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Chapter 23 Ideologies and Upheavals. Metternich.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 23 Ideologies and Upheavals. Metternich."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 23 Ideologies and Upheavals



4 Metternich

5 Alexander I

6 Name two more major players Great Britain- Castlereagh France – Talleyrand

7 What was the Congress supporting Liberalism Legitimacy Conservative Values Nationalism Balance of Power Destruction of France Create more powerful countries on the French border

8 Opposing Ideas growing from the French Revolution Liberalism- participation in the government – individual freedoms speech press assemble freedom from arbitrary arrest petition the govt. religion private enterprise Nationalism – Love and belonging to a nation state Language and Romanticism Utopian Socialism –Utopia Thomas More Marxist Socialism

9 Germany- The Home of Romanticism Herder 1772 – Treatise on the Origin of Language.Spew out the ugly language of the Seine. Speak German O you German. From language comes culture The Sturm un Drang – The Storm and Stress The Volksgeist- The peoples spirit

10 Hegel Sturm un Drang Thesis VS. Antithesis (contradictions and negations) = Synthesis From this comes culture or the Volksgeist Form of the Dialectic Method Major influence on Marx

11 Utopian Socialism-Social Engineering Robert Owen – Creates Social industrial communities Based on the belief that no one is responsible for his actions – products of our environment Opposition to religion –made mankind a a weak imbecile animal, a furious bigot and a fanatic.

12 New Harmony Indiana

13 Greek Independence- Western Romantic Cause and Anti-Islamic response. (1820)

14 Lord Byron

15 Byrons Death

16 Liberation of Greece Classical Greece was appreciated by western powers Greece was Christian and dominated by the Islamic Turks A romantic cause Lord Byron

17 1815 France – Louis XVIII


19 Coronation of Charles X La Cruche


21 Revolutions of 1830 Charles attempts to suppress reform

22 To The Barricades!

23 French army refuses to fire on the citizens

24 The Revolution of 1830 in France Louis XVIIIs constitutional monarchy held many liberal reforms Upper and lower houses were created Only a small % of people could vote Charles X – is reactionary against liberalism and attempts a coup in July of 1830 – led by an upper middle class Three days later Charles is forced to flee

25 Louis-Philippe The Citizen King The Pear

26 Louis Philippe – The Citizen King Nothing changes from the original charter. The wealthy noble elite tighten control of the government

27 A Democratic Republic in France Louis Philippe govt. did little to sponsor election reform, and was filled with corruption. To the barricades Feb Parisians revolt. Two days later the pear abdicates



30 The Revolution of 1848 Social ideologies combined with severe economic crisis Only most advanced and most backward were not involved In the end the revolutions failed

31 France -The Forming of the Second Republic – depression and high unemployment Issues – Radicals wanted Universal male suffrage Freeing slaves in the colonies Strong element of utopian socialism Government sponsored workshops instead of capitalism

32 Moderates Wanted temporary relief But… National workshops were little more then pick and shovel programs Then… Hundreds of thousands stream into Paris to try to join for jobs

33 Socialism grows and many are Afraid… A clash of ideologies Middle class is worried Peasants that own land are worried The middle class and upper class bond over the issue of private property The new assembly drops Blanc the main socialist leader Socialist uprising is suppressed my the middle class national guard While the workshops became more radical The govt. closes the workshops in Paris and gives the poor an option to join the army of go to the workshops in the provinces

34 The Result Violent uprisings To the barricades The June Days – 10,000 wounded or dead The revolt was suppressed Louis Napoleon –nephew of Napoleon wins a landslide election as he promises to defend those that own property.

35 Napoleon III He becomes emperor Safety over liberty Actually is Very Moderate Rebuilds Paris Wider streets Easier to move army to problem spots

36 The Carbonari- Secret organizations Bent on reforms



39 Liberal reform in Great Britain Late 18th century 8% of the population could vote French Revolution makes upper-class fear uprising and they begin to suppress revolts In Great Britain …Corn Laws – Suppressed the importation of foreign grain Riots begin and freedoms are removed Battle of Peterloo – (Waterloo)

40 Backlash Leads to Reform Commercial groups wanted same rights as landed gentry Tory Govt. moves to accommodate Greater economic liberalism More pay for the poor Civil liberties for Catholics Revise the Corn Laws

41 The House of Commons Takes over Reform Bill I 1832 Northern manufacturing enterprises gain more power as population shifts Increases the voters by about 50% The Chartist Movement Universal male suffrage denied but begins the emergence of mass politics mass protests worked Ten Hours Act of 1847

42 The Great Famine – Ireland English landowners took advantage of Irish Catholics Despite horrible conditions population climbed The Potato Feed more people Grew easily Allowed many to marry younger


44 The Blight – Mass starvation England is slow to act Tenants that could not pay rent were evicted In the 19 th century Ireland was the only country in Europe to experience a population decline. Stirred anti-British feelings – Home Rule

45 The Great famine… Irish became dependant upon the potato Population grows Government slow to act. (genocide) Concepts of free trade – whatever Corn Act was repealed too late 1.5 mil die 1 mil immigrate population declines from 8 mil to 4.4 mil

46 Many Pre-revolutionary Outbreaks Bad harvests 1846-Austria and Switzerland Naples

47 Timeline Timeline--Revolutions of : Economic depression was spread throughout Europe. It was marked by rising food prices after a poor harvest and the recession that followed the industrial expansionin the early 1840s. 22, 1848: One of many banquets to protest the government's inflexibility was planned, but he government banned it. Crowds began to gather in the streets and minor skirmishes with police erupted. Workers who could have never afforded tickets to the banquet constructed barricades. The revolution had begun. February 24, 1848: After the National Guard refused to cheer for their king, Louis Phillipe, he abdicated to his grandson. The Second Republic was declared from the Hotel de Ville. The cabinet was confirmed by a crowd outside the hotel. March 3, 1848: Lajos Kossuth called for a representative government in front of the Hungarian Diet. March 3, 1848: Revolution broke out in the Rhineland. March 12, 1848: Revolution broke out in Vienna. March 15, 1848: Revolution broke out in Berlin. March 18, 1848: Revolution broke out in Milan. The papal states were given a constitution and the Milanese defeated the Austrians. March 22, 1848: Revolution broke out in Venice and the Venetian Republic was reestablished. All of these revolutions followed the same pattern: The news of revolution in France would attract excited crowds, groups of men (mostly journalists, lawyers, and students) met to discuss the rumors. The government, in fear of revolution, would call out the army, which would begin to skirmish with the citizenry. Barricades would come up and mob action would ensue. It is important to note that these revolutions took place in one city and that not all of the countries involved declared a republic, only their capitals did. March, 1848: 600 delegates meet in Frankfurt in a preparliamentary assembly and called for a universal manhood suffrage electio to form a national assembly to govern a unified Germany. May, 1848: 830 delegates met in Frankfurt, mostly from the small states in the liberal West. Began to form a democratic constitution that gave the assembly itself executive control over a unified Germany. May, 1848: As Hungary began to gain autonmy, Austrians began to demand a representative government. Metternich resigned and universal manhood suffrage was granted. May, 1848: As unwilling parts of the Hungarian Republic, the Croats, Czechs, and Rumanians begin to demand a similar autonmy as that granted to Hungary. May, 1848: Piedmont declared war on Austria with a papl blessing and his troops, but Pius IX soon pulled out saying he could not fight a Catholic Austria. The Piedmontese seemed overwhelmed, but had managed to win a battle by the end of May. June 24-26, 1848: after the government dissolved the national workshops, the lower class revolted and were crushed by republican troops. Over a thousand people were killed in three days and thousands more were sent to prison or exile. This conflict between classes is known as June Days and was the evidence that proved to Karl Marx that democracy couldn't work. June, 1848: The pan-Slav congress met in Prague after the Czechs refused to send representatives to the Frankfurt Assembly felling that Slavs should not be subject to the will of Germans. July, 1848: Austrians attack Piedmont and overwhelmingly defeat it. Troops march into Milan. September, 1848: Riots erupt in Frankfurt. The Assembly is forced to call for Prussian and Austrian aid to resore peace. October, 1848: Austrians use Croatian sentiments for autonomy to march into Vienna and beat it into submission. November, 1848: Appointed Prime Minister of the Papal States Pelligrino Rossi is assassinated and the pope flees to Genoa. The Romans take this opportunity to declare the Roman Republic. December, 1848: Nation-wide elections in france give Louis Napoleon Bonaparte 70% of the popular vote. December, 1848: Prince Felix con Schwarzenberg fills Metternich's post and convinces Ferdinand I to abdicate to his 18 year old son Francis Joseph I. January, 1849: Austria invades Hungary, is pushed back. March, 1849: Piedmont declares war on Austria. A strong Austrian victory places Italy firmly back into Austria's hands. March, 1849: The Frankfurt Assembly finally completes the German constitution and elects Frederick William IV of Prussia as German emperor. When he refuses to rule the revolutionary state, the Assembly dissolves. New revolutions arise in the Rhineland, Saxony, and Bavaria. May, 1849: Neopolitan armies retake all of Sicily. The Roman Republic bows to Frnch troops and is restored to the pope. June, 1849: With the aid of Prussian troops, Austria quashes the revolutions in the Rhineland, Saxony, and Bavaria. June, 1849: Russians intervene and seal the fate of the Hungarian Republic, which is plagued by constant onslaught from the Austrians and dissentions from the Croats, Slavs, and Romanians. August, 1849: The Venetian Republic falls to Cholera and starvation. February

48 1848 Austria Empire Begins as a nationalist movement in Hungary- full autonomy Monarchs response is slow and weak Liberals want written constitution Peasants allied with Middle class liberals Students serve as shock troops Aristocrats give in to demands

49 Conservatives Recover Conservatives play of fears of nationalist movements to gain autonomy Sophia you all gave in to a mess of students. Troops are assembled and crush the revolts Russian troops under Czar Nicky pour into Hungary.

50 1848 Prussia Fall of Louis Philippe encourages Prussian liberals to assert demands Riots erupt Frederick Wilhelm IV caves in Socialists demands trouble middle-class allies Dispute with Denmark unifies German nationalism King disbands the assembly

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