2 A. Republic of Farmers; 753 – 31 BCE Founding (Romulus)LandownershipIndependent farmersRights/limitations for citizensSenate – consulsPatricians vs. plebiansPatron – client relationshipWomen - rightsPax deorum
3 Compare and contrast the rights of citizens in Athens and the Roman Republic.
4 B. Expansion in Italy and the Mediterranean CausesMilitary structureExtension of citizenship (Italy)Wars with Carthaginians and Hellenistic Empires (264 – 146 BCE)Afraid of overextensionDirect controlJulius Caesar – GaulLocal elite – taxesGovernors in the provinces
5 C. Failure of the Republic Loss of independent farmersPowerful aristocracySlavesLandless men (military)Powerful generals – loyalty of militaryDictators
6 Why did the Roman Republic pursue a policy of expansion Why did the Roman Republic pursue a policy of expansion? What were the costs of this policy?
7 D. The Roman Principate Octavian (Augustus 31 – 14 BCE) Appearance of RepublicMore territory (Egypt)Equites – civil serviceImmediate successionArmies, meritLegal experts – new laws
8 E. An Urban Empire Big cities Lack of cheap labor Absentee landlords Agriculture FUNDS citiesTrade in pax RomanaRomanization212 CE – citizenship extended to provincesEmperors FROM provinces
9 How would you characterize the core – periphery relationship in Rome during the first two centuries of the Roman principate?
10 F. Rise of Christianity Roman control over Palestine (unrest) Jesus of Nazareth (4 BCE – 30 CE)Sources/dates – Bible“Historical Jesus”Paul – gentilesJewish – Roman War (66 – 70 CE)PersecutionMystery Cults
11 How did the Roman Empire both facilitate, and challenge, the spread of Christianity before Constantine?
12 G. Crisis (235 – 284 CE) and Changes Roads, walls, aqueducts, bordersThird Century Crisis: emperors, soldiers, lack of taxes, etc.Diocletian – state control of economyConstantine (306 – 337 CE)313 CE – Edict of MilanCapital: Rome to Byzantium
13 H. Byzantines and Germans East vs. westGrowth of Church325 CE – Council of NicaeaStructure/beliefsJustinian (527 – 565 CE) – law codes395 CE - Separation of empiresGermans overwhelm the west410 CE – Visigoths sack Rome; 476 – last Roman emperorLanguages
14 What brought about the fall of the Roman Empire?