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Rome’s Mediterranean Empire 753 BCE – 600 CE

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Presentation on theme: "Rome’s Mediterranean Empire 753 BCE – 600 CE"— Presentation transcript:

1 Rome’s Mediterranean Empire 753 BCE – 600 CE

2 A. Republic of Farmers; 753 – 31 BCE
Founding (Romulus) Landownership Independent farmers Rights/limitations for citizens Senate – consuls Patricians vs. plebians Patron – client relationship Women - rights Pax deorum

3 Compare and contrast the rights of citizens in Athens and the Roman Republic.

4 B. Expansion in Italy and the Mediterranean
Causes Military structure Extension of citizenship (Italy) Wars with Carthaginians and Hellenistic Empires (264 – 146 BCE) Afraid of overextension Direct control Julius Caesar – Gaul Local elite – taxes Governors in the provinces

5 C. Failure of the Republic
Loss of independent farmers Powerful aristocracy Slaves Landless men (military) Powerful generals – loyalty of military Dictators

6 Why did the Roman Republic pursue a policy of expansion
Why did the Roman Republic pursue a policy of expansion? What were the costs of this policy?

7 D. The Roman Principate Octavian (Augustus 31 – 14 BCE)
Appearance of Republic More territory (Egypt) Equites – civil service Immediate succession Armies, merit Legal experts – new laws

8 E. An Urban Empire Big cities Lack of cheap labor Absentee landlords
Agriculture FUNDS cities Trade in pax Romana Romanization 212 CE – citizenship extended to provinces Emperors FROM provinces

9 How would you characterize the core – periphery relationship in Rome during the first two centuries of the Roman principate?

10 F. Rise of Christianity Roman control over Palestine (unrest)
Jesus of Nazareth (4 BCE – 30 CE) Sources/dates – Bible “Historical Jesus” Paul – gentiles Jewish – Roman War (66 – 70 CE) Persecution Mystery Cults

11 How did the Roman Empire both facilitate, and challenge, the spread of Christianity before Constantine?

12 G. Crisis (235 – 284 CE) and Changes
Roads, walls, aqueducts, borders Third Century Crisis: emperors, soldiers, lack of taxes, etc. Diocletian – state control of economy Constantine (306 – 337 CE) 313 CE – Edict of Milan Capital: Rome to Byzantium

13 H. Byzantines and Germans
East vs. west Growth of Church 325 CE – Council of Nicaea Structure/beliefs Justinian (527 – 565 CE) – law codes 395 CE - Separation of empires Germans overwhelm the west 410 CE – Visigoths sack Rome; 476 – last Roman emperor Languages

14 What brought about the fall of the Roman Empire?

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