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Republic to Principate

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Presentation on theme: "Republic to Principate"— Presentation transcript:

1 Republic to Principate
Rome Republic to Principate

2 Romulus and Remus Rhea was married to Mars, the Roman god of war. Rhea had twin sons. She loved her boys, but there were plots afoot by other gods and goddesses to harm her father, herself, her husband, and her children. To protect the boys, she set them adrift on the river, hoping someone would find them. Romulus and Remus were first found by a she-wolf who fed them. Then a shepherd and his wife adopted the boys. As the twins grew older, they decided they did not want to take care of sheep. They wanted to be kings. They decided to build a city on the shores of the Tiber. They both wanted to be the only king. They quarreled. In a fit of rage, Romulus picked up a rock, killed his brother, and made himself king

3 Early Roman State Landownership = essential to economy and therefore social status Council of Elders  senatorial class Overthrew the last of the 7 kings

4 Roman “Republic” 507-31BCE Governmental Structure Roman Senate
Voting for all male citizens (although votes of wealthy worth more) 2 Consuls (serve 1 year, war = glory) Senate Assemblies Tribunes (lower classes only, veto power) Roman Senate Self perpetuating body Serve for life Nepotism

5 Institutionalized Inequality
Patricians versus plebeians Paterfamilias Patron/Client Relationships Patron (senator) provided loans, legal advice etc in exchange for votes, military service or labour Women Permanently children No land rights Strong women emerge to influence politics

6 Administering the Empire
Political, economic and legal rights extended to conquered peoples In exchange, required for military service Periphery provinces allowed to self govern without rights Governors sent to serve one year Collect taxes, prevent invasion Lacked experience, led to corruption Year long cycle led to a lack of continuity

7 How did Empire lead to decline?
All land owning men required to perform military service (legions) Protracted wars with Carthaginians ( BCE), Hellenistic Kingdoms ( BCE) & Gaul (59-51BCE) Soldiers absent from farms for long periods of time Senatorial class (Patricians) makes huge profits from war but because of patron/client relationship don’t need to fight themselves Patricians buy up soldier’s farm from families left without financial support as fathers/husbands fight Patricians create “uber farms” – LATIFUNDIA Latifundia want cash crops – vineyards or animals  shortage of wheat as imports lead to price inflation POW provide cheap slave labour for Latifundia Soldiers return home to no farm and poverty. Slavery means no rural employment either! Move to cities  no work here either! Angry plebeians!! Legions in trouble too! Not enough landowning men, therefore not enough people who can act as soldiers!!! “New Men” start appealing to the plebeians ruined by the Latifundia. Promise wealth and employment if serve them in the army Legions now loyal to LEADER not the Republic “New Men” like Sulla, Pompey, Mark Antony, Julius Caesar and Octavian aim for individual power at the expense of the Republic. Civil War = Octavian triumphs. Becomes Princep Augustus

8 Augustus & the creation of Principate
Julius Caesar creates 1st dictatorship – Civil War against Pompey, popularity with the plebeians (land reform), deified Ides of March, 44BCE – Julius Cesar assass. 2nd Triumvirate – Octavian (Augustus) Mark Antony & Lepidus peace until 37BCE Octavian & MA struggle for power – MA & Cleopatra defeated at Battle of Actium Lepidus exiled Octavian purges Senate. Senate “voted” to give Octavian power for 10 years. Swears allegiance as Emperor. Tribune for life Augustus Caesar is born

9 Augustus Caesar 45 years of rule – 31BCE – 14CE
Propaganda = “Republic restored” Equites = merchant/landowning middle class  administration/civil service Empire  extend no further, consolidate existing Cash payments for soldiers serving > 20 years, end the “new men” phenomenon Senatorial class given power in provinces near Rome, therefore still believe have power Pax Romana

10 Roman Empire Post Augustus
Emperor’s power publicized and strengthened Cult of Emperor worship Emperor = source of new laws, class of lawyers emerges “Urban Empire” = urban admin. not urban pop. Urban dwellers benefitted Slaves decrease (pax romana) tenant farmers increase. Wealth based on land but monopolized by urban landowners Technology  aqueducts

11 Trade increases under PR, safety & stability
Romanization = more powerful than military action Citizenship extended  first soldiers, then as reward, by 212 all free men. R. army = defensive. Walls (GB), forts, natural barriers used

12 Third Century Crisis 235 – 284CE 20+ Emperors
Germanic invasions, Romans build walls Economy Army drains treasury  taxes raised in provinces  destroyed urban prosperity  Emperors devalue coin  return to barter  local elite responsible for unpaid taxes  bankrupted  trade destroyed as PR ends  people flee cities  return to “New Men”

13 Diocletian & Constantine save Rome
284 – 305CE Rises through army Reforms Specifies price of goods Ends inflation Froze families in profession “Big Government” seen as oppressive Constantine seizes throne


15 Constantine Battle of Milvian = belief that Christian God had granted him victory Edict of Milan = end persecution of Chris. Religiously tolerant Unites empire – C. on the rise  spiritual or political? Moves capital from Rome to Byzantium B. renamed Constantinople Urban centre and Equites here better survived 3rd Century Crisis Closer to threatened borders in E. Europe

16 Rome the Christian Empire
Council of Nicea 325CE Emperor involved in doctrinal issues Dispute over Jesus’ importance (Arians) Diocese Urban phenomenon 392 – Pagan worship banned Justinian Codes Codifies Roman laws; innocent until proven guilty, burden of proof lies with accuser etc

17 Decline of Rome Eastern and Western Empires divide by 395
Byzantine armies successful  Germanic tribes attack West Rome falls to Visigoths 410 476 last Roman Emperor 530 Rome only spiritually important as seat of the Pope Latin relegated to elite, locals turn to dialects; Portuguese, Spanish, French, Italian

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