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The Changing Life of the People Before and After 1750.

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Presentation on theme: "The Changing Life of the People Before and After 1750."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Changing Life of the People Before and After 1750

2 Marriage and the Family Extended and the Nuclear Families Extended and the Nuclear Families Previous thought – Extended families gives way to Industrialism Previous thought – Extended families gives way to Industrialism

3 New thought – Extended family was a rarity in western and central Europe by 1700 Parents would move in with their children rather than the reverse

4 Who Married,When and Why

5 Many never married Many never married Those that did, married late – 27 yrs old Those that did, married late – 27 yrs old Most men and women married in late 20s Most men and women married in late 20s Economic conditions: major condition for marriage Economic conditions: major condition for marriage Peasant sons would wait for inheriting land Peasant sons would wait for inheriting land

6 Peasant daughters would have to accumulate a dowry Peasant daughters would have to accumulate a dowry

7 Marriage Ceremony

8 Why… continued Community controls Community controls Many needed permission from local officials Many needed permission from local officials Poor would be discouraged because they became a burden on the community Poor would be discouraged because they became a burden on the community

9 Work Away from Home Boys would go where the work was Boys would go where the work was Sometimes as an apprentice at 14 – forbidden to marry Sometimes as an apprentice at 14 – forbidden to marry Always subject to economic fluctuation Always subject to economic fluctuation

10 Girls jobs were more limited Domestic service was most common Physical and mental abuse by the mistress of the house Sexually exploited by family and friends of family

11 The Carnival Social Inversion Public humiliation Public humiliation

12 Premarital Sex and Community Controls Up until 1750 illegitimacy was rare Up until 1750 illegitimacy was rare Premarital sex was common Premarital sex was common Going steady Going steady Promised Promised

13 Community controls Community controls Open field systems led to patterns of cooperation Open field systems led to patterns of cooperation Moved quickly to protect unwed mother Moved quickly to protect unwed mother Carnival Season – humiliation rituals Carnival Season – humiliation rituals

14 Community Controls…continued Family planning was up to the couple Family planning was up to the couple Contraception; 1700s in urban areas- sheath Contraception; 1700s in urban areas- sheath Created by Fallapio in He claimed to have invented a linen sheath,, as protection against syphilis Created by Fallapio in He claimed to have invented a linen sheath,, as protection against syphilis Coitus interruptus- Withdrawl Coitus interruptus- Withdrawl

15 The Cottage Industry Cottage industry – wages made people independent Cottage industry – wages made people independent Courtship becomes freer Courtship becomes freer The illegitimacy explosion: Cottage industry and urban migration The illegitimacy explosion: Cottage industry and urban migration

16 New Patterns of Illegitimacy 1750 to 1850 – Illegitimacy Explosion 1750 to 1850 – Illegitimacy Explosion Germany – rose to 25% Germany – rose to 25% France 36% France 36% More women were active More women were active Fewer men would marry Fewer men would marry Cottage industry – wages made people independent Cottage industry – wages made people independent Courtship becomes freer Courtship becomes freer

17 Illegitimacy…continued Urbanization – growing population sent villagers to the city Urbanization – growing population sent villagers to the city Mobility … not subject to traditions Mobility … not subject to traditions Promises were made, but not kept? Sincere or not? Promises were made, but not kept? Sincere or not?

18 Children and Education If the couple lived to 45 they had six or more children If the couple lived to 45 they had six or more children One in three or one in five died - depending on social class One in three or one in five died - depending on social class Parents neglect was a reason for mortality: Vicious circle. High mortality rare lead to abuse. Parents neglect was a reason for mortality: Vicious circle. High mortality rare lead to abuse. Schools Schools Most never learned to read but literacy was growing Most never learned to read but literacy was growing The book hungry Public The book hungry Public

19 Child Care and Nursing Lower class women breast fed Lower class women breast fed Longer then today Longer then today Reduces chance of pregnancy Reduces chance of pregnancy Increases immunities Increases immunities Upper-class rarely breast fed Upper-class rarely breast fed Hired a wet nurse Hired a wet nurse Middle class women used a wet nurse so she could go to work Middle class women used a wet nurse so she could go to work

20 Wet Nursing Women were exploited Women were exploited If they dried they were fired If they dried they were fired Their own babies were neglected Their own babies were neglected Attitudes toward the nurses Attitudes toward the nurses Passed their bad traits to babies Passed their bad traits to babies Killing nurses – let the baby die to take another fee Killing nurses – let the baby die to take another fee

21 Foundlings and Infanticide Christian Church through Jewish scriptures denounce practice Christian Church through Jewish scriptures denounce practice Overlaying … Austria made it illegal to take toddlers to bed with them. Overlaying … Austria made it illegal to take toddlers to bed with them. Abortions were rare and dangerous Abortions were rare and dangerous Foundling Homes – St Vincent de Paul. The wealthy donate to the cause… demonstrates social concern Foundling Homes – St Vincent de Paul. The wealthy donate to the cause… demonstrates social concern

22 Foundlings continued… Even so, by /3 of all babies born in Paris were abandoned. 1/3 of those were from married couples… The working poor. Even so, by /3 of all babies born in Paris were abandoned. 1/3 of those were from married couples… The working poor. ½ of these died early up to 90% on some homes ½ of these died early up to 90% on some homes 100, 000 admitted per year 100, 000 admitted per year

23 Attitudes Toward Children A minor concern of parents regardless of class- High infant mortality A minor concern of parents regardless of class- High infant mortality One blushes to think of loving ones children One blushes to think of loving ones children But … What about evolution But … What about evolution But… What about Christianity But… What about Christianity Child mortality rates were high so dont become attached? Child mortality rates were high so dont become attached? No doctors for the children No doctors for the children Factory abuse: normal to treat children poorly Factory abuse: normal to treat children poorly Vicious circle … Vicious circle …

24 Attitudes… continued When attention was given is was often abusive When attention was given is was often abusive Spare the rod, spoil the child. Spare the rod, spoil the child. Mother of John Wesley conquer the will of the child. Mother of John Wesley conquer the will of the child. Cry silently to avoid more punishment Cry silently to avoid more punishment

25 Attitudes… Early paupers were beaten in factories because it was considered normal Early paupers were beaten in factories because it was considered normal Enlightenment ideas appear Enlightenment ideas appear Rousseau.. Emile 1762 Rousseau.. Emile 1762 Greater love and tenderness Greater love and tenderness Nurse your own child Nurse your own child Stop swaddling Stop swaddling

26 Schools and Popular Education Aristocrats Aristocrats 16 th century often sent children colleges – Jesuits 16 th century often sent children colleges – Jesuits Elementary education for the common – 18 th century Elementary education for the common – 18 th century Boys and girls 7-12 Boys and girls 7-12 Literacy and religion Literacy and religion The Reformation fostered education… competition for the mind of the people The Reformation fostered education… competition for the mind of the people Prussia leads the way Mandatory elementary ed. Prussia leads the way Mandatory elementary ed. Literacy rates skyrocket from Literacy rates skyrocket from

27 What Did They Read? The educated public – Philosophical works The educated public – Philosophical works The commoners… The commoners… The Bible The Bible Chap books Chap books Fairy tales, Fictions, Adventures Fairy tales, Fictions, Adventures Morality lessons Morality lessons Almanacs – practical information: astrology, weird facts etc. Almanacs – practical information: astrology, weird facts etc.

28 Food and Medical Practices The poor … Grains - bread, wine and beer and some vegetables, fruit was uncommon… Feel full The poor … Grains - bread, wine and beer and some vegetables, fruit was uncommon… Feel full Ate less meat in the 1700s then in the 1500s Ate less meat in the 1700s then in the 1500s Poor were not allowed to hunt game. Poor were not allowed to hunt game. The Just Price… bread was important. The Just Price… bread was important. Against free market ideas Against free market ideas So what this is bread So what this is bread

29 Diets… Continued The wealthy The wealthy Meat and more meat Meat and more meat Cheeses, nuts, sweets Cheeses, nuts, sweets Alcohol and more alcohol Alcohol and more alcohol Middle class – mixture of all Middle class – mixture of all England, Hollands poor ate best among the poor. England, Hollands poor ate best among the poor.

30 The Impact on health The poor lacked important vitamins – A and C The poor lacked important vitamins – A and C The rich had gout The rich had gout The middle class mixed their diet. The middle class mixed their diet. The potato from the Americas… A and C- Scurvy-limes The potato from the Americas… A and C- Scurvy-limes 18 th century tropical fruits appeared in maritime Europe 18 th century tropical fruits appeared in maritime Europe White bread White bread Sugar Sugar

31 Medical Practitioners The Enlightenment – courses are created The Enlightenment – courses are created Women were restricted by the 1700s Women were restricted by the 1700s Faith healers – the countryside Faith healers – the countryside Apothecaries – Purging Apothecaries – Purging Physicians Physicians Men Men Wealthy Wealthy Served the wealthy Served the wealthy Practices – Bloodletting and purging Practices – Bloodletting and purging Surgeons – war allowed for practices to advance Surgeons – war allowed for practices to advance

32 Medicine… continued The Midwife The Midwife Witch hunt craze Witch hunt craze Doctors helped eliminate the tradition Doctors helped eliminate the tradition But may still remained But may still remained Dealt with female medical issues-venereal disease Dealt with female medical issues-venereal disease The Hospital The Hospital Dirty Dirty Enlightenment – hospital reform Enlightenment – hospital reform Mental hospitals – discipline, the lunatic, male masturbation… epilepsy, acne, and premature ejaculation… Mental hospitals – discipline, the lunatic, male masturbation… epilepsy, acne, and premature ejaculation… Quacks … electricity Quacks … electricity Small Pox … inoculation through small pox… Jenner Small Pox … inoculation through small pox… Jenner

33 Religion and Popular Culture Religion Religion Church was woven into society: The Parish Church was the basic unit Church was woven into society: The Parish Church was the basic unit Charity Charity Education Education Priest for Protestants was no longer the intermediaries. Priest for Protestants was no longer the intermediaries. Catholics less subject to the Pope… State controls Church Catholics less subject to the Pope… State controls Church Jesuits… 1773 were dissolved by Rome. Jesuits… 1773 were dissolved by Rome. Abolition of contemplative orders… Edict of Idle Institutions… Austria Abolition of contemplative orders… Edict of Idle Institutions… Austria

34 Protestant Revival Germany – Pietism Germany – Pietism Warm emotional religion Warm emotional religion Priesthood for all believers Priesthood for all believers Christianity in everyday affairs- the practical power Christianity in everyday affairs- the practical power Enthusiasm in prayer Enthusiasm in prayer Rejection of rationalism Rejection of rationalism John Wesley – Methodists – England John Wesley – Methodists – England Church of England was corrupt Church of England was corrupt Took his emotional appeal to the people Took his emotional appeal to the people Rejects predestination : makes Methodism popular Rejects predestination : makes Methodism popular

35 Catholic Piety Condemns paganism Condemns paganism Festivals were to remember Biblical events Festivals were to remember Biblical events The Piety of the people and the theological purity was mostly a compromise The Piety of the people and the theological purity was mostly a compromise

36 Leisure and Recreation Carnival… wild release Carnival… wild release Oral tradition for the common Oral tradition for the common Drinking and talking in a public place, taverns. Drinking and talking in a public place, taverns. More Gin being made More Gin being made

37 Leisure Commercialization Commercialization Fairs Fairs Entertainment Entertainment Blood sports Blood sports Gambling Gambling Wedge grows between the common and the elite Wedge grows between the common and the elite


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