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India and SouthEast Asia

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Presentation on theme: "India and SouthEast Asia"— Presentation transcript:

1 India and SouthEast Asia

2 I. Foundations of Indian Civilization
The Indian Subcontinent Monsoon – Indian Ocean Multiple harvests per year Indus Valley – arid, needs irrigation Trade with Arabia – Indonesia Indus River Valley Civilization fell 1900 BCE, writing, cause of fall?

3 What geographic zones would you break India into?

4 B. The Vedic Age, 1500 – 500 BCE Vedas Indo – European invasions
Oral traditions Aryas – light – north – Indo - European Dasas – dark – south – Dravidian Varna Class, caste, and jati Atman, reincarnation, karma Sacrifice/male gods Rig Veda, Brahmanas Sanskrit – ORAL Women

5 What impact did the Aryan invasions starting in the 1600s have on the Indian subcontinent?
Compare and contrast the Indian caste system with the use of slavery in Greece and Rome.

6 C. Challenges to the Old Order: Jainism and Buddhism
700 BCE – spiritual opposition Moksha, Upanishads Jainism (Mahavira) Siddhartha Guatama (563 – 483 BCE) Four Noble Truths Eightfold Path LIVE IN MODERATION Nirvana – release Later – hierarchy, institutions Buddha/Bodhisatvas Influence of Greeks on depictions Mahayana (Great Vehicle) Theravada (Teachings of the Elders)

7 Explain WHY Buddhism rose and declined in India.

8 D. The Rise of Hinduism 4th c. CE - Vedic tradition adjusted (north and south) Gods/worshippers Vishnu Shiva Devi Diversity – unity Temples, puja, pilgrimage, festivals Impact of class on worship New expectations of life/duties Inclusion of Buddhism/Jainism

9 Compare and contrast the impact that Buddhism and Hinduism had on the individual worshipper.

10 II. Imperial Expansion and Collapse, 324 BCE – 650 CE
Difficulty in obtaining POLITICAL unity The Mauryan Empire, 324 – 184 BCE 600 BCE - Many kingdoms Magadha most powerful, Ganges plain Chandragupta Arthashastra Administration (taxes, governors, army, mines, urban committees) Pataliputra Ashoka – Buddhism, nonviolence, religious tolerance

11 Why was the Mauryan Empire the first to achieve political unity in India?

12 B. Commerce and Culture in an Era of Political Fragmentation
Foreign powers: Greco – Bacrian, Shakas, Kushans Political fragmentation BUT active commerce/trade Ramayana and Mahabharata (Bhagavad – Gita) Tension: duty to society vs. soul Disciplined action – service – release from reincarnation Indian doctors Linguistics – Sanskrit Andhra Dynasty/Three Tamil Kingdoms Classical Period (arts)

13 How does the Bhagavad – Gita demonstrate the impact that Buddhism had on Vedic traditions?

14 C. The Gupta Empire, 320 – 550 CE Modeled on Mauryans
Chandra Gupta (r. 320 – 325) – control over commerce, resources, monopolies Subjects – labor Bureaucracy in CORE, governors exploited periphery, army ensured tribute “Theater – state” – benefits of empire Mathematics, sciences Women: property, education, marriage, sati Options: nun or courtesan Monarchs: Hindus Resurgence: Vedic practices, Brahmin priests, class and caste, temples Commerce Collapse - Huns

15 Does the “theater – state” model entirely explain how the Gupta Empire was able to control a vast array of kingdoms under its rule? Explain why or why not.

16 III. Southeast Asia, 50 – 600 CE Geographical Areas
Climate, agricultural practices, products Malay peoples (3000 BCE) – migration, navigational skills Rainforests, bronze, water (councils) Chinese control: N. Indochina Commerce and Hindu – Buddhist Culture New trade route – silk Route: South China Sea – Malay Peninsula – Bay of Bengal - India Later goods: woods, spices, etc.

17 II. Continued… Commerce brought culture Missionaries, pilgrims
Indian knowledge/arts Funan (1st – 6th c. CE) Economic center: agriculture and trade Strategic location Decline

18 Compare and contrast the cores of Pataliputra and Funan.

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