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India and SouthEast Asia. I. Foundations of Indian Civilization A. The Indian Subcontinent Monsoon – Indian Ocean Monsoon – Indian Ocean Multiple harvests.

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Presentation on theme: "India and SouthEast Asia. I. Foundations of Indian Civilization A. The Indian Subcontinent Monsoon – Indian Ocean Monsoon – Indian Ocean Multiple harvests."— Presentation transcript:

1 India and SouthEast Asia

2 I. Foundations of Indian Civilization A. The Indian Subcontinent Monsoon – Indian Ocean Monsoon – Indian Ocean Multiple harvests per year Multiple harvests per year Indus Valley – arid, needs irrigation Indus Valley – arid, needs irrigation Trade with Arabia – Indonesia Trade with Arabia – Indonesia Indus River Valley Civilization fell 1900 BCE, writing, cause of fall? Indus River Valley Civilization fell 1900 BCE, writing, cause of fall?

3 What geographic zones would you break India into? What geographic zones would you break India into?

4 B. The Vedic Age, 1500 – 500 BCE Vedas Vedas Indo – European invasions Indo – European invasions Oral traditions Oral traditions Aryas – light – north – Indo - European Aryas – light – north – Indo - European Dasas – dark – south – Dravidian Dasas – dark – south – Dravidian Varna Varna Class, caste, and jati Class, caste, and jati Atman, reincarnation, karma Atman, reincarnation, karma Sacrifice/male gods Sacrifice/male gods Rig Veda, Brahmanas Rig Veda, Brahmanas Sanskrit – ORAL Sanskrit – ORAL Women Women Brahmin (mouth) Kshatriya (arms) Vaishya (thighs) Shudra (feet) Untouchables

5 What impact did the Aryan invasions starting in the 1600s have on the Indian subcontinent? What impact did the Aryan invasions starting in the 1600s have on the Indian subcontinent? Compare and contrast the Indian caste system with the use of slavery in Greece and Rome. Compare and contrast the Indian caste system with the use of slavery in Greece and Rome.

6 C. Challenges to the Old Order: Jainism and Buddhism 700 BCE – spiritual opposition 700 BCE – spiritual opposition Moksha, Upanishads Moksha, Upanishads Jainism (Mahavira) Jainism (Mahavira) Siddhartha Guatama (563 – 483 BCE) Siddhartha Guatama (563 – 483 BCE) Four Noble Truths Four Noble Truths Eightfold Path Eightfold Path LIVE IN MODERATION LIVE IN MODERATION Nirvana – release Nirvana – release Later – hierarchy, institutions Later – hierarchy, institutions Buddha/Bodhisatvas Buddha/Bodhisatvas Influence of Greeks on depictions Influence of Greeks on depictions Mahayana (Great Vehicle) Mahayana (Great Vehicle) Theravada (Teachings of the Elders) Theravada (Teachings of the Elders)

7 Explain WHY Buddhism rose and declined in India. Explain WHY Buddhism rose and declined in India.

8 D. The Rise of Hinduism 4 th c. CE - Vedic tradition adjusted (north and south) 4 th c. CE - Vedic tradition adjusted (north and south) Gods/worshippers Gods/worshippers Vishnu Vishnu Shiva Shiva Devi Devi Diversity – unity Diversity – unity Temples, puja, pilgrimage, festivals Temples, puja, pilgrimage, festivals Impact of class on worship Impact of class on worship New expectations of life/duties New expectations of life/duties Inclusion of Buddhism/Jainism Inclusion of Buddhism/Jainism

9 Compare and contrast the impact that Buddhism and Hinduism had on the individual worshipper. Compare and contrast the impact that Buddhism and Hinduism had on the individual worshipper.

10 II. Imperial Expansion and Collapse, 324 BCE – 650 CE Difficulty in obtaining POLITICAL unity Difficulty in obtaining POLITICAL unity A. The Mauryan Empire, 324 – 184 BCE 600 BCE - Many kingdoms 600 BCE - Many kingdoms Magadha most powerful, Ganges plain Magadha most powerful, Ganges plain Chandragupta Chandragupta Arthashastra Arthashastra Administration (taxes, governors, army, mines, urban committees) Administration (taxes, governors, army, mines, urban committees) Pataliputra Pataliputra Ashoka – Buddhism, nonviolence, religious tolerance Ashoka – Buddhism, nonviolence, religious tolerance

11 Why was the Mauryan Empire the first to achieve political unity in India? Why was the Mauryan Empire the first to achieve political unity in India?

12 B. Commerce and Culture in an Era of Political Fragmentation Foreign powers: Greco – Bacrian, Shakas, Kushans Foreign powers: Greco – Bacrian, Shakas, Kushans Political fragmentation BUT active commerce/trade Political fragmentation BUT active commerce/trade Ramayana and Mahabharata (Bhagavad – Gita) Ramayana and Mahabharata (Bhagavad – Gita) Tension: duty to society vs. soul Tension: duty to society vs. soul Disciplined action – service – release from reincarnation Disciplined action – service – release from reincarnation Indian doctors Indian doctors Linguistics – Sanskrit Linguistics – Sanskrit Andhra Dynasty/Three Tamil Kingdoms Andhra Dynasty/Three Tamil Kingdoms Classical Period (arts) Classical Period (arts)

13 How does the Bhagavad – Gita demonstrate the impact that Buddhism had on Vedic traditions? How does the Bhagavad – Gita demonstrate the impact that Buddhism had on Vedic traditions?

14 C. The Gupta Empire, 320 – 550 CE Modeled on Mauryans Modeled on Mauryans Chandra Gupta (r. 320 – 325) – control over commerce, resources, monopolies Chandra Gupta (r. 320 – 325) – control over commerce, resources, monopolies Subjects – labor Subjects – labor Bureaucracy in CORE, governors exploited periphery, army ensured tribute Bureaucracy in CORE, governors exploited periphery, army ensured tribute Theater – state – benefits of empire Theater – state – benefits of empire Mathematics, sciences Mathematics, sciences Women: property, education, marriage, sati Women: property, education, marriage, sati Options: nun or courtesan Options: nun or courtesan Monarchs: Hindus Monarchs: Hindus Resurgence: Vedic practices, Brahmin priests, class and caste, temples Resurgence: Vedic practices, Brahmin priests, class and caste, temples Commerce Commerce Collapse - Huns Collapse - Huns

15 Does the theater – state model entirely explain how the Gupta Empire was able to control a vast array of kingdoms under its rule? Explain why or why not. Does the theater – state model entirely explain how the Gupta Empire was able to control a vast array of kingdoms under its rule? Explain why or why not.

16 III. Southeast Asia, 50 – 600 CE Geographical Areas Geographical Areas Climate, agricultural practices, products Climate, agricultural practices, products Malay peoples (3000 BCE) – migration, navigational skills Malay peoples (3000 BCE) – migration, navigational skills Rainforests, bronze, water (councils) Rainforests, bronze, water (councils) Chinese control: N. Indochina Chinese control: N. Indochina Commerce and Hindu – Buddhist Culture Commerce and Hindu – Buddhist Culture New trade route – silk New trade route – silk Route: South China Sea – Malay Peninsula – Bay of Bengal - India Route: South China Sea – Malay Peninsula – Bay of Bengal - India Later goods: woods, spices, etc. Later goods: woods, spices, etc.

17 II. Continued… Commerce brought culture Commerce brought culture Missionaries, pilgrims Missionaries, pilgrims Indian knowledge/arts Indian knowledge/arts Funan (1 st – 6 th c. CE) Funan (1 st – 6 th c. CE) Economic center: agriculture and trade Economic center: agriculture and trade Strategic location Strategic location Decline Decline

18 Compare and contrast the cores of Pataliputra and Funan. Compare and contrast the cores of Pataliputra and Funan.


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