2A. Republic of Farmers; 753 – 31 BCE Founding (Romulus)LandownershipIndependent farmersRights/limitations for citizensSenate – consulsPatricians vs. plebiansPatron – client relationshipWomen - rightsPax deorum
3Compare and contrast the rights of citizens in Athens and the Roman Republic.
4B. Expansion in Italy and the Mediterranean CausesMilitary structureExtension of citizenship (Italy)Wars with Carthaginians and Hellenistic Empires (264 – 146 BCE)Afraid of overextensionDirect controlJulius Caesar – GaulLocal elite – taxesGovernors in the provinces
5C. Failure of the Republic Loss of independent farmersPowerful aristocracySlavesLandless men (military)Powerful generals – loyalty of militaryDictators
6Why did the Roman Republic pursue a policy of expansion Why did the Roman Republic pursue a policy of expansion? What were the costs of this policy?
7D. The Roman Principate Octavian (Augustus 31 – 14 BCE) Appearance of RepublicMore territory (Egypt)Equites – civil serviceImmediate successionArmies, meritLegal experts – new laws
8E. An Urban Empire Big cities Lack of cheap labor Absentee landlords Agriculture FUNDS citiesTrade in pax RomanaRomanization212 CE – citizenship extended to provincesEmperors FROM provinces
9How would you characterize the core – periphery relationship in Rome during the first two centuries of the Roman principate?
10F. Rise of Christianity Roman control over Palestine (unrest) Jesus of Nazareth (4 BCE – 30 CE)Sources/dates – Bible“Historical Jesus”Paul – gentilesJewish – Roman War (66 – 70 CE)PersecutionMystery Cults
11How did the Roman Empire both facilitate, and challenge, the spread of Christianity before Constantine?
12G. Crisis (235 – 284 CE) and Changes Roads, walls, aqueducts, bordersThird Century Crisis: emperors, soldiers, lack of taxes, etc.Diocletian – state control of economyConstantine (306 – 337 CE)313 CE – Edict of MilanCapital: Rome to Byzantium
13H. Byzantines and Germans East vs. westGrowth of Church325 CE – Council of NicaeaStructure/beliefsJustinian (527 – 565 CE) – law codes395 CE - Separation of empiresGermans overwhelm the west410 CE – Visigoths sack Rome; 476 – last Roman emperorLanguages
14What brought about the fall of the Roman Empire?