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17 th Century Weather Crisis- Most of Europe is worse off except for the Dutch.

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17 th Century Weather Crisis- Most of Europe is worse off except for the Dutch.

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Presentation on theme: "17 th Century Weather Crisis- Most of Europe is worse off except for the Dutch."— Presentation transcript:

1 17 th Century Weather Crisis- Most of Europe is worse off except for the Dutch.

2 Less grain production: smaller and fewer animals

3 Absolutism and Constitutionalism in Western Europe Mostly France Larger standing armies. Increased 10 times by 1659 Heavy taxes Bureaucracies

4 Absolutism Sovereignty (in one ruler ) –Control of force and laws within its borders Like Medieval Kings – Divine Right Eliminate the threat of the nobility Regulated religious sects

5 How the Sovereign solved financial problems Remove the nobles from most taxes Create bureaucracies to levy taxes and find other ways to raise revenues –France – used middle class as collectors –Spain and Eastern Europe – aristocratic mix

6 Difference between the Medieval public officers and the 17 th Century Medieval and Renaissance viewed money they collected as their private property 17 th Century- money belongs to the state, collectors are representatives of the King

7 Absolutism Permanent standing armies Taxed without consent of the nobility Conducted foreign policy as the sovereign Concerned themselves with the private lives of subjects- secret police and spies. Not totalitarianism – no sophisticated mass media – TV – radio - recordings

8 Absolutism Glorification of the State –Art –Ceremonies –Building projects –Theatre

9 For Louis – The glorification of the state and of the monarch were one in the same Le etat cest moi! I am the state.

10 Absolutism War and expansionist foreign policies –Acquire new territories Europe New World –Modern sophisticated weaponry Land Sea

11 French Absolutism Henry IV –Real Politique –A chicken in every pot Aligns himself the common man Places himself above all nobility Becomes Catholic Edict of Nantes Over seas trade Highway system Wanted a United nations

12 French Absolutism Sully – Chief finance minister –Protestant –Few wars – Savoy 1610 –Paulette – lowered taxes on the poor and taxed the wealthy for holding royal offices- Permanent Judges –Taxes declined but revenues increased

13 Richelieu 1628 becomes First Minister of the French Domestic Policies Crown – Remade Frances administration. Raison d etat All must be subordinate to the Monarch Crush upstart nobles Divided France into generalities Intendants were appointed directly by the monarch from the new judicial nobility and could not be native of the district Foreign Policy – Subdue Habsburg expansion from surrounding France

14 Louis XIII (r ) Ends political independence of a state within a state. Huguenots would not allow Catholics to worship freely in their cities. La Rochelle 1627 – tied to Protestant Holland and England City falls in 1628 King reinstates Catholics Towards French unification

15 Absolutism Many riots over taxes and outsiders –Local authorities were helpless –By the end of the 17 th century municipal authority was better integrated into the national structure. The French Academy – a French language and culture Economy – France never controlled the entire economy so it was not a complete absolutism.

16 The Fronde The term means slingshot or … the rebellion of aristocrats and country folk to the reign of Louis Louis XIII under Mazarin is too weak to subject all the nobles French provinces refused to pay taxes French defeat Spain 1643 – War of the Pyrenees no need for taxes Three significant results –The gov. would have to compromise with the local elites –French economy was disrupted –Louis XIV was traumatized

17 The Sun King… Louis XIV (1643 –1715) After me, the deluge. Silence and caution… Je verrai Acted in every way like a king Complete domestication of the nobles… perhaps cooperation is a better term. The Palace at Versailles –Create a sense of awe –French replaces Latin as the international language –Used court ceremonials to undermine powerful nobles

18 Versailles

19 Colbert The Economy should serve the state Mercantilism –Concept that resources are limited –Sell more goods then you buy –System of state inspections to insure quality –Control tariffs (taxes on foreign goods) – Merchant Marine and Sea power –1683 France leads the world in productivity –1685 The most highly centralized state in Europe –Agriculture still main business. Peasants emigrated

20 Goodbye to the Edict of Nantes The Edict was never to be permanent Religious pluralism was not in the 17 th Century mindset

21 French Classicism Glorification of the state through –Plays - Moliere –Paintings - Poussin –Architecture –Greco-Roman history

22 Architecture

23 Louis XIVs Wars Standardized the army –Uniforms –Commissariat –Clear means of promotion –Gains little territory –Collapse of the wheat harvest

24 War of the Spanish Succession Charles II of Spain is unable to rule land must be divided Dutch and English would accept French rule of the Netherlands. Spain and France under French control was not acceptable The Grand Alliance – Check Frances domination at home and abroad

25 The Peace of Utrecht 1713 Philip of Anjou remains King of Spain France gives up much of Canada Depletes Spain and increases English power Austria, not the Dutch gain Spanish Netherlands

26

27 Decline of Spain Absolutist –Standing army –Bureaucracy –National taxes –Most taxes fell on the poor

28 Decline of Spain 17 th Century Expulsion of Jews and Moors depletes the middle class Europeans began to trade with Spanish colonies Declarations of bankruptcy Aristocrats saw money-making as vulgar Inflation Weakening of the monarch - inbreeding

29 Don Quixote Illusions of previous greatness Idealistic but impractical The Spaniard convinced himself that reality was what he felt, believed and imagined.

30 Constitutionalism The limiting of governmental power by law By Republic or Monarchy At this time there is not a democratic – republic in Europe

31 The Growing Power of Capitalism - England Social mobility – Growing wealth of Country gentry and middle class business men The House of Commons we could buy the House of Lords three times over. they wanted political power that was equal to their economic strength English nobility, unlike the French had no stigma associated with taxes as long as they had a say in political affairs. English nobility unlike the Spanish used their position and money in capitalistic ventures Calvinism – Hard work, thrift, delay gratification

32 R Divine Right Monarch-Tudor Suppress the nobles

33 Decline of Absolutism in England From Elizabeth I in the late 16 th century to 1689 the monarchy loses power 1603 – James IV of Scotland becomes James I of England James I Charles I Cromwell Charles II James II William and Mary of Orange

34 Elizabeth I Spanish Problem –Dutch trade –Privateers 1588 Armada Less persecution of Catholics

35 Stuarts: James Scottish Not Elizabeth Scandals

36 James I Male lovers made him lose respect in Parliament George Villiers the first Duke of Buckingham

37 Charles I (r )

38 Charles I, Cromwell, Charles II, James II. William and Mary Hobbes – the Social Contract Charles I –Treacherous Triennial Act Parliament would not provide him with an army to suppress northern rebellions English Civil War –Parliament VS. The Royalists –1649 King is beheaded Cromwell – Puritan, Military Dictator- Navigation Act Restoration – Charles II Stuart James II Catholic, Divine Right Glorious Revolution 1688 William and Mary English Bill of Rights

39 The Dutch Republic: A loose confederation of states

40 The Protectorate Cromwell-Puritan Military Dictator

41 The Restoration- Charles II

42 James II Divine Right Flees to France

43 The Glorious Revolution-1688 William and Mary of Orange –Accepts the Crown of England –Subordinate to a constitutional government

44 English Bill of Rights 1689 William and Mary

45

46 The Hague

47 The Dutch Republic of the Seventeenth Century ( 1600s) Ruled by wealthy merchants with middle class values Dutch East India Company – Overseas Imperialism Navigation Acts 1651 – All English goods be transported by English Ships Wars of 17 th and early 18 th centuries caused decline

48 Cardinal Richelieu Reason detat

49 Permanent standing armies Concerned themselves with the private lives of subjects- secret police and spies. Not totalitarianism – no sophisticated mass media – TV – radio - recordings

50 France The Estates General First Estate- The Clergy The Second Estate- The Titled The Third Estate- The Commoners

51 The Clergy- The First Estate

52 The Nobles Nobility of the Sword – Landed Feudal Lords Dukes, Barons etc

53 The Nobility of the Robe –Originally appointed –Eventually hereditary –Judges, government officials

54 The Third Estate- 98% of the population The Peasants- Land owners and laborers The Bourgeoisie- The Middle Class –Lawyers –Doctors –Merchants Urban workers

55 The Sun King… Louis XIV (1643 –1715) Cest Moi.

56

57 The Palace at Versailles Create a sense of awe The Baroque French replaces Latin as the international language Used court ceremonials to undermine powerful nobles

58 Versailles

59 The Hall of Mirrors

60 Colbert Mercantilism The economy should serve the state Sell more than you buy Use tariffs on foreign goods Build gold supply

61 War and expansionist foreign policies Acquire new territories Europe New World Modern sophisticated weaponry Land Sea

62 War of the Spanish Succession Charles II of Spain is unable to rule land must be divided Dutch and English would accept French rule of the Netherlands. Spain and France under French control was not acceptable The Grand Alliance – Check Frances domination at home and abroad

63

64 Absolutism is France King was still the best source of reform Louis XIV dies 1715 nobles under the Duke of Orleans make a comeback Restored the high courts of France – the Parlements… They maintained the right to evaluate decrees before they became law What once were middle-class judges were now well entrenched in the aristocracy

65 Louis XV

66 The Parlement of Paris and the Conflict of theKing 5% tax on everyone 1750s was dropped by the judges. Seven Years War King tries to impose emergency taxes Parlement of Paris rejects the tax to limit the kings power and protect liberty. No taxes without the consent of The Parlement of Paris

67 Louis XV Reacts Mapeou establishes a new more docile Parlement

68 The king of his royal aura –Pornography –Scandal mongering –The commoners of Paris were beginning to stir –Royal power was strong enough to ride over the opposition but the king dies in 1774 –Louis XVI What I should like most is to be loved.

69 Louis XVI What I should like most is to be loved.

70 Overall influence of the Enlightenment France unlike the its eastern neighbors saw a decline in absolutism The Enlightened Monarchs –They did spread cultural values of the Enlightenment… especially Frederick and Catherine Secular Education and interest in the arts Reforms that would strengthen the state and compete militarily…


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