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World Society for the Protection of Animals Zoonotic Diseases and Natural Disasters Professor Stan Fenwick Veterinary Public Health Murdoch University/WSPA.

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Presentation on theme: "World Society for the Protection of Animals Zoonotic Diseases and Natural Disasters Professor Stan Fenwick Veterinary Public Health Murdoch University/WSPA."— Presentation transcript:

1 World Society for the Protection of Animals Zoonotic Diseases and Natural Disasters Professor Stan Fenwick Veterinary Public Health Murdoch University/WSPA

2 World Society for the Protection of Animals WHO – during floods, reports and rumours are common about problems created by animals such as dogs, rats, mice and snakes

3 World Society for the Protection of Animals Zoonoses associated with floods Leptospirosis Anthrax Rabies Salmonellosis

4 World Society for the Protection of Animals Zoonoses are infections which are naturally transmitted between vertebrate animals and people People, animals, insects and the inanimate environment are all involved in cycles of zoonotic infection

5 World Society for the Protection of Animals An appreciation of the zoonoses and attempts to control them requires a sound knowledge of the epidemiology of the diseases and the behaviour of both people and animals which may facilitate interspecies transmission

6 World Society for the Protection of Animals Zoonoses can be classified as follows Type of infectious agent (e.g. bacteria, virus, parasite) Type of reservoir host Mode of transmission

7 World Society for the Protection of Animals Transmission of zoonotic infections may be direct, indirect via arthropod vectors, or from environmental foci Direct zoonosis Cyclozoonosis Metazoonosis Saprozoonosis

8 World Society for the Protection of Animals Direct Zoonosis An infection which can be directly or mechanically transmitted to people from animals, and which is capable of being maintained in a single species of animal Most of the important zoonoses that can occur following flooding are direct zoonoses eg. leptospirosis, anthrax, rabies

9 World Society for the Protection of Animals Direct anthropozoonosis (or via fomites) Host-adapted serovars, maintenance hosts act as carrier animals, inapparent infections Herbivores long shedding, carnivores short Severe infections in secondary hosts (humans and animals) Over 200 serovars, all capable of infecting any animal Moist environmental conditions favour survival outside hosts, endemic zones Leptospirosis

10 World Society for the Protection of Animals Maintenance hosts L. Hardjo - cattle L. pomona L. tarrasovi - pigs Many serovars, e.g. L. australis, L. zanoni, L. copenhageni – rodents (rats/mice)

11 World Society for the Protection of Animals Occupational hazard in rice-growing communities – 200 deaths in Thailand and 6000 sick in 2000, cattle, pigs and rodents thought to be reservoirs, transmission via urine contaminating paddy fields.

12 World Society for the Protection of Animals Occupational risks

13 World Society for the Protection of Animals Recreational risks Sabah, Malaysia, 2000, Eco-challenge race – 50 out of 80 athletes contracted leptospirosis.

14 World Society for the Protection of Animals Other risks!!!!

15 World Society for the Protection of Animals Contact with infected urine or contaminated water Common occupational disease via intact mucous membranes, aerosols or skin abrasions Anicteric disease is common form seen in Australia, vague symptoms, flu-like, fever, headache, myalgia Icteric disease more severe, uncommon in Australia, this form commonly seen with rodent-associated serovars, jaundice, haemolytic crisis, can cause death Person-person transmission rare, dead-end hosts Transmission and Human Disease

16 World Society for the Protection of Animals Symptom (n=179)% Headache (123)68.7% Myalgia (109)60.9% Severe Fever (102)57.0% Sweats (101)56.4% Chills (95)53.1% Arthralgia (89)49.7% Nausea (70)39.1% Vomiting (62)34.6% Back Pain (50)27.9% Mild Fever (49)27.4% Respiratory Symptoms20.1% Conjunctival Suffusion13.4% Renal Involvement (22)12.3% Vision Disturbance (17)9.5% Rash (15)8.4% Diarrhoea (14)7.8% Pulmonary Haemorrhage5.6% Liver Involvement (4)2.2% Symptoms of human leptospirosis

17 World Society for the Protection of Animals Leptospirosis and floods 2002Thailand50 cases, multiple serovars 2006Brazil193 cases, L. copenhageni 2008Guyana68 cases (6 deaths), ? serovars 2009Fiji8 cases (3 deaths), ? serovars

18 World Society for the Protection of Animals Bacillus anthracis, Gm +ve spore-forming rod Worldwide, Russia, Asia, Africa, S.America Hot spots in warm humid areas where natural cycles exist All mammals susceptible but pigs, dogs, cats relatively resistant Birds can disseminate spores, chickens resistant, some birds susceptible Spores have a long survival time in the environment ANTHRAX

19 World Society for the Protection of Animals Animal by products, wool, hides, bone meal, meat, all involved in spore transmission Cutaneous infections most common, inhalation, intestinal in rural areas, person to person rare 1-7d incubation, spores germinate, bacteraemia, papules, vesicles, oedema (black), fatal septicaemia (toxins) Agricultural workers, rural people, vets, travellers etc. ANTHRAX Transmission and Human Disease

20 World Society for the Protection of Animals Cutaneous anthrax Anthrax pneumonia

21 World Society for the Protection of Animals Indonesia 2007 – several human deaths associated with eating meat from cattle that had died of anthrax (annual occurrence) Australia 2007 – cutaneous anthrax in a worker processing a dead cow for meat and bone meal Vietnam 2008 – 15 people died or became sick through eating a dead cow

22 World Society for the Protection of Animals Anthrax and floods No specific disease incidence data following floods Floods remove and deposit soil and can expose anthrax spores in endemic areas Seasonal flooding of rivers in southern africa has led to outbreaks of anthrax in cattle and wildlife Animals that have died as a result of disease or accident are eaten in some cultures, may pose a risk if anthrax cases occur

23 World Society for the Protection of Animals Family Rhabdovirus, genus Lyssavirus Direct zoonosis Worldwide in all continents – few countries free, e.g. NZ Some countries free by eradication e.g. UK While this disease is not directly associated with flooding, in SE Asia the potential congregation of large numbers of animals in relief camps and temporary shelters could result in the inclusion of rabid animals, particularly in India where rabies is widespread RABIES

24 World Society for the Protection of Animals 1. Classical rabies 2. Lagos bat virus 3. Mokola virus 4. Duvenhage virus 5. European bat virus 6. European bat virus 7. Pteropus (Australian) lyssavirus Genotypes of Lyssavirus

25 World Society for the Protection of Animals Distribution New Zealand Japan UK World wide, EXCEPT

26 World Society for the Protection of Animals Worldwide 30-50,000 deaths per year result from classical rabies It is estimated that a person dies from this infection every 15 minutes! Lancet 2002

27 World Society for the Protection of Animals Dogs most important domestic hosts, other domestic animals can also be involved e.g. cats, cattle Many wild reservoirs which differ between regions; principally canids (foxes, wolves, jackals) but also mongooses, skunks, raccoons, bats Haematophagous, insectivorous and frugivorous bats all can transmit rabies and related viruses RABIES Epidemiology

28 World Society for the Protection of Animals Animals differ in susceptibility, dogs show intermediate susceptibility, humans, cats and cattle highly susceptible, pigs resistant Highest incidence in Asia, in particular India Endemically stable, few new reports of infections extending in countries except raccoons in E. USA and Bat Lyssa Virus in Northern Europe RABIES Epidemiology

29 World Society for the Protection of Animals Transmission to people mainly by bites via virus in saliva Aerosol, transplacental and transmammary transmission in bats, found in bat saliva in zoos Oral transmission in highly susceptible species (eg. foxes), not documented in people RABIES Transmission

30 World Society for the Protection of Animals Incubation 4d - 6y recorded, depending on where bitten Clinical rabies invariably fatal Prodromal period (behavioural changes) Excitative period (hydrophobia, aerophobia in people); 1 dog in India bit 40 people/9 dogs in 4h Paralytic period (may be predominant phase with some virus types - dumb rabies) – dangerous as may be easily misdiagnosed at this stage in animals RABIES Disease manifestations

31 World Society for the Protection of Animals Now considered the 10 th most common infectious cause of deaths in the world India - 30,000 deaths annually Pakistan deaths per year Thailand – deaths per year

32 World Society for the Protection of Animals Rabies and floods As for anthrax little specific information is available However, post-flooding, large numbers of uncontrolled dogs may congregate near relief camps This concentration of dogs will facilitate rabies transmission in the event of a rabid animal being present in the group After Hurricane Katrina public health officials warned of a possible increase in rabies cases as flood waters disrupted domestic and wild animals from their natural habitats

33 World Society for the Protection of Animals In a disaster area where rabies is endemic, assume that all dogs could potentially be rabid, and in particular keep well away from free roaming, aggressive dogs. Feed, describe, locate and leave!

34 World Society for the Protection of Animals Cyclozoonosis Infections which require at least two vertebrate hosts, one of which may be human, to complete their life cycle These include many of the parasitic zoonoses which are not usually associated with flooding, although handling dogs in a hydatid endemic region could result in infection e.g. Taenia solium, Echinococcus granulosus

35 World Society for the Protection of Animals Metazoonosis Diseases of vertebrate animals which can affect man, the infectious agents of which replicate, develop in, and are transmitted by, an invertebrate vector This group includes all the arthropod-borne infections, which should be considered following flooding due to a concurrent increase in vector populations e.g. Mosquito and tick/mite -borne infections (Dengue, Japanese encephalitis, rickettsial infections)

36 World Society for the Protection of Animals Diseases of vertebrate animals which can affect people, the infectious agents of which are either capable of replicating in inanimate sites, or require an inanimate environment for the development of an infectious stage of their life cycle eg. Histoplasmosis, Toxocara canis, enteric bacteria Salmonella can survive in contaminated water or soil for several months, assisting transmission between animals and from animals to people and is therefore a potential cause of animal and human infections following flooding Saprozoonosis

37 World Society for the Protection of Animals Salmonella Over 200 serovars, both host-adapted (S. typhi) and non-host adapted (S. typhimurium, S. enteritidis) Domestic and wild animal reservoirs, most infections asymptomatic Domestic animals show increased shedding and clinical disease following periods of intense stress e.g post flooding/congregation in relief camps Human infections via food, water or direct contact

38 World Society for the Protection of Animals Non-Zoonoses Bacterial infections Viral infections Parasitic diseases Diseases associated with nutrition

39 World Society for the Protection of Animals Bacterial infections of animals Clostridial infections Tetanus Botulism Blackleg Enterotoxaemia Haemhorragic septicaemia (pasteurellosis) Secondary infections post-trauma Respiratory Skin Mastitis

40 World Society for the Protection of Animals Viral infections of animals The majority of transboundary animal diseases are viral in origin, and, while not specifically associated with flooding, it is important to be aware of their potential to spread in stressed, contained animal populations, and to cause subsequent problems for affected rural populations

41 World Society for the Protection of Animals Rinderpest FMD Rift Valley Fever Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) Classical swine fever (CSF) African swine fever Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) Peste de petits ruminants (PPR) Newcastle disease MAJOR TRANSBOUNDARY ANIMAL DISEASES (blue indicates that diseases are recognised in Asia)

42 World Society for the Protection of Animals Compromised food security Major production losses for animal products Loss of valuable livestock genetics Increase in costs of production Disruption to local and international trade Inhibition of investment in livestock sector Public health and environmental issues Animal welfare concerns CONSEQUENCES OF TRANSBOUNDARY ANIMAL DISEASES

43 World Society for the Protection of Animals Parasitic infections Moist conditions following flooding favour survival of worm eggs Post flooding, the congregation of animals in relief camps or other areas will facilitate parasite transmission In addition, stressed animals will be more prone to the effects of parasites Nematode and trematode infections most likely Ectoparasite infections will also increase – may result in tick-borne infections e.g. Babesiosis, theileriosis, flystrike

44 World Society for the Protection of Animals Diseases associated with nutrition Flood-damaged feeds Mycotoxicoses Toxic plants eaten due to lack of feed Inanition due to unusual feedstuffs Starvation Problems resulting from contaminated water

45 World Society for the Protection of Animals Occupational disease risks post-flooding Leptospirosis is the disease most commonly associated with floods due to the contamination of water with animal urine, in particular rodent urine Mosquito-borne diseases will also be a potential risk, e.g. dengue, Japanese encephalitis, malaria If large numbers of stray dogs are congregated on dry ground, then dog bites and potentially rabies are risks Infected wounds, tetanus, respiratory infections Food and waterborne diseases – Cholera, typhoid and other enteric infections from contaminated water and food

46 World Society for the Protection of Animals Epidemiology Risk factors for diseases following floods Overcrowding Nutritional changes Contaminated water supplies Wounds and injuries Inclement weather Vectors Other stressors

47 World Society for the Protection of Animals Diagnosis of diseases in the field Minimal facilities Temporary laboratory facilities Access to permanent laboratory facilities

48 World Society for the Protection of Animals Minimal facilities Microscope, simple stains, McMaster slides, salt solutions, sample collection equipment Pen-side tests as developed (lepto dip stick – humans only; anthrax rapid tests – humans only) Anthrax is probably the only bacterial infection that simple laboratory facilities could diagnose, i.e. use of McFadyeans polychrome methylene blue stain to identify the bacteria in blood smears Parasite diagnosis, worms, worm eggs Blood-borne parasites (Babesia, Theileria, Trypanosoma)

49 World Society for the Protection of Animals Temporary laboratory facilities Possible incubator, allowing simple bacteriology, although usefulness doubtful, ? Salmonella Refrigerator/freezer to allow storage of samples for retrospective diagnosis Serum sample storage; work with human agencies Simple test kits, e.g. rapid ELISA

50 World Society for the Protection of Animals Control of Diseases following flooding General principles of disease control Examples of disease control for diseases potentially associated with flooding

51 World Society for the Protection of Animals Definition of Prevention Actions aimed at eradicating, eliminating, or minimizing the impact of disease and disability. The concept of prevention is best defined in the context of levels, traditionally called primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention

52 World Society for the Protection of Animals Definition of Control The reduction of disease incidence, prevalence, morbidity or mortality to a locally acceptable level as a result of deliberate efforts; continued intervention measures are required to maintain the reduction

53 World Society for the Protection of Animals Emergency Preparedness an animal or human disease emergency can have serious socio-economic consequences, which may affect a countries whole national economy

54 World Society for the Protection of Animals The only thing more difficult than planning for an emergency is having to explain why you didnt!

55 World Society for the Protection of Animals General Control Strategies for Zoonoses Measures may need to be implemented on individual/herd, local/community, national and international levels 1.Individual/herd: chemoprophylaxis, arthropod control and avoidance, hygiene, vaccination, clean water, safe food, disinfection of fomites, avoidance of close contact 2.Local/community: arthropod and rodent control, education, mass chemotherapy, eradication of animals, restriction of animal movement, vaccination, pasteurisation, isolation of patients, infection control 3.National/International: quarantine, restriction of imports, movement control for animals, international notifications and networks, international response teams

56 World Society for the Protection of Animals Integration of medicine and veterinary medicine in approaches to control And most importantly (ONE MEDICINE - ONE HEALTH)

57 World Society for the Protection of Animals Some examples of control from the zoonoses it is vital to understand the epidemiology of a disease to be able to control it

58 World Society for the Protection of Animals Vaccination of cattle, pigs, deer, dogs Need virulent, local serovars in vaccines, little cross- immunity, killed, annual revaccination Protective clothing Avoid contact with animal urine/contaminated water Control of wild reservoirs e.g. rodents DD - influenza, meningitis, hepatitis, dengue, scrub typhus Doxycycline prophylaxis for humans Leptospirosis control

59 World Society for the Protection of Animals Vaccination for specific diseases Anthrax –animals, human vaccine used in US HS and clostridial vaccines used in ruminants Avian influenza and ND vaccines for poultry FMD, PPR, CSF – vaccines available for animals Rabies - vaccine available for animals and humans Japanese encephalitis – human vaccine available Typhoid and cholera – human vaccines available

60 World Society for the Protection of Animals Occupational safety Staff, VERU teams, volunteers, owners Hygiene, hand-washing facilities Protective clothing – boots, gloves, glasses, masks Prophylactic drugs – malaria, antibiotics Vaccination Record keeping and incident reporting

61 World Society for the Protection of Animals BIOSECURITY An understanding of the principles of biosecurity is vital for individuals working in Disaster Management, in particular when developing and managing temporary shelters or relief areas, and in assisting communities to prevent disease.

62 World Society for the Protection of Animals Biosecurity is …. A series of Management Practices that are employed to reduce the chance of importing infectious diseases into a country, a region, a village or a relief camp These practices can also help to slow the spread of infectious diseases if disease incursions occur

63 World Society for the Protection of Animals Following a natural disaster factors are present that potentially increase the spread and prevalence of infectious diseases in animal populations. Many of the diseases are of food safety or economic concern Stressed animals are more prone to infectious diseases A vibrant agricultural community is an important resource in producing and maintaining a healthy environment and assisting affected populations to recover from disasters Biosecurity is important for a number of reasons

64 World Society for the Protection of Animals In order to effectively begin to develop a biosecurity program it is important to review the risk areas that may be present Risk assessment helps to determine the areas or factors that are most likely to lead to the spread of infectious agents Risk management is the second step. Here a preventive plan is developed and implemented. Risk communication is the final step. In this step, all members of the management team, farmers, suppliers and service personnel are informed of the plan to ensure cooperation and buy-in.

65 World Society for the Protection of Animals Roles and responsibilities Development of a biosecurity plan for relief camps or the disaster area is initially the responsibility of the veterinarian in charge of the DM team in consultation with the VERU team leader and senior government staff Once protocols have been established, they should be enforced as far as possible by the DM/VERU team members and government staff

66 World Society for the Protection of Animals Livestock Herd or relief camp *Purchased Products (Feed, etc ) *Purchased animals

67 World Society for the Protection of Animals Biosecurity usually involves screening and testing incoming animals, quarantine or isolation for newly purchased or returning animals, and finally a monitoring or surveillance system to detect disease incursions. Some of these activities may be difficult to integrate into a disaster response plan, however it is important to be aware of the principles of biosecurity

68 World Society for the Protection of Animals To protect animal health

69 World Society for the Protection of Animals To protect food supplies and human health

70 World Society for the Protection of Animals And to prevent the spread of disease causing hardship for affected communities

71 World Society for the Protection of Animals One way to concisely introduce Biosecurity and Biocontainment is to use the acronym IRS IRS stands for Isolation-Resistance-Sanitation

72 World Society for the Protection of Animals World Animal Health Information Database (WAHID) Interface Before biosecurity protocols can be developed it is important to know the diseases endemic in the country, this information is not always available Government vets in the team can supply information WAHID is a very useful source of global information The WAHID Interface provides access to all data held within OIE's new World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS). It replaces and significantly extends the former web interface named Handistatus II System

73 World Society for the Protection of Animals OIE international health standards Terrestrial Animal Health Code Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals The Health Codes detail measures to be used to prevent the transfer of infectious agents pathogenic for animals and humans While principally for use in international animal movements these codes are a very useful source of information to assist the development of biosecurity plans

74 World Society for the Protection of Animals In summary Biosecurity relies on: Controlled access Protective equipment Disinfection Closed herds Isolation on introduction

75 World Society for the Protection of Animals Bio-security is not difficult ….its just inconvenient!


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