2 Rigor is… Stretching students’ thinking. Supporting and challenging students to do things they didn’t know they could do.Engaging students in learning that has a purpose beyond getting a grade.Making the learning relevant and interdisciplinary so that students make connections and are engaged.(REDEFINING RIGOR by Ingham Intermediate SD)
3 Rigor is NOT… More worksheets in less time. More facts and figures or more generals and battles.Making grading scales more difficult so that more students fail.Creating excessive rules and regulations that distract students from learning.(REDEFINING RIGOR by Ingham Intermediate SD)
4 And finally, rigor is… Helping students to become self-determined. Providing opportunities for students that make them viable, employable, and global.Creating opportunities to interact positively with others.Placing students at the center of the educational process.(REDEFINING RIGOR by Ingham Intermediate SD)
5 Classroom Resources for Rigor Bloom’s Taxonomy of Higher Order Thinking SkillsCosta’s Levels of QuestionsThe Depth and Complexity IconsWRAITECThe Content Imperative Icons
6 The Quest for Learning: The Questions That Start Us Off Late night college dorm questionsBloom’s TaxonomyThe Skyscraper approach to notes revisionThinking MapsThink-AloudsLearning LogsScholarly QuestionsReciprocal TeachingTiered Tests
7 Three Types of Students The High AchieverThe Gifted LearnerThe Creative ThinkerAnd Four Learning Profiles (I, II, III, and IV)This is a job for tiered assignments and project menus!
8 Student Learning Profiles: 4-MAT Bernice McCarthy (University of Chicago) TYPE 4 LEARNERSLearn by creating something new. (Inventors, Artists) PROJECTS!They ask “what else?”TYPE 1 LEARNERSLearn when it’s personally meaningful. (Philosophers)Relevant DISCUSSIONS!They ask “why?”TYPE 3 LEARNERSLearn from “hands on” practice. (Scientists, Athletes)LABS, PRACTICE, & ACTIVITIES!They ask “how?”TYPE 2 LEARNERSLearn from systematic presentations of information. LECTURES, NOTETAKING, & READING! (Little Professors)They ask “what?”
9 Critical Thinking Skills distinguish fact from opinionprove with evidencenote ambiguitysequencejudge with criteriacompare and contrastdiscover the concept embedded within a novel problem
10 Problem Solving Skills define the problemask and research relevant questionscreate a hypothesispredictgather and assess dataidentify relevant decision-making valuesidentify alternativesverify a solution
11 Creative Thinking Skills combine idea with other understandingstransfer concept to other appropriate settingscreate analogies, models, metaphors, symbols of the conceptpose and answer hypothetical questionsredesigngenerate new hypotheses and ideas
12 Gardner’s Nine Intelligences logical/mathematicalverbalkinestheticmusicalinterpersonalintrapersonalspatialnaturalisticexistential
13 Costa’s Levels of Questions A tool for supporting teachers and students in asking higher order questions.
14 Costa’s Questions: Level 1 Define: What is the definition of lunar eclipse?Identify: Identify the states that seceded from the Union to form the Confederacy.Describe: Describe the setting of OF MICE AND MEN.
15 Costa’s Questions Level 1 (Continued) List: List three ways we can express the equation 2x(4-5y)=3y=26.Name: Name the main characters in ROMEO AND JULIET.Observe: Make observations about the physical characteristics of this indigenous rock.
16 Costa’s Questions: Level 2 Analyze: Analyze how Bigger Thomas’s violence against his gang members in NATIVE SON might reveal his insecurity and fear of people.Compare and contrast: Compare and contrast socialism and capitalism.Group: Group these living things into several groups based on how they obtain nutrients, how they move, and whether they are single or multi-cellular.
17 Costa’s Questions: Level 2 (Continued) Infer: If the moon was full on August 17, July 18, and June 19, when was it full in April?Sequence: Sequence the names of the first ten presidents of the United States in the order they were elected.Synthesize: Synthesize your previous learning to explain how the term “manifest destiny” captures the essence of western expansion in the United States.
18 Costa’s Questions: Level 3 Evaluate: Evaluate using rhetorical criteria whether the speaker in “Housework” does a good job of convincing us that we should not believe actors.Apply a principle: Apply the principle of the Superposition, explaining how you know which is the oldest rock in the cross section shown on the diagram.Hypothesize: Based on the evidence in their checkbooks, hypothesize why Leslie and Paul might have moved to different addresses.
19 Costa’s Questions: Level 3 (Continued) Imagine: Imagine how you would teach your children to cooperate.Judge: Judge with criteria which of the characters in GREAT EXPECTATIONS suffers the most.Predict: Using the sunrise and sunset data from the last month, determine the time of sunrise and sunset tomorrow.Speculate: Using details from THE CATCHER IN THE RYE, speculate how Phoebe might, years later, describe Holden to her children.
20 NOVELTY: Making Learning Meaningful Connecting the area of study to prior knowledgeConnecting the study to varied student interestsConnecting the study to events in students’ own livesDemonstrating to students the past, present, and future value of what they’re learningConnecting the curriculum to students’ varied learning profilesFostering personal interpretations in the area of study
21 Project MenusExtend learning to students’ varied interests, learning styles, and learning profiles.Each project should include new and reinforced content to be mastered, processing skills, research & resources, and a well crafted product.4-MAT approachGallery day
22 Academic Vocabulary Play Denotation and connotationStyle writing of wordPictureSynonyms, antonymsA real world sentence or playful sentenceA way to say the wordA total physical response for the wordGroup practice of the word
23 Students thrive on… Creativity Collaboration Movement Problem solving PlayAnd each of these can promote enduring understanding
24 Play… Is anything but trivial. Is a basic biological drive as integral to our health as sleep or nutrition.Sparks new insight and thought.Provides glue for our relationships.Fuels our creativity.(PLAY by Stuart Brown, M.D.)
25 Scott Eberle’s Framework for Play AnticipationSurprisePleasureUnderstanding (of new knowledge or synthesis)Strength (through mastery and survival)Poise (grace, contentment, composure, and balance)
26 R.A.F.T. Projects and Assignments RoleAudienceFormatTopic(See Age of Reason example.)
27 Creative Sections of Tests These come after the part that asks for basic understanding of facts and the part that asks students to apply what they have learned.Ask for mathematical, scientific, historical, or artistic analogies of a concept.Ask students to name a natural metaphor that reflects a concept and then explain it.Ask students to create a short R.A.F.T. argument.Ask students to finish a half-completed analogy and explain it.
28 Alphabetical & Numerical Line-Ups (To Group Kids Randomly in Pairs) Desert island film, TV show, musical artistA profession you wanted to pursue when you were sixA name you would have given yourselfA famous person you would like to dine withAn animal you wouldn’t mind beingA year you would like to visitA virtue that you wish to be recognized forA word you likeHow much money you think you would want to make annually at the age of 30Someone famous you would consider changing lives with
29 Concept Maps with Themes Video gamesTelevision showsMoviesBooksBoard gamesOther disciplines
30 Real World Problem Solving Project-based learningStory problems in mathAction research projects