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**What Did Einstein Say About Light?**

It is both a wave and a particle.

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**Louis de Broglie, (France, 1892-1987) Wave Properties of Matter (1923)**

-Since light waves have a particle behavior (as shown by Einstein in the Photoelectric Effect), then particles could have a wave behavior. -He suggested electrons could be considered waves confined to a space around an atomic nucleus

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**Light versus Electron Diffraction**

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**Electrons: Waves and Particles?**

Big problem …. If electrons are both particles and waves, then where are they in the atom?

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**Werner Heisenberg: Uncertainty Principle**

We can not know both the position and momentum of a particle at a given time. (1927)

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**Erwin Schrodinger, 1925 Quantum (wave) Mechanical Model of the Atom**

-Developed equation (wave equation) that treated electrons in atoms as waves. -Only waves of specific energies provided solutions to his equation. -Along with Heisenberg principle, this wave equation laid the foundation for modern quantum theory

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**Be Curious … Although Curiousity Killed the Cat**

Schrodinger’s Cat Hugh Everett

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**What Schrodinger’s Equation Means to Chemists**

Electrons do not travel around the nucleus in neat orbits. We only have a probability of finding an electron at a given place around the nucleus. -Electrons exist in orbitals that have three dimensional shapes. These orbital shapes are described by the solutions to Schrodinger’s wave equation for different energies. -Property of orbitals can be described by 4 quantum numbers.

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**Four Quantum Numbers -Principal Quantum Number (n)**

-Orbital Quantum Number (l) -Magnetic Quantum Number (m) -Spin Quantum Number

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