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Napoleons Rise to Power aEarlier military career the Italian Campaigns: 1796-1797. aEarlier military career the Italian Campaigns: 1796-1797.

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Presentation on theme: "Napoleons Rise to Power aEarlier military career the Italian Campaigns: 1796-1797. aEarlier military career the Italian Campaigns: 1796-1797."— Presentation transcript:

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3 Napoleons Rise to Power aEarlier military career the Italian Campaigns: aEarlier military career the Italian Campaigns:

4 Napoleons Rise to Power a the Egyptian Campaign: 1798 he was defeated by a British navy under Admiral Horatio Nelson. Abandoning his troops in Egypt, Napoleon returned to France and received a heros welcome! a the Egyptian Campaign: 1798 he was defeated by a British navy under Admiral Horatio Nelson. Abandoning his troops in Egypt, Napoleon returned to France and received a heros welcome!

5 The Rosetta Stone Jean Francois Champollion

6 Napoleon as First Consul aThe Brumaire-Napoleon a successful coup d etat on November 9, In 1802, he made himself sole Consul for Life. Two years later he proclaimed himself Emperor aThe Brumaire-Napoleon a successful coup d etat on November 9, In 1802, he made himself sole Consul for Life. Two years later he proclaimed himself Emperor. 1804

7 Europe in 1800

8 Concordat of 1801 aNapoleon Undoes the Civil Constitution of the Clergy aBut, Napoleons clear intent was to use the clergy to prop up his regime. aEventuallyPope Pius VII was arrested by Napoleon and brought to France aNapoleon Undoes the Civil Constitution of the Clergy aBut, Napoleons clear intent was to use the clergy to prop up his regime. aEventuallyPope Pius VII was arrested by Napoleon and brought to France

9 Code Napoleon, 1804 aIt divides civil law into: Personal status. Property. The acquisition of property. aIt divides civil law into: Personal status. Property. The acquisition of property. aTo reflect the principles of the Fr. Revolution. aCreate one law code for France. aNapoleon was above this code aState police and spies aTo reflect the principles of the Fr. Revolution. aCreate one law code for France. aNapoleon was above this code aState police and spies

10 Napoleon and His Code

11 Lycee System of Education aEstablished by Napoleon in 1801 as an educational reform. aFor males only!. aEstablished by Napoleon in 1801 as an educational reform. aFor males only!.

12 The Influence of the Napoleonic Code Wherever it was implemented [in the conquered territories], the Code Napoleon swept away feudal property relations.

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14 Consecration of the Emperor Napoleon & the Empress Josephine, 1806 by David December 2, 1804

15 Josephines Bedroom

16 Napoleons Bed Chamber

17 The Imperial Image

18 Napoleonic Europe

19 Napoleons Major Military Campaigns Trafalgar (Lord Nelson: Fr. Navy lost!) BritainFrance 1805: Sea Power

20 Battle of Trafalgar

21 Napoleons Rise to Power aEarlier military career the Egyptian Campaign: 1798 he was defeated by a British navy under Admiral Horatio Nelson, who destroyed the French fleet at the Battle of the Nile. Abandoning his troops in Egypt, Napoleon returned to France and received a heros welcome! aEarlier military career the Egyptian Campaign: 1798 he was defeated by a British navy under Admiral Horatio Nelson, who destroyed the French fleet at the Battle of the Nile. Abandoning his troops in Egypt, Napoleon returned to France and received a heros welcome!

22 Napoleons Major Military Campaigns Britain Austria Russia (3 rd Coalition) France 1805: -Danube -Italy eULM: France defeated Austria. eAUSTERLITZ: France defeated Austria & Russia. eULM: France defeated Austria. eAUSTERLITZ: France defeated Austria & Russia. Crowned King of Italy on May 6, 1805

23 Crossing the Alps, 1805 Paul Delaroche Crossing the Alps, 1805 Paul Delaroche

24 Napoleons Major Military Campaigns JENA: French Troops in Berlin! BERLIN DECREES (Continental System) Prussia France 1806: Confed. of the Rhine 4th Coalition created

25 The Continental System aGOAL to isolate Britain and promote Napoleons mastery over Europe (1806) aThese edicts eventually led to the United States declaring war on Britain WAR OF aGOAL to isolate Britain and promote Napoleons mastery over Europe (1806) aThese edicts eventually led to the United States declaring war on Britain WAR OF 1812.

26 The Continental System and the British Counter Blockade

27 British Cartoon

28 Marie Louise (of Austria) with Napoleons Son (Napoleon Francis Joseph Charles: ) Marie Louise (of Austria) with Napoleons Son (Napoleon Francis Joseph Charles: )

29 Peninsular Campaign: ePortugal did not comply with the Continental System. eFrance wanted Spains support to invade Portugal. eSpain refused, so Napoleon invaded Spain as well! Spain Portugal France 1806: Continental System

30 The Spanish Ulcer aHe proclaimed his brother, Joseph, to be the new king of Spain. aHe stationed over 100,000 Fr troops in Madrid. aOn May 2, 1808Fr troops fired on the crowd in Madrid the next day [Tres de Mayo]. aGuerilla Warfare- Spain is aided by Great Britain aHe proclaimed his brother, Joseph, to be the new king of Spain. aHe stationed over 100,000 Fr troops in Madrid. aOn May 2, 1808Fr troops fired on the crowd in Madrid the next day [Tres de Mayo]. aGuerilla Warfare- Spain is aided by Great Britain

31 Third of May, 1808 by Goya (1810)

32 Napoleons Empire in 1810

33 Napoleons Family & Friends/Allies

34 The Big Blunder -- Russia aAlexander I breaks away from the Continental System aSugar and Coffee aIn July, 1812 Napoleon led his Grand Armee of 614,000 Russsia.. aAlexander I breaks away from the Continental System aSugar and Coffee aIn July, 1812 Napoleon led his Grand Armee of 614,000 Russsia..

35 Napoleons Troops at the Gates of Moscow aSeptember 14, 1812 Napoleon reached Moscow, but the city had largely been abandoned. aThe Russians had set fire to the city. aSeptember 14, 1812 Napoleon reached Moscow, but the city had largely been abandoned. aThe Russians had set fire to the city.

36 Moscow Is On Fire!

37 Napoleons Retreat from Moscow (Early 1813) 100,000 French troops retreat40,000 survive!

38 The 6 th Coalition Britain, Russia. Spain, Portugal, Prussia, Austria, Sweden, smaller German states France : Napoléons Defeat

39 Napoleons Defeat at Leipzig (October 16-17, 1813) Battle of the Nations Memorial

40 Napoleons Abdication

41 Napoleon in Exile on Elba

42 Louis XVIII (r )

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44 The War of the 7 th Coalition Britain, Russia. Prussia, Austria, Sweden, smaller German states France 1815: Napoleons 100 Days eNapoléon escaped Elba and landed in France on March 1, 1815 the beginning of his 100 Days. eMarie Louise & his son were in the hands of the Austrians. eNapoléon escaped Elba and landed in France on March 1, 1815 the beginning of his 100 Days. eMarie Louise & his son were in the hands of the Austrians.

45 Napoleons Defeat at Waterloo (June 18, 1815) Duke of Wellington Prussian General Blücher

46 Napoleon on His Way to His Final Exile on St. Helena

47 Napoleons Residence on St. Helena

48 Napoleons Tomb

49 What is Napoleons Legacy?

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51 Napoleons Throne

52 Napoleons Major Military Campaigns Grand Duchy of Warsaw FRIEDLAND: France defeated Russian troops : France occupied Konigsberg, capital of East Prussia! Russia France 1806: Poland

53 Concordat of 1801 aNapoleon wanted to heal the divisions within the Catholic Church that had developed after the confiscation of Church property and the Civil Constitution of the Clergy. aBut, Napoleons clear intent was to use the clergy to prop up his regime. aNapoleon wanted to heal the divisions within the Catholic Church that had developed after the confiscation of Church property and the Civil Constitution of the Clergy. aBut, Napoleons clear intent was to use the clergy to prop up his regime.

54 Concordat of 1801 aCatholicism was declared the religion of the majority of Frenchmen. aPapal acceptance of church lands lost during the Revolution. aBishops subservient to the regime. aEventually, Pope Pius VII renounced the Concordat, and Napoleon had him brought to France and placed under house arrest. aCatholicism was declared the religion of the majority of Frenchmen. aPapal acceptance of church lands lost during the Revolution. aBishops subservient to the regime. aEventually, Pope Pius VII renounced the Concordat, and Napoleon had him brought to France and placed under house arrest.

55 The Empire Style Madame Recamier by David, 1808

56 Neo-Classical Architecture Napoleons Tomb

57 The Government of the Consulate aCouncil of State Proposed the laws. Served as a Cabinet & the highest court. aTribunate Debated laws, but did not vote on them. aLegislature Voted on laws, but did not discuss or debate them. aSenate Had the right to review and veto legislation. aCouncil of State Proposed the laws. Served as a Cabinet & the highest court. aTribunate Debated laws, but did not vote on them. aLegislature Voted on laws, but did not discuss or debate them. aSenate Had the right to review and veto legislation.

58 Louisiana Purchase, 1803 $15,000,000

59 Marie Louise (of Austria) married Napoleon on March 12, 1810 in Vienna

60 The Empress Josephine

61 Consecration of the Emperor Napoleon & the Empress Josephine, 1806 by David Consecration of the Emperor Napoleon & the Empress Josephine, 1806 by David

62 Legion of Honor, 1802 Palace of the Legion of Honor, Paris

63 Napoleon on His Imperial Throne 1806 By Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres Napoleon on His Imperial Throne 1806 By Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres

64 Josephines Divorce Statement (1807) With the permission of our august and dear husband, I must declare that, having no hope of bearing children who would fulfill the needs of his policies and the interests of France, I am pleased to offer him the greatest proof of attachment and devotion ever offered on this earth.

65 The Big Blunder -- Russia aThe retreat from Spain came on the heels of Napoleons disastrous Russian Campaign ( ). aIn July, 1812 Napoleon led his Grand Armee of 614,000 men eastward across central Europe and into Russia. The Russians avoided a direct confrontation with Napoleon. They retreated to Moscow, drawing the French into the interior of Russia [hoping that its size and the weather would act as support for the Russian cause]. The Russian nobles abandoned their estates and burned their crops to the ground, leaving the French to operate far from their supply bases in territory stripped of food. aThe retreat from Spain came on the heels of Napoleons disastrous Russian Campaign ( ). aIn July, 1812 Napoleon led his Grand Armee of 614,000 men eastward across central Europe and into Russia. The Russians avoided a direct confrontation with Napoleon. They retreated to Moscow, drawing the French into the interior of Russia [hoping that its size and the weather would act as support for the Russian cause]. The Russian nobles abandoned their estates and burned their crops to the ground, leaving the French to operate far from their supply bases in territory stripped of food.

66 The Continental System aGOAL to isolate Britain and promote Napoleons mastery over Europe. aBerlin Decrees (1806) British ships were not allowed in European ports. aOrder in Council (1806) Britain proclaimed any ship stopping in Britain would be seized when it entered the Continent. aMilan Decree (1807) Napoleon proclaimed any ship stopping in Britain would be seized when it entered the Continent. aThese edicts eventually led to the United States declaring war on Britain WAR OF aGOAL to isolate Britain and promote Napoleons mastery over Europe. aBerlin Decrees (1806) British ships were not allowed in European ports. aOrder in Council (1806) Britain proclaimed any ship stopping in Britain would be seized when it entered the Continent. aMilan Decree (1807) Napoleon proclaimed any ship stopping in Britain would be seized when it entered the Continent. aThese edicts eventually led to the United States declaring war on Britain WAR OF 1812.

67 The Spanish Ulcer aNapoleon tricked the Spanish king and prince to come to France, where he imprisoned them. aHe proclaimed his brother, Joseph, to be the new king of Spain. aHe stationed over 100,000 Fr troops in Madrid. aOn May 2, 1808 [Dos de Mayo] the Spanish rose up in rebellion. aFr troops fired on the crowd in Madrid the next day [Tres de Mayo]. aNapoleon tricked the Spanish king and prince to come to France, where he imprisoned them. aHe proclaimed his brother, Joseph, to be the new king of Spain. aHe stationed over 100,000 Fr troops in Madrid. aOn May 2, 1808 [Dos de Mayo] the Spanish rose up in rebellion. aFr troops fired on the crowd in Madrid the next day [Tres de Mayo].

68 The Spanish Ulcer aNapoleon now poured 500,00 troops into Spain over the next few years. aBut, the Fr generals still had trouble subduing the Spanish population. aThe British viewed this uprising as an opportunity to weaken Napoleon. They moved an army into Portugal to protect that country and to aid the Spanish guerillas. aAfter 5 long years of savage fighting, Fr troops were finally pushed back across the Pyrennes Mountains out of Spain. aNapoleon now poured 500,00 troops into Spain over the next few years. aBut, the Fr generals still had trouble subduing the Spanish population. aThe British viewed this uprising as an opportunity to weaken Napoleon. They moved an army into Portugal to protect that country and to aid the Spanish guerillas. aAfter 5 long years of savage fighting, Fr troops were finally pushed back across the Pyrennes Mountains out of Spain. The Surrender of Madrid May, 1809 by Goya

69 Lycee System of Education aEstablished by Napoleon in 1801 as an educational reform. aLycées initially enrolled the nations most talented students [they had to pay tuition, although there was some financial help available for poorer student]. aLycées trained the nations future bureaucrats. aEstablished by Napoleon in 1801 as an educational reform. aLycées initially enrolled the nations most talented students [they had to pay tuition, although there was some financial help available for poorer student]. aLycées trained the nations future bureaucrats.

70 Napoleons Divorce Statement (1807) Far from ever finding cause for complaint, I can to the contrary only congratulate myself on the devotion and tenderness of my beloved wife. She has adorned thirteen years of my life; the memory will always remain engraved on my heart.

71 Napoleon in His Study 1812 by David Napoleon in His Study 1812 by David

72 Napoleons Family Rules! eJerome Bonaparte King of Westphalia. eJoseph Bonaparte King of Spain eLouise Bonaparte King of Holland ePauline Bonaparte Princess of Italy eNapoléon Francis Joseph Charles (son) King of Rome eElisa Bonaparte Grand Duchess of Tuscany eCaroline Bonaparte Queen of Naples

73 Russian General Kutuzov The Russian army defeated the French at Borodino.

74 Battle of Dresden (Aug., 26-27, 1813) eCoalition Russians, Prussians, Austrians. eNapoléons forces regrouped with Polish reinforcements. e100,000 coalition casualties; 30,000 French casualties. eFrench victory. eCoalition Russians, Prussians, Austrians. eNapoléons forces regrouped with Polish reinforcements. e100,000 coalition casualties; 30,000 French casualties. eFrench victory.

75 Napoleon Abdicates! eAllied forces occupied Paris on March 31, eNapoléon abdicated on April 6 in favor of his son, but the Allies insisted on unconditional surrender. eNapoléon abdicated again on April 11. eTreaty of Fontainbleau exiles Napoléon to Elba with an annual income of 2,000,000 francs. eThe royalists took control and restored Louis XVIII to the throne. eAllied forces occupied Paris on March 31, eNapoléon abdicated on April 6 in favor of his son, but the Allies insisted on unconditional surrender. eNapoléon abdicated again on April 11. eTreaty of Fontainbleau exiles Napoléon to Elba with an annual income of 2,000,000 francs. eThe royalists took control and restored Louis XVIII to the throne.

76 Hitler Visits Napoleons Tomb June 28, 1940

77 Napoleon as First Consul aWith the government in disarray, Napoleon launched a successful coup d etat on November 9, aHe proclaimed himself First Consul [Julius Caesars title] and did away with the elected Assembly [appointing a Senate instead]. In 1802, he made himself sole Consul for Life. Two years later he proclaimed himself Emperor. aWith the government in disarray, Napoleon launched a successful coup d etat on November 9, aHe proclaimed himself First Consul [Julius Caesars title] and did away with the elected Assembly [appointing a Senate instead]. In 1802, he made himself sole Consul for Life. Two years later he proclaimed himself Emperor.

78 Napoleons Rise to Power aEarlier military career the Italian Campaigns: he conquered most of northern Italy for France, and had developed a taste for governing. In northern Italy, he moved to suppress religious orders, end serfdom, and limit age-old noble privilege. aEarlier military career the Italian Campaigns: he conquered most of northern Italy for France, and had developed a taste for governing. In northern Italy, he moved to suppress religious orders, end serfdom, and limit age-old noble privilege.

79 Napoleon Established the Banque de France, 1800

80 Haitian Independence, Toussaint LOuverture


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