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Rigor and Higher Order Thinking

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1 Rigor and Higher Order Thinking

2 Rigor is… Stretching students’ thinking.
Supporting and challenging students to do things they didn’t know they could do. Engaging students in learning that has a purpose beyond getting a grade. Making the learning relevant and interdisciplinary so that students make connections and are engaged. (REDEFINING RIGOR by Ingham Intermediate SD)

3 Rigor is NOT… More worksheets in less time.
More facts and figures or more generals and battles. Making grading scales more difficult so that more students fail. Creating excessive rules and regulations that distract students from learning. (REDEFINING RIGOR by Ingham Intermediate SD)

4 And finally, rigor is… Helping students to become self-determined.
Providing opportunities for students that make them viable, employable, and global. Creating opportunities to interact positively with others. Placing students at the center of the educational process. (REDEFINING RIGOR by Ingham Intermediate SD)

5 Classroom Resources for Rigor
Bloom’s Taxonomy of Higher Order Thinking Skills Costa’s Levels of Questions The Depth and Complexity Icons WRAITEC The Content Imperative Icons

6 The Quest for Learning: The Questions That Start Us Off
Late night college dorm questions Bloom’s Taxonomy The Skyscraper approach to notes revision Thinking Maps Think-Alouds Learning Logs Scholarly Questions Reciprocal Teaching Tiered Tests

7 Three Types of Students
The High Achiever The Gifted Learner The Creative Thinker And Four Learning Profiles (I, II, III, and IV) This is a job for tiered assignments and project menus!

8 Student Learning Profiles: 4-MAT Bernice McCarthy (University of Chicago)
TYPE 4 LEARNERS Learn by creating something new. (Inventors, Artists) PROJECTS! They ask “what else?” TYPE 1 LEARNERS Learn when it’s personally meaningful. (Philosophers) Relevant DISCUSSIONS! They ask “why?” TYPE 3 LEARNERS Learn from “hands on” practice. (Scientists, Athletes) LABS, PRACTICE, & ACTIVITIES! They ask “how?” TYPE 2 LEARNERS Learn from systematic presentations of information. LECTURES, NOTETAKING, & READING! (Little Professors) They ask “what?”

9 Critical Thinking Skills
distinguish fact from opinion prove with evidence note ambiguity sequence judge with criteria compare and contrast discover the concept embedded within a novel problem

10 Problem Solving Skills
define the problem ask and research relevant questions create a hypothesis predict gather and assess data identify relevant decision-making values identify alternatives verify a solution

11 Creative Thinking Skills
combine idea with other understandings transfer concept to other appropriate settings create analogies, models, metaphors, symbols of the concept pose and answer hypothetical questions redesign generate new hypotheses and ideas

12 Gardner’s Nine Intelligences
logical/mathematical verbal kinesthetic musical interpersonal intrapersonal spatial naturalistic existential

13 Costa’s Levels of Questions
A tool for supporting teachers and students in asking higher order questions.

14 Costa’s Questions: Level 1
Define: What is the definition of lunar eclipse? Identify: Identify the states that seceded from the Union to form the Confederacy. Describe: Describe the setting of OF MICE AND MEN.

15 Costa’s Questions Level 1 (Continued)
List: List three ways we can express the equation 2x(4-5y)=3y=26. Name: Name the main characters in ROMEO AND JULIET. Observe: Make observations about the physical characteristics of this indigenous rock.

16 Costa’s Questions: Level 2
Analyze: Analyze how Bigger Thomas’s violence against his gang members in NATIVE SON might reveal his insecurity and fear of people. Compare and contrast: Compare and contrast socialism and capitalism. Group: Group these living things into several groups based on how they obtain nutrients, how they move, and whether they are single or multi-cellular.

17 Costa’s Questions: Level 2 (Continued)
Infer: If the moon was full on August 17, July 18, and June 19, when was it full in April? Sequence: Sequence the names of the first ten presidents of the United States in the order they were elected. Synthesize: Synthesize your previous learning to explain how the term “manifest destiny” captures the essence of western expansion in the United States.

18 Costa’s Questions: Level 3
Evaluate: Evaluate using rhetorical criteria whether the speaker in “Housework” does a good job of convincing us that we should not believe actors. Apply a principle: Apply the principle of the Superposition, explaining how you know which is the oldest rock in the cross section shown on the diagram. Hypothesize: Based on the evidence in their checkbooks, hypothesize why Leslie and Paul might have moved to different addresses.

19 Costa’s Questions: Level 3 (Continued)
Imagine: Imagine how you would teach your children to cooperate. Judge: Judge with criteria which of the characters in GREAT EXPECTATIONS suffers the most. Predict: Using the sunrise and sunset data from the last month, determine the time of sunrise and sunset tomorrow. Speculate: Using details from THE CATCHER IN THE RYE, speculate how Phoebe might, years later, describe Holden to her children.

20 NOVELTY: Making Learning Meaningful
Connecting the area of study to prior knowledge Connecting the study to varied student interests Connecting the study to events in students’ own lives Demonstrating to students the past, present, and future value of what they’re learning Connecting the curriculum to students’ varied learning profiles Fostering personal interpretations in the area of study

21 Project Menus Extend learning to students’ varied interests, learning styles, and learning profiles. Each project should include new and reinforced content to be mastered, processing skills, research & resources, and a well crafted product. 4-MAT approach Gallery day

22 Academic Vocabulary Play
Denotation and connotation Style writing of word Picture Synonyms, antonyms A real world sentence or playful sentence A way to say the word A total physical response for the word Group practice of the word

23 Students thrive on… Creativity Collaboration Movement Problem solving
Play And each of these can promote enduring understanding

24 Play… Is anything but trivial.
Is a basic biological drive as integral to our health as sleep or nutrition. Sparks new insight and thought. Provides glue for our relationships. Fuels our creativity. (PLAY by Stuart Brown, M.D.)

25 Scott Eberle’s Framework for Play
Anticipation Surprise Pleasure Understanding (of new knowledge or synthesis) Strength (through mastery and survival) Poise (grace, contentment, composure, and balance)

26 R.A.F.T. Projects and Assignments
Role Audience Format Topic (See Age of Reason example.)

27 Creative Sections of Tests
These come after the part that asks for basic understanding of facts and the part that asks students to apply what they have learned. Ask for mathematical, scientific, historical, or artistic analogies of a concept. Ask students to name a natural metaphor that reflects a concept and then explain it. Ask students to create a short R.A.F.T. argument. Ask students to finish a half-completed analogy and explain it.

28 Alphabetical & Numerical Line-Ups (To Group Kids Randomly in Pairs)
Desert island film, TV show, musical artist A profession you wanted to pursue when you were six A name you would have given yourself A famous person you would like to dine with An animal you wouldn’t mind being A year you would like to visit A virtue that you wish to be recognized for A word you like How much money you think you would want to make annually at the age of 30 Someone famous you would consider changing lives with

29 Concept Maps with Themes
Video games Television shows Movies Books Board games Other disciplines

30 Real World Problem Solving
Project-based learning Story problems in math Action research projects

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