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Romes Mediterranean Empire 753 BCE – 600 CE. A. Republic of Farmers; 753 – 31 BCE Founding (Romulus) Founding (Romulus) Landownership Landownership Independent.

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Presentation on theme: "Romes Mediterranean Empire 753 BCE – 600 CE. A. Republic of Farmers; 753 – 31 BCE Founding (Romulus) Founding (Romulus) Landownership Landownership Independent."— Presentation transcript:

1 Romes Mediterranean Empire 753 BCE – 600 CE

2 A. Republic of Farmers; 753 – 31 BCE Founding (Romulus) Founding (Romulus) Landownership Landownership Independent farmers Independent farmers Rights/limitations for citizens Rights/limitations for citizens Senate – consuls Senate – consuls Patricians vs. plebians Patricians vs. plebians Patron – client relationship Patron – client relationship Women - rights Women - rights Pax deorum Pax deorum

3 Compare and contrast the rights of citizens in Athens and the Roman Republic.

4 B. Expansion in Italy and the Mediterranean Causes Causes Military structure Military structure Extension of citizenship (Italy) Extension of citizenship (Italy) Wars with Carthaginians and Hellenistic Empires (264 – 146 BCE) Wars with Carthaginians and Hellenistic Empires (264 – 146 BCE) Afraid of overextension Afraid of overextension Direct control Direct control Julius Caesar – Gaul Julius Caesar – Gaul Local elite – taxes Local elite – taxes Governors in the provinces Governors in the provinces

5 C. Failure of the Republic Loss of independent farmers Loss of independent farmers Powerful aristocracy Powerful aristocracy Slaves Slaves Landless men (military) Landless men (military) Powerful generals – loyalty of military Powerful generals – loyalty of military Dictators Dictators

6 Why did the Roman Republic pursue a policy of expansion? What were the costs of this policy?

7 D. The Roman Principate Octavian (Augustus 31 – 14 BCE) Octavian (Augustus 31 – 14 BCE) Appearance of Republic Appearance of Republic More territory (Egypt) More territory (Egypt) Equites – civil service Equites – civil service Immediate succession Immediate succession Armies, merit Armies, merit Legal experts – new laws Legal experts – new laws

8 E. An Urban Empire Big cities Big cities Lack of cheap labor Lack of cheap labor Absentee landlords Absentee landlords Agriculture FUNDS cities Agriculture FUNDS cities Trade in pax Romana Trade in pax Romana Romanization Romanization 212 CE – citizenship extended to provinces 212 CE – citizenship extended to provinces Emperors FROM provinces Emperors FROM provinces

9 How would you characterize the core – periphery relationship in Rome during the first two centuries of the Roman principate?

10 F. Rise of Christianity Roman control over Palestine (unrest) Roman control over Palestine (unrest) Jesus of Nazareth (4 BCE – 30 CE) Jesus of Nazareth (4 BCE – 30 CE) Sources/dates – Bible Sources/dates – Bible Historical Jesus Historical Jesus Paul – gentiles Paul – gentiles Jewish – Roman War (66 – 70 CE) Jewish – Roman War (66 – 70 CE) Persecution Persecution Mystery Cults Mystery Cults

11 How did the Roman Empire both facilitate, and challenge, the spread of Christianity before Constantine?

12 G. Crisis (235 – 284 CE) and Changes Roads, walls, aqueducts, borders Roads, walls, aqueducts, borders Third Century Crisis: emperors, soldiers, lack of taxes, etc. Third Century Crisis: emperors, soldiers, lack of taxes, etc. Diocletian – state control of economy Diocletian – state control of economy Constantine (306 – 337 CE) Constantine (306 – 337 CE) 313 CE – Edict of Milan 313 CE – Edict of Milan Capital: Rome to Byzantium Capital: Rome to Byzantium

13 H. Byzantines and Germans East vs. west East vs. west Growth of Church Growth of Church 325 CE – Council of Nicaea 325 CE – Council of Nicaea Structure/beliefs Structure/beliefs Justinian (527 – 565 CE) – law codes Justinian (527 – 565 CE) – law codes 395 CE - Separation of empires 395 CE - Separation of empires Germans overwhelm the west Germans overwhelm the west 410 CE – Visigoths sack Rome; 476 – last Roman emperor 410 CE – Visigoths sack Rome; 476 – last Roman emperor Languages Languages

14 What brought about the fall of the Roman Empire?


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