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1AC_054_2000 © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. Intelligent Optical Networks Axel Clauberg Consulting Engineer Cisco Systems Axel Clauberg Consulting Engineer Cisco Systems
2AC_054_2000 © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. Agenda The Need for Optical Networks Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) Overview Basics Fibers & Physics Long Haul, Metro WDM DWDM Junctions Wavelength Routing – MP S
3AC_054_2000 © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. The Need for Optical Networks
4AC_054_2000 © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. Driving Factors Exponential IP traffic growth ISPs: Factor growth per year...sometimes only throttled by congested US links...
5AC_054_2000 © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. Driving Factors R&D/EDU Distance and Lifelong Learning High resolution, studio quality video Telemedicine Digital Libraries High performance distributed computing More to come…
6AC_054_2000 © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. Driving Factors - SPs Increasing number of users Higher bandwidth per user DSL, Cable, Fiber to the Home,... Storage Networks Reduce costs for infrastructure and operations React fast(er than the competition) High availability
7AC_054_2000 © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. New Currency Unit Old WAN bandwidth currency units E1 ( 2 Mb/s) E3 (34 Mb/s) STM-1 (155 Mb/s), FE (100 Mb/s) STM-4 (622 Mb/s), GE (1000 Mb/s) Today: STM-16 (2.5 Gb/s) Tomorrow: STM-64, 10GE (10 Gb/s)
8AC_054_2000 © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. Current Carrier Situation - SDH Ring A Ring B Ring C Connect Routers via E1, E3, STM-1 or STM-4 Provision Local ADMs (VC-12, VC-3, VC-4, VC- 4c) Provision Intermediate ADMs and Crossconnects
9AC_054_2000 © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. Basic Layout of an SDH Multiplexer West Aggregate Tx/Rx East Aggregate Tx/Rx Matrix Cards Tributary Cards Fiber Tributaries STM-1or STM-4 Level (to sub networks) Electr. Tributaries STM-1 (for connection towards radio relays) PDH Trib. 2/34/45/140 Mb/s Aggregate and matrix cards are also referred to as traffic cards Note: Common cards such as CPU, power supplies, or fans, have not been displayed
10AC_054_2000 © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. SDH Drawbacks No STM-16c customer/tributary SDH interfaces today SDH just made the step to STM-64 in the backbone Provisioning in SDH PVC-like (static routing)
11AC_054_2000 © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. Global Optical Networks Markets Global Optical Networks Markets Source : Pioneer 1999
12AC_054_2000 © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. DWDM Overview
13AC_054_2000 © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. WDM Applications Long Haul WDM Metro WDM Campus WDM
14AC_054_2000 © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. Enterprise Optical Networking STM-4c STM-16c Aggregation E3 STM1 FE, GE FDDI ATM/ SDH, DPT Data & Storage ESCON FICON Fiber Channel
15AC_054_2000 © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. Wavelength Converter Wavelength Converter Passive Optical Muliplexer 1300 nm Wavelength Converter 850 nm Ch 1 Ch 2 Ch n Ch 1 Ch 2 Ch n WDM System Transmitter
16AC_054_2000 © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. Wavelength Converter Wavelength Converter Wavelength Converter Wavelength Converter Wavelength Converter Wavelength Converter Ch 1 Ch 2 Ch n 1 2 n Mux & Demux 1 2 n WDM System Function
17AC_054_2000 © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. WDM History First 2 wavelength ( ) systems in the early 90s: 1300 nm, 1550 nm More wavelengths with 400 GHz spacing within 1550nm window in mid 90s Today up to 128 wavelengths (50 GHz, 100 GHz Spacing) = c / f (c = speed of light, f = frequency)
18AC_054_2000 © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. DWDM Frequencies In the ( ) nm region called BLUE BAND (C), 8 channels 100 GHz spaced 16 channels 50 GHz spaced can be multiplexed In the ( ) nm region called RED BAND (C), 24 channels 100 GHz spaced 48 channels 50 GHz spaced can be multiplexed In the ( ) nm region called INFRA-RED BAND (L), 32 channels 100 GHz spaced 64 channels 50 GHz spaced can be multiplexed 1530 nm1540 nm1550 nm1560 nm1570 nm1580 nm1590 nm1600 nm BLUE BANDRED BANDINFRA-RED BAND Conventional Band (C) Long Band (L)
19AC_054_2000 © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. Attenuation: Reduces power level with distance Dispersion and Nonlinearities: Erodes clarity with distance and speed Signal detection and recovery is an analog problem Analog Transmission Effects
20AC_054_2000 © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. Fiber Attenuation Wavelength (nm) ~ 200 ppb OH OH Peaks First Window Third Second Rayleigh scattering 1 4 ( ) Attenuation db Km [ ] Infra-red Absorbtion
21AC_054_2000 © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. PUMPED ENERGY PHOTON 980 nm TRANSITION METASTABLE STATE SIGNAL PHOTON PASSIVE STIMULATED PHOTON Optical Amplifiers: Principle
22AC_054_2000 © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. Optical Transmission: Chromatic Dispersion Different colors of light travel at different speeds Spectral broadening caused by differential group delay
23AC_054_2000 © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. Chromatic Dispersion (CD) 1) Effect and consequences The refractive index has a wavelength dependent factor, wavelengths are not travelling at the same speed (the higher frequencies travel faster than the lower frequencies) The resulting effect is a broadening of the signal and a consequent interference 2) Counteractions use of TDM rates <= 2.5 Gb/s; electrical regeneration; dispersion compensation, use of DS or NZDS fibres, use of soliton transmission tt tt
24AC_054_2000 © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc DS G.653 NZD+NZD- SMF G.652 Dispersion Slopes Dispersion (in ps/nm/km) Wavelength (in nm) DWDM band G.655
25AC_054_2000 © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 4-Wave Mixing (4WM) 1) Effect and consequences Generation of new optical waves (mixing products) due to the interaction of the transmitted optical waves, the mixing products interfere with the transmitted channels causing consequent eye closing and BER degradation. Channel spacing and chromatic dispersion affect the FWM. 2) Counteractions use of G.652, G.655 fibres; adopt a unequal channel spacing for preventing the mixing products to interfere with the transmitted channels f ijk - f i = f j - f k (i,j <> k) f 113 f 112 f 123 f 213 f 223 f 132 f 312 f 221 f 332 f 321 f 231 f 331
26AC_054_2000 © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. Non Linear Effects: FWM continued... f1f1 f2f2 f3f3 Power (a.u.) Frequency f f 9 FWM products generated, 3 fall on signal channels f 113 f 112 f 123 f 223 f 132 f 221 f 332 f 231 f 331
27AC_054_2000 © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. Non Linear Effects: FWM continued... f1f1 f2f2 f3f3 Power (a.u.) Frequency f f f 113 f 112 f 331 f 231 f 332 f 221 f 223 f 132 f FWM products generated, none fall on signal channels
28AC_054_2000 © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. Long Haul vs. Metro DWDM Fundamental Differencies Long Haul: Carrier Class, SDH Framing, OA, Size, Tuning Capabilities, 128 channels Metro: Cost effective, Bitrate transparent, no OA, 32 channels
29AC_054_2000 © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. WDM Topologies Point to Point Add and Drop
30AC_054_2000 © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. Case Study - A European Service Provider Problem: E2E Provisioning, Protection Lots of interconnected DWDM structures Helsinki Madrid
31AC_054_2000 © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 4 1 Todays DWDM Junctions !! Static Lightpath (LP) Configuration Long Provisioning Time High Operational Costs Installing new LP is potential Risk to cut another LP
32AC_054_2000 © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. Wavelength Routing
33AC_054_2000 © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. Wavelength Routing makes DWDM Junctions Scale
34AC_054_2000 © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. DWDM Junction Evolution Innovation Time Fiber Patch Panel Wavelength Router running an Optical Routing Protocol Wavelength Router with an integrated optical solution
35AC_054_2000 © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. A Wavelength Routing Network is a Mesh of Optical Transmission and Switching Equipment P-t-P DWDM System Optical Cross Connect (OXC)
36AC_054_2000 © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc...., which provides dynamic Point-to-Point Connections SONET/SDH, Gigabit Ethernet, A Wavelength Routing Network is... SONET/SDH Gigabit Ethernet
37AC_054_2000 © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc.... to attached Internetworking Devices. IP Routers, SONET/SDH Muxes, ATM Switches,... A Wavelength Routing Network is... SDH Mux Black Box IP Router ?? ?
38AC_054_2000 © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. The Key Element is the Wavelength Router Wavelength Router Control Plane: Wavelength Routing Intelligence Data Plane: Optical Cross Connect Matrix Single Channel Links to IP Routers, SDH Muxes,... Unidirectional DWDM Links to other Wavelength Routers
39AC_054_2000 © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. Data Plane First Generation Wavelength Router Cross-Connect 1 3 Hybrid OXC: O/E Conversion, Switching, E/O Conversion Pure OXC: Wavelength Conversion Outgoing InterfaceIncoming Interface Animated
40AC_054_2000 © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. Data Plane Wavelength Router with integrated DWDM Cross-Connect 1 3 Hybrid OXC: O/E Conversion, Switching, E/O Conversion Pure OCX: Wavelength Conversion Outgoing Interface Outgoing Wavelength Incoming Interface Incoming Wavelength
41AC_054_2000 © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. Control Plane Wavelength Routing Intelligence Resource Discovery Topology State Maintenance Reliable broadcast Path Selection Constraint-based Routing Optical Channel Management Path placement Path maintenance Path revocation
42AC_054_2000 © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. ATM MPLS IP-LSR OXC Method Standard Body RoutingSignalingAvailable None ATM Forum IETF Proprietary PNNI Constraint- based PNNI LDP / RSVP Trials Deployed Proprietary Source: John Drake -- MPLS Conference 1999 Existing Control Planes
43AC_054_2000 © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. ATM MPLS IP-LSR OXC Method Standard Body RoutingSignalingAvailable IETF Constraint- based MPLS-TE Future Trials/ Deployed Deployed MPLS-TE Source: John Drake -- MPLS Conference 1999 Uniform Control Plane Paradigm
44AC_054_2000 © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. Original rationalintegrate: Layer 3 routingscalability and flexibility Layer 2 switchinghigh-performance and traffic management Now architecture for new services… + + = = What we already did with IP+ATM ATM-LSR*IP-LSR* * LSR... Label Switch Router
45AC_054_2000 © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. LSR and OXC Similarities Data vs. Control planes they both clearly distinguish these planes Data plane driven by a switching matrix LSR: (i_if, ingress label) => (o_if, egress label) OXC: (i_if, ingress ) => (o_if, egress ) Switching is independent of switching unit payload LSR/OXC only switch based on Label or Lambda
46AC_054_2000 © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. Label Switched Path (LSP) and Optical Trail Similarities Explicitly Routed according to constraints Bandwidth, priority, preemption, policy color, re-optimization Unidirectional and Point-to-point Payload transparency Survivability properties on a per LSP/Optical trail basis protection and restoration Same Label/Lambda cannot be allocated twice on an interface
47AC_054_2000 © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. The Idea Adapt IGP extensions for MPLS traffic engineering Adapt MPLS constraint-based routing algorithms Adapt an MPLS signaling protocol e.g. RSVP-TE to setup optical channels Identify domain specific extensions MP S
48AC_054_2000 © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. Original rationalintegrate: Layer 3 routingscalability and flexibility Layer 1 switchinghigh-performance and terabit capacity Now architecture for new services… + + = = What we now can do with IP+Optical OXC*-LSR * OXC... Optical Cross Connect
49AC_054_2000 © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. MP S Control Plane OXC maintain Neighbour Relationship Connected through an IP Link one or more Data Channels (lambdas, fibers) one or more Control Channels Control Channel in-band or out-band... Data Channel Control Channel
50AC_054_2000 © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. MP S Very pragmatic Realtime provisioning Protection & Restoration Overlay and Peer Model Framework for Optical Internet TBD: UNI, NNI, Control Channel, Policy (IETF COPS Adaption ?), …
51AC_054_2000 © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. Reference draft-awduche-mpls-te-optical-*.txt draft-kompella-mpls-optical-*.txt draft-kompella-mpls-bundle-*.txt draft-basak-mpls-oxc-issues-*.doc draft-bernstein-mpls-sonet-*.txt Authors from Cisco Systems, Juniper Network, UUnet, Global Crossing, AT&T Labs, Level3 Communications, NTT, Marconi, Ciena Corporation, Chromisys, New Access, Sirocco Systems
1AC_055_2000 © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. Fast IP Routing Axel Clauberg Consulting Engineer Cisco Systems Axel Clauberg Consulting.
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