfilter - IPv6 patches for Linux's packet filter FTP LFTP - supports IPv6 as is NcFTP (Windows) - available from MSR NcFTP (BSD) - from the KAME project site Games Quakeforge - a FreeBSD port by Viagenie. Java IPv6 Java for Windows - note this is not a Sun Javasoft product Mail Monitoring Tools News Socket software Tunnel/translator software WWW Apache (Linux) - from the Japanese Linux user group Apache (BSD) - from the KAME project site Fnord! - a Windows web server from MSR lynx v port of LYNX by Tromso mini_hhtpd - a Web server with IPv6 support Mozilla - port of the broswer by KAME Squid - port of the web cache by KAME thhtpd - a Web server with IPv6 support w3m - a text-based browser that supports IPv6 wwwoffle v2.5 - a proxy for viewing v6 only sites
42 © NOKIA NORDUNET_2000-ipv6.PPT/ / TKn IPv6 offerings Two ISP:s in Japan offering commercially IPv6 connectivity A lot of (political) enthusiaism in Far-East and Europe References
43 © NOKIA NORDUNET_2000-ipv6.PPT/ / TKn Presentation outline What future Internet ? Short history of the Internet IPv6 essentials Next generation mobile networks (2G/3G) Current IPv6 technology status Summary
44 © NOKIA NORDUNET_2000-ipv6.PPT/ / TKn Summary Mobile devices will play major role in the growth of Internet Internet Doubles Every Year Creates strain on Infrastructure Creates Tremendous Opportunity Exponential Growth Means Every three years 85% of installed base is new IPv6 starts to be mature enough to be deployed commercially IPv6 will be the enabling technology for the mobile Internet
45 © NOKIA NORDUNET_2000-ipv6.PPT/ / TKn Thank You !
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