1 Human Anatomy & Physiology CIRCULATORY & RESPIRATORY SYSTEMS
2 Primary Function Transport nutrients and waste products through body (Click)
3 Circulatory System Anatomy Two Systems:PulmonaryHeart & LungsSystemicHeart & rest of BodyLungsComponents:-Heart-Blood vessels-Blood
4 The Heart Anatomy: -Myocardium -R&L Atria -R&L Ventricles -Valves TricuspidMitral-PacemakerClick heart to watch heart movement animation (30 sec). For a real heart pumping while under surgery, see:(Click)
5 Heart Blood Circulation Blood always enters heart through atriaBlood always leaves heart through ventriclesBlood flows INTO the heart atria and OUT of the heart through the ventricles.
7 Blood VesselsBlood flows away FROM the heart in arteries to cells, where nutrients and wastes are exchanged back to heart in veinsArteries – carry blood AWAY fromthe heartlarge thick-walled flexible tubes (Aorta)Veins – carry blood TOWARDS the heartthinner-walled tubes with valvesCapillaries – carry blood from arteries to veins, allow exchange of materials at cellsMicroscopic at every cell to allow exchange of material
9 Circulatory Diseases Atherosclerosis Fat build-up (plaque) on inner walls of arteriesCan lead to stroke, heart attackHypertension (High blood pressure)Abnormally high blood pressure (greater than 140/90, normal = 120/80)Greater chance of heart attack, strokeMyocardial infarction (heart attack)Heart cells die due to lack of oxygenStrokePlaque breaks free from inner arterial wall and blocks circulation
10 Blood Functions: Components: Supply oxygen & nutrients to cells Remove carbon dioxide and waste products from cellsCarry white blood cells to areas of infectionCarry hormones to target organsMaintain blood homeostasis (pH, chemical)Maintain body temperatureCarry platelets to aid in clotting(Click)Components:Plasma (55%) water, sugars, proteins, saltsRed blood cells “erythrocytes” (45%) deliver O2, remove CO2 -hemoglobinWhite blood cells “leukocytes” (1%)Disease-fightersPlatelets “thrombocytes” (1%) blood clottingRBC – no nucleiWBC – nucleiPlatelets-“pieces”
11 Lymphatic System Functions: Anatomy: Returns fluid leaked from cells (lymph) into surrounding tissues back into circulatory systemFilters out bacteria, unwanted chemicals from lymphAbsorb nutrients to return to neighboring cellsAnatomy:Lymph vesselsLymph nodesSpleenThymusTonsils
12 Respiratory System Primary Function: Bring about the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the blood, the air and tissues
13 Respiratory System Anatomy Follow the pathway of an air molecule:-Nasal cavity AND/OR Mouth-Pharynx-Epiglottis-Larynx-Trachea-Lung-Bronchus-Bronchiole-AlveolusTiny capillaries surround each alveolus to allow O2 absorption into the capillaries while releasing CO2 from the capillaries into the alveolus.
16 Gas ExchangeCarbon dioxide and oxygen gasses are exchanged at the alveolus and capillary.
17 Breathing Breathing is the movement of air into and out of the lungs Inhalation = breathing inExhalation= breathing outPartial conscious control*Autonomic control*
18 Respiratory ProblemsEmphysema – loss of elasticity in the lungs making it very difficult to breatheCannot get enough O2 to bodyCannot get rid of enough CO2Caused by smokingCaused by air pollutionAsthma – tightness in chest & difficultybreathing (often caused by allergies)Bronchitis - inflammation of mucusmembrane of bronchiCystic Fibrosis - mucus membrane produces thick substance clogging airways (genetic)Pneumonia – Inflammation of the lungs (bacterial or viral)Tuberculosis – Inflammation of the lungs (infectious, bacterial)Healthy lungs Smoker’s lungs