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CA*net 3 National Optical Internet

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1 CA*net 3 National Optical Internet
Consortium Partners: Bell Nexxia Nortel Cisco JDS Uniphase Newbridge CA*net 3 Primary Route CA*net 3 Diverse Route GigaPOP ORAN Deploying a 4 channel CWDM Gigabit Ethernet network – 700 km Deploying a 4 channel Gigabit Ethernet transparent optical DWDM– 1500 km Condo Dark Fiber Networks connecting universities and schools Condo Fiber Network linking all universities and hospital Multiple Customer Owned Dark Fiber Networks connecting universities and schools Netera SRnet MRnet ACORN BCnet St. John’s Calgary Regina Winnipeg RISQ Charlottetown ONet Fredericton Vancouver 16 channel DWDM -8 reserved for CANARIE -8 wavelengths for carrier and other customers Montreal Halifax Ottawa Seattle STAR TAP Toronto Chicago New York 10 10 9 10 9 9 10 10 10 10 10 10 10

2 CA*net 3 International Moscow DANTE New York Europe Seattle Germany
Sweden Holland Asia APAN Japan Taiwan Singapore NTT ESnet Moscow OC3 STAR TAP MIRnet vBNS Internet 2 MREN Abilene Internet-2 NASA

3 CA*net 3 Objectives In partnership with carrier, industry and regional networks carry out research, development and testing in Optical Internet technologies and strategies Showcase Canadian industry optical Internet technologies and services Technology development leading to the creation of sustainable high performance networking environment for the research and education community Technology development towards a high performance “Canadian content” delivery network for Schoolnet, CAP, etc Development of the 3rd generation Internet based on optical networking technologies

4 What is an Optical Internet?
WDM fibers where individual wavelengths are the link layer interconnect directly connected to routers via Optical ADM (Add Drop Mux) or WDM coupler High Performance Router acts as the main switching routing device Bypass or cut-thru connections via dedicated wavelengths SONET or Gigabit Ethernet framing (also 10xGbE or SDL) Use intrinsic self healing nature of Internet for redundancy and protection (don’t require SONET/SDH layer) Traffic engineering and network management done via MPLS Network design optimized for unique characteristics of Internet traffic – fractal traffic, asymmetric traffic and congestion at the edge

5 Types of Optical Internets
SONET switched – OEO MPLS for control of OC-x channels IGP optical networks -variants of PNNI, OSPF e.g. WARP, etc POS and EOS Layer 1 restoral & protection using SONET All optical transparent Static wavelength provisioning IGP & MPLS on essentially dumb links; or iBGP and EGP POS and EOS or native GbE and 10GbE and others Layer 1 optical restoral and Layer 3 restoral (MPLS or IGP) Enterprise autonomous optical networks OBGP and wavelength arbiter for autonomous peering and joins BGP peering sessions determine optical links All optical burst switching and routing MPLS label used as burst optical switch Packet switching or flow switching?

6 Types of Long Haul GbE SONET framed – EOS
Ideal for legacy carrier SDH/SONET and DWDM systems Bridged architecture Complex flow control to map Ethernet 10/100/1000 to OC-x Layer 1 restoral & protection using SONET SONET framing for DWDM wavelength modulation skirt and OAM&P OEO transport with regenerators and digital wrapper Digital Wrapper required for management of link and modulation skirt Carry native GbE and 10GbE and others within wrapper Layer 1 optical restoral All optical transport – CWDM and DWDM Broadband optical in S,L,C bands Native xGbE with CWDM and wide modulation skirts Low efficiency – 36% overhead Enterprise autonomous optical networks Native GbE for framing on link Flow control at TCP – low efficiency

7 Characteristics of Internet Traffic
Internet traffic does not aggregate – it remains fractal or bursty at all traffic volumes Internet traffic is very asymmetric with ratios of up to 16:1 between transmit and receive paths Internet traffic is predominantly made up of computer to computer traffic (and growing despite all the talk about multimedia, interactive video and VoIP) E.g caching updates, , network news, huge file xfer, application servers Computer to computer traffic can easily tolerate packet loss, latency and jitter Server performance, DNS, routing tables, etc have bigger impact on Internet reliability than the underlying physical network Physical network reliability contributes to less than 40% of overall Internet outages and delays Mathematically shown that multiple connections to Internet more reliable than one connection with reliability

8 Fractal Internet OC3c OC3c 1 user Average Load Average Load 100 users
Need big buffers or big bandwidth Average Load Average Load 1 million users Traditional Voice Traffic Internet Traffic

9 Implications of Fractal Bandwidth
With fractal bandwidth reserved bandwidth channels causes more congestion than one shared channel of equivalent bandwidth In the Internet it is more important to prioritize traffic by packet loss and latency rather than by reserved bandwidth Layer 3 restoral mechanism make more sense than layer 1 restoral and protection with highly fractal traffic If 50 msec average traffic load is less than 50% Therefore easier to double up traffic on an existing link and introduce slightly longer microsecond delays to non-priority traffic Therefore both protection and working path can be optimized for fractal traffic

10 Bandwidth Models OR A Ideal for multicast streaming e.g. DSL 1 Mbps B
Ideal for fractal or bursty traffic such as web traffic 3 Mbps A B C With simple QoS green can be delayed microseconds to give even better efficiency

11 Why 10/100 Mbps in the LAN? If you add up the average bandwidth consumption in a typical LAN it will not come anywhere close to even 2 Mbps So why not build a cheaper 2 Mbps LAN instead? The driver for big bandwidth is congestion avoidance Everybody hates waiting seconds for their while the network is tied up with a big print job or file transfer This same force is at play in the WAN except costs are a limiting factor Most enterprise customers operate large LAN networks with miles of copper and fiber and many switches adding a km single link extension is a no brainer But dark fiber and GbE dramatically changes costs and LAN economics and engineering can move to the WAN

12 Tx/Rx Asymmetry 20:1 Cnet Regional Network 4:1 To Other Regionals 6:1
Big Server e.g. Microsoft e.g. Netscape Backbone Network Regional Network Cnet To Other Regionals 20:1 3:1 4:1 6:1 2:1 Tx:Rx

13 Three types of traffic Human to Human Human to Computer
real time voice and video, tele-medicine, tele-immersive VR, etc very sensitive to jitter and delay very symmetric & growing linearly usually one to one connections so QoS easy Human to Computer web, voice mail, video servers, call centers, fax - mostly TCP jitter and delay can be compensated with client buffering fractal & very asymmetric & growing exponentially usually many to one connections so QoS very hard Computer to Computer (usually many to many) , FTP, IP appliances, application servers, content caching insensitive to jitter and delay, but extremely fractal extremely asymmetric & growing exponentially plus Usually many to many connections so QoS extremely hard

14 Computer will drive network architectures
Computer central processor does not shut down 8 hours a night Computers can talk all day and all night, 365 days a year. You don’t need 2 computers to create another computer Millions of computers will be located everywhere Computers are very tolerant of network congestion, packet loss, outages, etc Computers can consume all the offered bandwidth – the only limitation is the cost of bandwidth So today we artificially restrict available bandwidth Designing networks for computers is a lot easier and cheaper than a network for humans e.g. Internet, CA*net 3

15 We already have Petabit Networks
FedX is already a Petabit network thousands of disks and tapes shipped daily jitter and latency is pretty poor cost for shipping tape approx cents/byte Current cost of sending data over fiber .001cents/byte With an optical Internet data will cost cents/byte By 2001 telecommunication cost will be close to FedX cost If 10% of this traffic moves to the Internet, the Internet will be bigger than all voice networks combined This is all computer to computer traffic – ideal for the Internet Most university traffic still moves by tape

16 Caching key component of 99.999 Internet
Speed of fastest packet transfer across the country (>50 msec) is 10x slower than disk speed access Today’s bandwidth prices At the center -- $800/Mbit/sec/mo “on network” -- $400/Mbit/sec/mo “at the edge” -- $0 (co location fees ~$1K/mo) A disk drive as a source of bandwidth $500, 5Mbits/sec (cache) = $3/Mbit/sec/mo! RAM as a source of bandwidth $2000 (1GByte), 100MBits/sec = $1/Mbit/sec/mo So better investment is spend money on intelligent storage rather than the network Traffic between intelligent storage is computer to computer

17 DNS critical to 99.999 Internet
You ask for Want that request sent to optimized server Where you are in the network How loaded the servers are Where bad things are happening in the network Possible mechanisms HTTP redirect IP redirect DistributedDirector style DNS Optimized DNS solutions For large distributed content caches DNS solutions are only practical solutions

18 Early Indicators Biggest bandwidth consumers on IP networks are NNTP, HHTP caching, intelligent storage and FTP Internet 2 has carried out one FTP session that took over a month! On CA*net 3 biggest applications is NRC Bioinformatics – 40 servers across the country constantly updating each other Researchers say biggest need is bandwidth to transfer large data files In the commercial world application servers and content caching are increasingly the biggest applications Even video may be a computer to computer connection because of caching If customer has enough disk easier to send movie as an FTP file then by streaming No no biological limitations to number of computers and can talk all day and night

19 Web Points of Congestion
DNS 13% Connect 12% Network 42% Server 33% Bellcore Study C Huitema 23/1/97

20 Building a Internet Most Internet congestion and packet loss is caused by the destination server and NOT the network Usually the weakest link is DNS on most Internet networks Even on links with BER of 10^-15 there is 1-3% packet loss due to TCP packet loss and retransmission Packet loss and retransmission is an essential feature of the Internet for server to server flow control Many ISPs deliberately create packet loss for flow control- RED so BER due to TCP is 10^-6 to 10^-8. BER of 10^-15 is irrelevant - a poor BER is not necessarily a bad thing Paul Baran in the mid 60’s demonstrated mathematically you can get a more reliable network with multiple paths than with a single path and reliable equipment A network with multiple paths, full DNS and http caching can be more reliable than a binary SONET network

21 50 msec restoral myth Traditional telco networks absolutely require fast restoral because they are connection oriented networks If an outage is not restored quickly all telephone circuits, frame relay circuits and ATM circuits are dropped The load on the SS7 network is horrific when all these circuits then try to signal to re-establish a connection at the same time But connectionless oriented networks simply re-route packets via an alternate route So connectionless oriented circuits only need fast restoral to prevent a break in voice or video transmission for a couple of seconds But how important is this to the user? How many times a year will a user experience a 2 or 10 second disruption in their video or audio due to a fiber break?

22 QoS Myth QoS is needed in one to one connections for real time voice and video e.g Doctor video conferencing with a patient BUT, most Internet applications are NOT one to one real time connections, they are many to one and many to many type of connections e.g. Doctors retrieving X-ray image from a database Multicast distribution of a movie etc Many users going to the same web site End to end QoS is real hard if you have more than a one to one, real time connection The only practical solution is “good enough” QoS at congestion points e.g. diff serv

23 CA*net 3 Design Implications
Future traffic could be high volume, high fractal TCP “computer to computer” with lots of empty space for other types of traffic Large peak to average loads to accommodate fractal nature of Internet Smaller volume, jitter sensitive “human to human” traffic can be inserted in empty space prioritized with simple QoS mechanisms Network reliability and performance must be defined from a systems level, not a network level Throughput and congestion are increasingly server bound, not network bound So high bandwidth IP pipes using protection fiber to provide multiple paths with simple QoS and reliability mechanisms may be all that is needed

24 Traditional Internet Architecture
Router Router VCs VCs ATM switch ATM switch OC3 OC3 OC12 OC12 SONET Mux SONET Mux OC3 OC3 Working Fiber OC48 OC48 SONET Transport SONET Transport SONET/SDH Ring Protection Fiber

25 Optical Internet Architecture “Rings are Dead”
Both sides of fiber ring ring used for IP traffic Traditional SONET Transport Node Traditional SONET Transport Node WDM WDM 3 0C-48 Tx 2 OC-48 Rx High Priority Traffic Cannot exceed 50% of bandwidth in case of fiber cut Asymmetric Tx/Rx lambdas that can be dynamically altered Traditional SONET Restoral Low priority traffic that can be buffered or have packet loss in case of fiber cut

26 Network Node Carrier Tributary SONET services - OC3c, OC12c, etc WDM
Coupler WDM Coupler DCS TransportNode Traditional SONET OC-48/192 Working Fiber Working Fiber To Local GigaPOP (ATM, SONET, WDM etc) To Local GigaPOP (ATM, SONET, WDM, (etc) Carrier Router Transponders WDM Coupler WDM Coupler Electrical Regenerator OC-48/192 Protection Fiber Cut thru asymmetric Lambdas to next Router Protection Fiber

27 Layer 3 Restoral IP network is intrinsically self healing via routing protocols By cranking down timers on interface cards and keep alive message time-out we can achieve 1/3 second restoral Biggest delay is re-calculation and announcement of changes in routing tables across the network MPLS promises to simply the problem maintain a set of attributes for restoral and optimization may provide a consistent management interface over all transport services -WDM, SONET/SDH, ATM, Frame Relay, etc 50 msec restoral possible with MPLS Layer 3 restoral allows for more intelligent restoral can use a hybrid mix of restoral and protection circuits Can use QoS to prioritize customers and services Only UDP packets (e.g telephony) require fast restoral allows simultaneous use of both working and protection circuits

28 Lessons Learned - 1 Carrier transport people now must learn to deal with customers directly Require network management tools that give customer a view of “their” wavelengths A whole new set of operating procedures required L3 must understand L1, L2 to troubleshoot problems L1, L2 must understand L3 or take direction from L3 NOC No demarcation point in the network for L1 Router terminates section/line/path L3 may be responsible for proving circuit as L1, L2 may not have the tools Need more L1/L2 diagnostics in L3 line card OAM&P issues between router vendors and DWDM remain a challenge SONET management systems expect to see a contiguous network CA*net 3 required DCC work arounds Need network tools to measure end to end performance and throughput at OC-48 or greater speeds – HP is about to release a couple of beta products

29 Lessons Learned -2 MPLS is proving a lot more difficult in practice to implement Need tools for management of tunnels Need Inter-domain MPLS-TE Mythology of 50msec “fast restoral” still not understood OSPF with very short hold down timers and GRE tunnels or policy routing may be an adequate alternative Need MPLS management tools for explicit tunnels etc Speed of light is a major problem End computers must implement RFC 1323 to take advantage of high bandwidth Speed of light latency across Canada (>50 msec) is 10x slower than disk access speed Still very few sustainable “research” applications Major problem is that bottle necks remain in the last mile and the last inch Local loops and campus networks need significant upgrading to get end to end performance

30 If we could do it all over again…
Build our own national dark fiber with CWDM/DWDM in partnership with a carrier who wants to offer dark fiber or optical Internet services to business and home Or get 20 year IRUs on dim wavelengths Don’t build test networks – build production networks We did survey and found very little interest in “crash and burn” test networks Don’t build research networks – build Internet networks If network carries commodity traffic – build it and they will run to you The three new killer apps have come from universities and schools on the commodity networks Napster, imesh, machinima If network is for research traffic – build it and they will trickle in Spend more time on demos than on applications With optical Internets there will be enough bandwidth for both research and commodity traffic Try to establish as many SKA peering interconnections with smaller ISPs as possible Layer 3 switches rather than routers except at major peering points Use new 10GbE for long haul

31 The driver for Optical Internet
Traditional OC-48 SDH/SONET network costs about $US $5000 km per year before overhead, engineering and maintenance Optical Internet with today’s technology costs about $US 500-$750 per kilometer per year With low cost regen (e.g.10xGbE), low dispersion fiber, and long range optical amplifiers optical Internet will cost $US $200 per km per year Even more dramatic savings with metro local loops Optical Internet also has significantly less overhead, engineering and maintenance costs. see Engineering paper for financial analysis

32 10Gigabit Ethernet &CWDM
Several companies have announced long haul GbE and CWDM with transceivers at 50km spacing 10GbE coming shortly IEEE developing standards for 10GbE in the WAN Native 10GbE, mapped to wavelength and EOS Future versions will allow rate adaptive clocking for use with “gopher bait” fiber, auto discovery, CPE self manage Excellent jitter specification Most network management and signaling done at IP layer Anybody with LAN experience can build a long haul WAN – all you need is dark fiber With CWDM, no EDFA power disbursement and gain tilt Repeater distance independent number of wavelengths

33 Importance of xGbE for CWDM Bricks and mortar more expensive than fiber
Different Dispersion and Attenuation at different wavelengths. So to maintain same repeater spacing must have different clock rates. CWDM spacing allows wider modulation skirts so data rates above 10GbE are also possible. Also data rate can vary to compensate for variations in PMD Dispersion 4GbE 14GbE 6GbE 16GbE 10GbE 8GbE 12GbE 1310 1550

34 Compare to DWDM Wavelengths are tightly packed together so therefore spectral width must be tightly maintained clock frequency and one modulation schema Dispersion 1310 1550

35 Costs for IP/DWDM WDM Coupler $20K 50 km Wideband Optical Repeater
SONET Transport Terminal WDM Coupler $20K 50 km Transponder Wideband Optical Repeater $250K SONET Regen $250k per Tx/Rx 250 km Terabit Router $400K For transponder currently using regen box $125K Approximate Distances for OC-192 system Typical Cost $6000 per km (not counting cost of fiber router, and transponder) for one OC-192 channel Advantage – can support multi-services and well known technology Disadvantage – Repeater spacing dependent on number of wavelengths and power

36 Costs for 10GbE CWDM 50 km CWDM Coupler $5K 10x Transceiver $20K
10xGbE Switch $20K 10x Transceiver $20K Approximate Distances for 10xGbE system Typical Cost $400 per km (not counting cost of fiber or 10xGbE switches) for 10 Gbps Advantage – very low cost 1/10 cost of SONET & DWDM - repeater spacing independent of number of wavelengths and power budget Disadvantage – requires 2 fibers and can only carry IP (or GbE) traffic

37 O-BGP (Optical BGP) Control of optical routing and switches across an optical cloud is by the customer – not the carrier A radical new approach to the challenge of scaling of large networks Use establishment of BGP neighbors or peers at network configuration stage for process to establish light path cross connects Edge routers have large number of direct adjacencies to other routers Customers control of portions of OXC which becomes part of their AS Optical cross connects look like BGP speaking peers BGP peering sessions are setup with separate TCP channel outside of optical path or with a Lightpath Route Arbiter All customer requires from carrier is dark fiber, dim wavelengths, dark spaces and dumb switches Traditional BGP gives no indication of route congestion or QoS, but with DWDM wave lengths edge router will have a simple QoS path of guaranteed bandwidth Wavelengths will become new instrument for settlement and exchange eventually leading to futures market in wavelengths May allow smaller ISPs and R&E networks to route around large ISPs that dominate the Internet by massive direct peerings with like minded networks

38 Current View of Optical Internets
ISP AS 4 AS 1 Customers buy managed service at the edge Optical VLAN AS 1 Customer AS 3 BGP Peering is done at the edge Big Carrier Optical Cloud using MPLS and IGP for management of wavelengths for provisioning, restoral and protection AS 2

39 OBGP Optical Internets
Customer is now responsible for wavelength configuration, restoral and protection ISP Customer BGP Peering is done inside the optical switch BGP Big Carrier Optical Cloud disappears other than provisioning of electrical power to switches

40 BGP Routing L0 BGP Neighbor BGP Neighbor
L Router B L Router A Router C AS 200 AS 100 AS 300 Figure 1.0

41 BGP Routing + OXC = OBGP AS 200 BGP Neighbor BGP Neighbor
BGP Neighbor Router B Metric 100 Metric 100 Router A Metric 200 Metric 200 Router C AS 100 AS 300 Figure 2.0

42 Virtual BGP Router L0 BGP Neighbor
L Router B L Router A Router C L AS 100 AS 300 AS 200 BGP Neighbor BGP Neighbor Figure 4.0

43 Fiber ring OIX with OBGP
AS 200 Institution A BGP Peering Relationships Institution C Institution B AS 300 AS 100 Institution D AS 400 Figure 9.0

44 Lightpath Route Arbiter Switch Ports are part of institution’s AS
OIX using OBGP AS 200 Institution A Lightpath Route Arbiter Switch Ports are part of institution’s AS Institution B AS 300 AS 100 Institution C Institution D AS 400 Figure 10.0

45 Wavelength Routing Arbiter
OBGP Networks Dark fiber Network City X Dark fiber Network City Y ISP B ISP A EGP ISP C EGP AS100 AS200 To other Wavelength Clouds Wavelength Routing Arbiter & ARP Server AS300 AS400 Customer Owned Dim Wavelength EGP Dark fiber Network City Z ISP A ISP B Figure 11.0

46 CA*net 4 – Distributed OIX
AS 549 ONet AS 271 BCnet AS 376 RISQ OBGP OBGP OBGP New York Seattle Chicago Figure 12.0 10 10 9 9 10 9 10 10 10 10 10 10 10

47 Overall Objective To deploy a novel new optical network that gives GigaPOPs at the edge of the network (and ultimately their participating institutions) to setup and manage their own wavelengths across the network and thus allow direct peering between GigaPOPs on dedicated wavelengths and optical cross connects that they control and manage To allow the establishment of wavelengths by the GigaPOPs and their participating institutions in support of QoS and grid applications To allow connected regional and community networks to setup transit wavelength peering relationships with similar like minded networks to reduce the cost of Internet transit To offer an “optional” layer 3 aggregation service for those networks that require or want such a facility

48 CA*net 4 Physical Architecture
Optional Layer 3 aggregation service Dedicated Wavelength or SONET channel St. John’s Regina Winnipeg Charlottetown Calgary Vancouver Europe Montreal Large channel WDM system Fredericton OBGP switches Halifax Seattle Ottawa Chicago New York Los Angeles Toronto Miami 10 10 9 9 10 9 10 10 10 10 10 10 10

49 OBGP Objectives OBGP Traffic Engineering OBGP QoS OBGP Optical Peering
To build a mesh of optical switches such that the network operator can carry out traffic engineering by moving high traffic BGP peers to an optical cross connect OBGP QoS To build an optical network that will support the establishment of direct optical channels by the end used between BGP speakers to guarantee QoS for peer to peer networking and or grid applications between attached regional research or community networks OBGP Optical Peering To provide a peering transit service such that any BGP speaking regional research or community network can establish a direct peer with any other BGP speaking peer through the establishment of an direct optical channel in response to the request to establish the peer. OBGP Large Scale To prototype the technology and management issues of scaling large Internet networks where the network cloud is broken into BGP regions and treated as independent customers

50 OBGP Traffic Engineering - Physical
Tier 1 ISP Tier 2 ISP Intermediate ISP Router redirects networks with heavy traffic load to optical switch, but routing policy still maintained by ISP Optical switch looks like BGP router and AS1 is direct connected to Tier 1 ISP but still transits AS 5 AS 5 Red Default Wavelength AS 3 AS 4 AS 1 AS 2 Bulk of AS 1 traffic is to Tier 1 ISP Dual Connected Router to AS 5 For simplicity only data forwarding paths in one direction shown

51 OBGP Traffic Engineering - Logical
Tier 1 ISP sees x.x.x.1 advertised by 2 different routers – the real router, and the virtual router that is the optical cross connect. The optical path is the preferred path Tier 1 ISP Tier 2 ISP Intermediate ISP As traffic warrants the virtual router can “flap” and connect AS3 instead of As2 to the Tier 1 ISP instead AS 5 Each optical cross connect looks like a BGP router to external peers. Carries all routing information and updates as in a real router AS 1 AS 2 AS 3 AS 4 This wavelength is not switched x.x.x.1

52 OBGP Traffic Engineering Process
A single predetermined default wavelength is used to establish initial peering Standard BGP configs are used to setup the initial peering In the initial BGP “OPEN” message the options field specify which additional wavelengths that are available, the port address, loop back address of possible virtual router, link protocol, etc If the router in the middle sees there is a match in wavelengths, protocol, etc it then can create a virtual router at the optical cross connect and send BGP OPEN messages to the routers on either side The BGP TCP session is established over the original default wavelength The virtual router has its own loop back and IO port addresses The routers on either side change their configs to establish BGP peering with the new virtual router Network operator can change selection of routers by terminating BGP session with existing routers and establish new BGP peering session with new routers e.g. AS 3

53 OBGP QoS External BGP wishes to have a direct optical path through a series of ASs to guarantee a QoS link Routers along the path use BGP OPEN message to notify each other of presence of additional optical paths in the link When a router receives a routing update from a source that has more than one optical path then a special attribute is added to the AS path E.g. AS 4 advertises to AS 1 x.x.x.1 with a special attribute indicating additional optical path AS 1 advertises to AS 2 x.x.x.1 with the same attribute as long as there exists additional optical paths between AS 1 and AS 2. If not, the attribute is dropped Through routing updates the edge router discovers that a direct optical path is possible A special attribute is appended to each AS on an advertised route indicating the presence of a direct optical path; or Special Private ASs are used to signify presence of a direct optical path Confirmation of direct optical route is seen with re-advertisement of the route with a new AS path that is made up of private ASs or another unique attribute

54 Example OBGP QoS AS 3 AS 2 AS 1 Default path x.x.x.1 AS 4 AS 5 AS 6
y.y.y.2 The route x.x.x.1 initially is advertised to AS 5 along the default path as having a possible optical path using a special attribute. The route y.y.y.y2 does not get tagged because the link between AS 6 and AS 4 does not have additional optical path AS 5 then initiates a BGP session with AS65003 with request to establish further BGP connections with AS 65003, 65002, 65001, AS4 AS then initiates a BGP session with AS 65002 AS then initiates a BGP session with AS 65001 AS then initiates a BGP session with AS 4 The route x.x.x.1is advertised to AS 5 with AS_PATH 65001, 65002, confirming setup of optical path

55 AS4 will do no cost peering
BGP Peering Today AS 1 Static Route Default Peering AS 6 AS 2 Transit Traffic Large ISP $$$$ AS 7 AS 3 AS4 will do no cost peering AS 4

56 AS 4 Will do no cost peering
BGP Peering Tomorrow Optical switch is controlled by AS 1 who decides which network they wish to peer with Static Route AS 2 AS 1 AS 6 Static Route Default Peering Transit Traffic Large ISP $$$$ AS 7 AS 3 AS 4 AS 4 Will do no cost peering

57 AS 4 Will do no cost peering
OBGP Peering Logical Optical Cross Connect looks like a BGP router Static Route AS 2 Default Peering AS 6 AS 1 Direct Peering Transit Traffic Large ISP $$$$ AS 7 AS 3 AS 4 AS 4 Will do no cost peering

58 BGP Scale One of the biggest challenges is scale
Uunet predicts they within 2 years they will need petabit links in the US The only viable solution is to segment large clouds into smaller clouds The “command economy” vs “capitalist economy” view of large scale networks

59 Command Economy Networks
Big Central Command Network

60 Capitalist Economy Networks
No Routers in the Core – but not a switched network just massive peering

61 CA*net 4 Physical Architecture
Optional Layer 3 aggregation service Dedicated Wavelength or SONET channel St. John’s Regina Winnipeg Charlottetown Calgary Vancouver Europe Montreal Large channel WDM system Fredericton OBGP switches Halifax Seattle Ottawa Chicago New York Los Angeles Toronto Miami 10 10 9 9 10 9 10 10 10 10 10 10 10

62 Application Grids Seamless integration of dark fiber networks and wavelengths to support high bandwidth applications Originally started with Neptune – 6000 km undersea grid NEON- National Environment Grid NEES – National Seismology Grid Gryphen – High Energy Physics Grid Commercial grids such as to interconnect thousands of computers for applications in bio-chemistry, genome research, etc Canadian Forestry Grid Canadian NRC e-commerce grid centered in NB?

63 CANARIE's 6th Advanced Networks Workshop "The Networked Nation" November 28 and 29, 2000 Palais des Congrès Montreal, Quebec - Canada "The Networked Nation", will focus on application architectures ("grids") made up of customer owned dark fiber and next generation Internet networks like CA*net 3 that will ultimately lead to the development of the networked nation where eventually every school, home and business will have high bandwidth connection to the Internet. Three tracks: Customer owned dark fiber for schools, hospitals, businesses and homes. Next generation optical Internet architectures that will be a natural and seamless extension of the customer owned dark fiber networks being built for schools, homes and businesses. "application grids", which are a seamless integration of dark fiber and optical networks to support specific collaborative research and education applications.

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