2I. Foundations of Indian Civilization The Indian SubcontinentMonsoon – Indian OceanMultiple harvests per yearIndus Valley – arid, needs irrigationTrade with Arabia – IndonesiaIndus River Valley Civilization fell 1900 BCE, writing, cause of fall?
3What geographic zones would you break India into?
4B. The Vedic Age, 1500 – 500 BCE Vedas Indo – European invasions Oral traditionsAryas – light – north – Indo - EuropeanDasas – dark – south – DravidianVarnaClass, caste, and jatiAtman, reincarnation, karmaSacrifice/male godsRig Veda, BrahmanasSanskrit – ORALWomen
5What impact did the Aryan invasions starting in the 1600s have on the Indian subcontinent? Compare and contrast the Indian caste system with the use of slavery in Greece and Rome.
6C. Challenges to the Old Order: Jainism and Buddhism 700 BCE – spiritual oppositionMoksha, UpanishadsJainism (Mahavira)Siddhartha Guatama (563 – 483 BCE)Four Noble TruthsEightfold PathLIVE IN MODERATIONNirvana – releaseLater – hierarchy, institutionsBuddha/BodhisatvasInfluence of Greeks on depictionsMahayana (Great Vehicle)Theravada (Teachings of the Elders)
8D. The Rise of Hinduism4th c. CE - Vedic tradition adjusted (north and south)Gods/worshippersVishnuShivaDeviDiversity – unityTemples, puja, pilgrimage, festivalsImpact of class on worshipNew expectations of life/dutiesInclusion of Buddhism/Jainism
9Compare and contrast the impact that Buddhism and Hinduism had on the individual worshipper.
10II. Imperial Expansion and Collapse, 324 BCE – 650 CE Difficulty in obtaining POLITICAL unityThe Mauryan Empire, 324 – 184 BCE600 BCE - Many kingdomsMagadha most powerful, Ganges plainChandraguptaArthashastraAdministration (taxes, governors, army, mines, urban committees)PataliputraAshoka – Buddhism, nonviolence, religious tolerance
11Why was the Mauryan Empire the first to achieve political unity in India?
12B. Commerce and Culture in an Era of Political Fragmentation Foreign powers: Greco – Bacrian, Shakas, KushansPolitical fragmentation BUT active commerce/tradeRamayana and Mahabharata (Bhagavad – Gita)Tension: duty to society vs. soulDisciplined action – service – release from reincarnationIndian doctorsLinguistics – SanskritAndhra Dynasty/Three Tamil KingdomsClassical Period (arts)
13How does the Bhagavad – Gita demonstrate the impact that Buddhism had on Vedic traditions?
14C. The Gupta Empire, 320 – 550 CE Modeled on Mauryans Chandra Gupta (r. 320 – 325) – control over commerce, resources, monopoliesSubjects – laborBureaucracy in CORE, governors exploited periphery, army ensured tribute“Theater – state” – benefits of empireMathematics, sciencesWomen: property, education, marriage, satiOptions: nun or courtesanMonarchs: HindusResurgence: Vedic practices, Brahmin priests, class and caste, templesCommerceCollapse - Huns
15Does the “theater – state” model entirely explain how the Gupta Empire was able to control a vast array of kingdoms under its rule? Explain why or why not.
16III. Southeast Asia, 50 – 600 CE Geographical Areas Climate, agricultural practices, productsMalay peoples (3000 BCE) – migration, navigational skillsRainforests, bronze, water (councils)Chinese control: N. IndochinaCommerce and Hindu – Buddhist CultureNew trade route – silkRoute: South China Sea – Malay Peninsula – Bay of Bengal - IndiaLater goods: woods, spices, etc.
17II. Continued… Commerce brought culture Missionaries, pilgrims Indian knowledge/artsFunan (1st – 6th c. CE)Economic center: agriculture and tradeStrategic locationDecline
18Compare and contrast the cores of Pataliputra and Funan.