2You witness a friend stealing another friend’s iPod?
3You get an invitation to go to Lake Tahoe for the same weekend you promised to babysit for your neighbors?
4You are waiting for your math teacher to return to his room and you notice that he has left his final exam lying out in plain sight?4x +(3)y/43=5z
5Your find yourself alone with your best friend’s girlfriend/boyfriend, on whom you have a secret crush, and she/he makes a move on you?
6You find a pair of expensive sunglasses on the table at In-N- Out Burger, left there by a previous customer?
7Your parents go out of town for the weekend and tell you not to have friends over, but your friends find out that your parents are gone and they show up?With beer.
8You dent the BMW in the next parking space as you pull out of the spot You dent the BMW in the next parking space as you pull out of the spot? Does your thinking change if the other car is a beat up old Chevy Nova?
13We find examples of morals and ethics in public life Penrose on Politics by Brett Penrose
14TEENS ARRESTED AFTER FOOD FIGHT In the daily news:City Council Members Indicted IN Real Estate ScamThree members of the city council accused last year o buying city property at reduced costMountain View, MondayTEENS ARRESTED AFTER FOOD FIGHTLos Altos, yesterdayDozens of students were arrested at Los Altos High School early Wednesday after engaging in a high-spirited hurling of mashed potatoes in the school cafeteria.
15Morality and Ethics--is there a difference? Morality generally defines personal character and is based on deep valuesEthics is generally defined as the social system in which morals are applied. In other words, codes of behavior expected by the group or institution.The two can collide:* Court of Law* Medicine* Work situation* Other examples?
16Everyday moral/ethical questions: How can I tell what “the right thing” is?Is it always right to tell the truth?Do I have an obligation to help people in need?What does it really matter if I “do right?”What do I gain from behaving morally or ethically?What do I sacrifice from behaving morally or ethically?How do other people’s moral/ethical decisions affect mine?
18Lawrence Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development Stage One: Respect for power and punishment-- I will do what I want as long as I don’t get in troubleStage Two: Looking out for #1-- I will do what benefits me; I’ll give if I getStage Three: “Good Boy” “Nice Girl”-- I please others to gain their approvalStage Four: Law and Order-- I conform; I do my duty to maintain social order; people who break rules should be punishedStage Five: Justice through Democracy-- I actively work to change laws that are unfair; I work within the systemStage Six: Guiding Moral Principles-- I do what I know is right even if the law says otherwise; I am always true to my values
19Information for next five slides from the Woodrow Wilson National Fellowship Foundation Ethical Relativism:No principles are universally valid. All moral principles are valid relative to culture. The rules of the society serve as a standard.Strength--Tolerance/Understanding of other culturesWeakness--Confuses what ought to be done with what is currently done
20Divine Command Theory: Moral standards depend on God who is all-knowing. Any act that conforms to the law of God is right; an act that breaks God’s law is wrong.Strengths--Standards are from a higher authority than humans. Gives a reason for moral behavior.Weakness--Depends on interpretation of God’s will.
21Utilitarianism:Actions are judged right or wrong solely by their consequences. Right actions are those that produce the greatest balance of happiness over unhappiness. Each person’s happiness is equally important.Strength--promotes human well-being and attempts to lessen human suffering.Weakness--One person’s good can be another’s evil. Hard to predict accurately all consequences.
22Deontology:Emphasis is on moral rules and duty. Rules go for everyone in the society. Emphasis on autonomy, justice and kind acts. People are treated as ends, never means.Strength--Moral rules are universalWeaknesses--Says nothing about the rights of other living things. Rules can be abstract--who decides what is moral?
23Virtue Ethics:Morals are internal. It seeks to produce good people who act well out of spontaneous goodness. Emphasizes living well and achieving excellence.Strength--Internalizes moral behaviorWeakness--Offers no guidance for resolving ethical dilemmas
24So begins our exploration of morality and ethics!