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Presentation on theme: "Human Anatomy & Physiology CIRCULATORY & RESPIRATORY SYSTEMS"— Presentation transcript:


2 Primary Function Transport nutrients and waste products through body

3 Circulatory System Anatomy
Two Systems: Pulmonary Heart & Lungs Systemic Heart & rest of Body Lungs Components: -Heart -Blood vessels -Blood

4 The Heart Anatomy: -Myocardium -R&L Atria -R&L Ventricles -Valves
Tricuspid Mitral -Pacemaker Click heart to watch heart movement animation (30 sec). For a real heart pumping while under surgery, see: (Click)

5 Heart Blood Circulation
Blood always enters heart through atria Blood always leaves heart through ventricles Blood flows INTO the heart atria and OUT of the heart through the ventricles.

6 Pulmonary & Systemic Circulation

7 Blood Vessels Blood flows away FROM the heart in arteries to cells, where nutrients and wastes are exchanged back to heart in veins Arteries – carry blood AWAY from the heart large thick-walled flexible tubes (Aorta) Veins – carry blood TOWARDS the heart thinner-walled tubes with valves Capillaries – carry blood from arteries to veins, allow exchange of materials at cells Microscopic at every cell to allow exchange of material

8 Blood Pressure (Click)

9 Circulatory Diseases Atherosclerosis
Fat build-up (plaque) on inner walls of arteries Can lead to stroke, heart attack Hypertension (High blood pressure) Abnormally high blood pressure (greater than 140/90, normal = 120/80) Greater chance of heart attack, stroke Myocardial infarction (heart attack) Heart cells die due to lack of oxygen Stroke Plaque breaks free from inner arterial wall and blocks circulation

10 Blood Functions: Components: Supply oxygen & nutrients to cells
Remove carbon dioxide and waste products from cells Carry white blood cells to areas of infection Carry hormones to target organs Maintain blood homeostasis (pH, chemical) Maintain body temperature Carry platelets to aid in clotting (Click) Components: Plasma (55%) water, sugars, proteins, salts Red blood cells “erythrocytes” (45%) deliver O2, remove CO2 -hemoglobin White blood cells “leukocytes” (1%) Disease-fighters Platelets “thrombocytes” (1%) blood clotting RBC – no nuclei WBC – nuclei Platelets- “pieces”

11 Lymphatic System Functions: Anatomy:
Returns fluid leaked from cells (lymph) into surrounding tissues back into circulatory system Filters out bacteria, unwanted chemicals from lymph Absorb nutrients to return to neighboring cells Anatomy: Lymph vessels Lymph nodes Spleen Thymus Tonsils

12 Respiratory System Primary Function:
Bring about the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the blood, the air and tissues

13 Respiratory System Anatomy
Follow the pathway of an air molecule: -Nasal cavity AND/OR Mouth -Pharynx -Epiglottis -Larynx -Trachea -Lung -Bronchus -Bronchiole -Alveolus Tiny capillaries surround each alveolus to allow O2 absorption into the capillaries while releasing CO2 from the capillaries into the alveolus.

14 “Protection”


16 Gas Exchange Carbon dioxide and oxygen gasses are exchanged at the alveolus and capillary.

17 Breathing Breathing is the movement of air into and out of the lungs
Inhalation = breathing in Exhalation= breathing out Partial conscious control *Autonomic control*

18 Respiratory Problems Emphysema – loss of elasticity in the lungs making it very difficult to breathe Cannot get enough O2 to body Cannot get rid of enough CO2 Caused by smoking Caused by air pollution Asthma – tightness in chest & difficulty breathing (often caused by allergies) Bronchitis - inflammation of mucus membrane of bronchi Cystic Fibrosis - mucus membrane produces thick substance clogging airways (genetic) Pneumonia – Inflammation of the lungs (bacterial or viral) Tuberculosis – Inflammation of the lungs (infectious, bacterial) Healthy lungs Smoker’s lungs

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