2 Petrified tree sap = “amber” (Basis for Jurassic Park movies) Fossils are not always “bone-like”Petrified tree sap = “amber”(Basis for Jurassic Park movies)
3 Let’s examine five important cases. Fossil EvidenceIn 2004, scientists digging in the Canadian Arctic unearthed fossils of a half-fish, half-amphibian that all but confirmed paleontologists' theories about how land-dwelling tetrapods–four-limbed animals, including us–evolved from fish.It is a classic example of a transitional form, one that bridges a so-called evolutionary gap between different types of animal.Let’s examine five important cases.
4 Just an example – no need to memorize, but interesting (SKIP for 2013 Evolution test)
5 Just an example – no need to memorize, but interesting (SKIP for 2013 Evolution test)
6 Just an example – no need to memorize, but interesting (SKIP for 2013 Evolution test)
7 Just an example – no need to memorize, but interesting (SKIP for 2013 Evolution test)
8 Just an example – no need to memorize, but interesting (SKIP for 2013 Evolution test)
9 FossilizationJust an example – no need to memorize, but interesting (SKIP for 2013 Evolution test)“Lucy”
10 StratificationThe lower in the stratification that a fossil is found, the older it is assumed to be. Good for comparisons only – not always a good determinant of age.
11 Evidence of evolution can lead to the formation of a timeline of development of life on Earth… Fossil recordsRelative DatingRadioactive datingGeologic Time Table
12 Click on picture to go to the web page. Zoom in & out to see details Click on picture to go to the web page. Zoom in & out to see details. When do humans appear?
13 ERA’s correspond with major extinction events Current Era & Period – modern man (Cenozoic, Quaternary)
14 Comparative Morphology Common ancestors?Comparative Morphology18.2 – Similarities in bone structure have led scientists to believe that there may have been a common ancestorMorphological divergenceHomology
15 Morphological divergence Organisms diverge in appearance due to environmental differences. Also – Darwin’s finches
16 Morphological Convergence Organisms develop similar appearances due to environmental similarities.FishMammalBird
17 “Ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny” 18.3 Examining embryo development led scientists to believe that these organisms may have had similar ancestors. Do not memorize the sentence at the top!Embryological Evidence
18 Comparative Biochemistry Evidence DNA, RNA, proteins comparisons between species18.4 – nucleic acid hybridization. Neutral vs. adaptive mutations can lead to predictable “molecular clock”
19 Systems of Classification Based on SIMILARITIESVisualLocationAnatomicalPhysiologicalGenetic???Easiest to identify?MOST important/ BEST relationships?Other forms of classification? Which makes MOST sense? (SKIP for 2013 Evolution test)
20 Linnaeus’s System Hierarchy Seven levels - Taxons Kingdom Phylum Class OrderFamilyGenusSpecies(SKIP for 2013 Evolution test)
21 King Philip? King Philip Came Over For Good Soup Kingdom Phylum Class OrderFamilyGenusSpecies(SKIP for 2013 Evolution test)
22 Binomial Nomenclature Genus and Species namePolar bear – Ursus maritimusGrizzly Bear – Ursus arctosWhat are the reasons to use a binomial system?Giant Panda – Ailuropoda melanoleuca
23 Old vs. Modern SystemsDerived characteristics rely on genetic/evolutionary information. Be able to construct a cladogram (see next slide)Evolutionary classification (descent characteristics):Segmented bodiesJointed limbsExoskeleton that is shedDerived characteristics = CLADOGRAM
24 ExerciseBe able to construct & read a cladogram.
25 Taxonomy Identifying, classifying species Classification schemes Binomial systemPhylogenyK-P-C-O-F-G-S18.5 (SKIP for 2013 Evolution test)
26 KingdomsArchaebacteria – Ancient bacteria, unicellular, prokaryote. Found in extremely harsh environments.Eubacteria - More modern bacteria, uniclelluar, prokaryote. “Common bacteria”Protista – Eukaryote, unicelluar or multicellular. Autotroph or heterotroph. Pathogens and parasites.Fungi – Multicellular, eukaryote. Heterotroph. Decomposers, pathogens, parasites.Plantae - Multicellular, eukaryote. AutotrophsAnimalia - Multicellular, eukaryote. Heterotroph.Summarize in table (SKIP for 2013 Evolution test)
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