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Southwest Asia and the Indian Ocean,

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1 Southwest Asia and the Indian Ocean, 1500-1750
Chapter 19 Southwest Asia and the Indian Ocean,

2 I. Ottoman Empire to 1750 A. Expansion and Frontiers
NW. Anatolia - Turkish nomad horsemen, founder Osman Gallipoli key link - Asia/Europe Army -Turkish cavalry and gunpowder most of Anatolia/SE Europe under Ottoman control, setback by Mongol Timur Sultan Mehmed II captured Constantinople and renamed it Istanbul Battle of Chaldiran, Selim I ended Safavid threat, soon conquered Mamluk Egypt Suleiman the Magnificent ( ) – further expansion into S/E Europe, failed siege of Vienna in 1529 Conflict with Venice over control of Mediterranean


4 B. Central Institutions
Balkans -Christian POW’s forced to fight in army Janissaries – convert to Islam, foot soldiers, guns devshirme – new system imposed a regular levy on male children in Christian villages Opportunities – education Cosmopolitan empire – language and military Askeri – military/bureaucracy, no taxes, paid by sultan 1500s – conflict with Charles V and Phillip II capture Cyprus from Venice Cavalrymen maintained order, collected taxes, of rural areas of the empire Central gov. seldom involved with subjects; justice sought in religious courts


6 C. Crisis of the Military State 1585-1650
Cavalry shrank, firearms/cannons - Janissaries grew in importance Mid-16thC. Sultan reduced landholding of cavalry to pay for janissaries Late-16thC. problems with silver, lack of Ottoman sultans’ response Students/professionals in madrasas hard to live with limited endowment Government levied emergency surtaxes to pay jan./bur. -added partially trained soldiers to army who were out of work once the summer campaigns ended. Revolts/banditry resulted in ; former cavalrymen, peasants, and short term soldiers, and impoverished students Janissaries started to marry and engage in business; previously not allowed

7 D. Economic Change and Growing weakness 1650-1750
Sultans – hostages, fratricide Sultan’s mother/chief Eunuch Grand viziers (Devshirme discontinued) Janissaries power grew/positions hereditary Became involved in crafts/trading Land grants for service stopped; tax farming instead Imperial government came to rely on provincial governors/wealthy men for administration of lands Subsistent farmers switched from grain to cotton/tobacco Power of military fell; Janissaries hired ill-trained substitutes to fight instead 1683 – second failed attempt to take Vienna “Tulip Period” 1730 Janissary revolt and Sultan Ahmed III abdicates, Patrona Halil governs till captured/killed Mid 18thC. Mamluks regained dominance in Egypt; Arabia, Sunni movement led by Abd al-Wahhab rose


9 II. The Safavid Empire A. The Rise of the Safavids
Death of Timur - Ismail claimed himself Shah of Iran in 1502 Shi’ite Islam - Sunni beliefs to be abandoned (majority Sunni) Ismail’s Sufi brotherhood, fought on his behalf, known as the Qizilbash. Iranian subjects resisted, and neighboring lands gave refugee to Sunnis Ismail’s son Tahmasp successful - Shi’ite Iran

10 B. Society And Religion By 1500 a library of legal/theological writings; epic, lyric, and poetry Iranian scholars/writers knew both Arabic/Persian Iran made contacts with India, where Muslim rulers made Persian language of the government Persian Poets Hafez( ) and Sa’di( ) made morally instructive/allegorical poetry popular All Muslim areas had mosques/madrasas that trained the Ulama to interpret the Shari’a, but local understandings of traditions varied Impact of Shi’ism in Iran significant; Shi’ite doctrine says that temporal rulers are stand-ins for the “Hidden Imam” the twelfth descendent of Ali

11 C. A Tale of Two Cities: Isfahan and Istanbul
BOTH No wheeled vehicles, used camels Both cities had guilds that were socially/economically bonded Women seldom in public; women’s quarters in Iran = anderun “interior” and in Istanbul called harem or “forbidden area” Islamic law, unlike European codes, allowed women to hold property after marriage, and could testify in court. ISFAHAN - Safavid became Iran’s capitol in 1598 by decree of Shah Abbas I ( ) ; featured brick domes covered with tiles, and unobtrusive minarets far from the sea, traded more with Jews/Hindus/Armenians located away from danger in the center of Iran ISTANBUL - Ottoman built on seven hills had lots of gray lead domed mosques and pointed minarets including Aya Sophya (Hagia Sophia) traded with European often due to harbor

12 D. Economic Crisis & Political Collapse
Silk from N. Iran main foreign trade; manufacturing carpets made by yarn/threads associated with Iran: different carpets per city (Women/child) Most of shah’s subjects lived by subsistence farming or herding Shah grants large sections of land to Qizilbash nomads in return for warriors Safavids had difficulty paying troops armed with firearms; needed firearms/artillery to fight of Ottomans/Uzbeks Nomad warriors refused to trade arrows for guns; Shah had to employ slave corps of annul soldiers armed with guns Christian converts to Islam added to troops and grew to hold power Late 1500s -inflation caused by cheap silver spread into Iran; overland trade declined due to mismanagement of silk due to death of shah Abbas (1629) Removal of nomads from their land proved difficult (needed the taxes) Afghan’s captured Isfahan/ended Safavid rule Safavids never possessed a navy and (Portuguese captured Gulf island of Hormuz) Shah relied on English/Dutch naval support; Nadir shah unified Iran briefly between , purchased naval vessels from English


14 III. Mughal Empire 1526-1761 A. Political Foundations
Descendent of Timur, Babur ( ) founded Mughal Empire; invaded from C. Asia and defeated sultan of Delhi at Battle of Panipat in 1526 India = primary area of Mughal accomplishment; Babur’s grandson Akbar ( ) established the central administration of the state Akbar granted land revenues (mansabs) to military officers/government officials in return for service. (nonhereditary) Economy was based on cotton cloth, and administration; foreign trade boomed at port of Surat in NW, also point of embarkation to Mecca Mughals had no navy, Indian merchant ships were privately owned B. Hindus and Muslims Muslim destruction of Hindus cultural monuments, the expansion of Muslim territory, and POW’s/forced converts horrified Hindus 70% of mansabdars(officials who had land grants) under Akbar, were Muslim soldiers born outside of India, 15% Hindus from the N (Rajputs) Akbar strived for social harmony, not just territory/revenues; married a Hindu Rajput princess and welcomed her family to court


16 Hindus And Muslims continued
Akbar ruled that in legal disputes between 2 Hindus, dispute would be decided by village customs or Hindu law; Muslims followed Shari’a law Akbar made himself last resort in legal court ; also made himself center of “Divine Faith” incorporated Muslim/Hindu/Zoroastrian/Sikh/Christian ideas Akbar’s court culture lasted until his zealous great-grandson Aurangzeb Mughal/Rajput depictions of people in portraits, frowned upon by Muslims Lead painters were Hindu; Persian poetry favored at court, language Urdu Most Muslim converts occurred in Indus River valley Introduction of Sikhism in Punjab (NW India) Nanak ( ) 1st guru; stressed mediation and combined Muslim/Hindu beliefs; no caste system Auranzeb had 9th guru beheaded in 1675 for refusing to convert to Islam 10th guru reorganized followers “the army of the pure” for revenge


18 Central Decay and Regional challenges 1707-1761
Mughal power fell after death of Aurangzeb in 1707; land grant system one cause of this; decline of imperial authority Aurangzeb failed to integrate new Mughal territories into the imperial structure and regional military leaders challenged Mughal supremacy The Marathas took territory across India’s middle, and Sikhs, Hindu Rajputs, and Muslim Afghans exerted pressure from the NW 1739 Nadir Shah sacked Delhi, and took the crown jewels 1723 Nizam al-Mulk, the vizier of the sultan, gave up on the central government and established independent state at Hyderabad in E. Deccan Other officials (nawabs) became independent in Bengal/Oudh in NE, and Marathas W, NW Afghans set up an independent kingdom Joseph Francois Dupleix took over stronghold of Pondicherry in 1741 and captured the English trading center of Madras, after 1754 – open for British colonization


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