6 Serfdom increases in the East Lords created laws that restricted the free movement of peasants – run-a-ways in Prussia had their ears nailed to a post and given a knife to cut themselves freeLandlords took more and more of their land and increased labor obligationsLocal lords were judge and jury
7 Consolidation of Serfdom Poland – Lords could inflict deathPrussia (1653 ) Hereditary subjugationRussia – (1649) 9 year time limit on runaways was lifted
8 Increase in Agriculture As European economy expanded, the price of food increasedMore peasants meant a surplus of local products were sold to foreign marketsWas it simply to develop of export markets?
9 No effective Central Government Political rather than economic factors were the difference in the status of serfs.Identical developments caused opposite results in the west.Local nobles held more power over weaker kings and increased their political demandsA king in the east was the first among equalsNobles undermined cities power. Products were sold directly to foreign capitalistsImportance of urban middle class declined “ no more did town air make one free.”
10 East as least and West as Best Because of social inequalities and harsher economic conditions, the west perceived the east as barbaric and uncivilized.Therefore the east was considered morally inferior which was eventually tied to ethnicityThe Ottomans
12 Toward a Central Government Monarchs gained power in three key areasImposed and collected taxes without consentCreated standing armiesConducted relations with foreign states as they pleased
13 Austria and the Ottoman Turks Devastated by the Thirty Years WarThe loss made them turn inwardEstablished direct rule over BohemiaThe robot… 3 days a week of unpaid laborProtestants were stamped out1683 – Ottomans are in retreat to the east the Habsburgs take Hungary
14 The Pragmatic Sanction 1713 Habsburg land was divided into three fragile political entitiesAustriaBohemiaHungaryRakoczy- RevoltDefeated 1703All would be passed to a single heir.Hapsburgs . Hungary accepts Habsburg ruler but is never fully integrated into the Empire.
15 Prussia in the 17th Century The Elector of Brandenburg – had prestige to elect the Holy Roman Emperor, but no military powerEstates of princes’ were weakened by the Thirty Years WarFrederick William the “Great Elector”Comes to power 1640
16 Frederick William The Great Elector [r.1640-1688]
17 The Junkers Landowning nobles that had dominated Prussia Frederick was not resisted in his drive toward absolutism by the nobles “they barked but did not bite”Different than England which had moved to constitutionalism
18 Frederick the Great Elector Introduced permanent taxes without consentPaid for a standing armyThe size of the army grew ten-foldTwo major reasons for successThe invaders to the east demanded a consolidation of forcesAllowed the nobles to continue their rights and privileges over the peasants, but the royal authorities could tax the townspeople
19 Frederick the Ostentatious 1688-1713 Weak in mind and bodyMan crush on Louis XIVLuxury and petty tyranny
20 Frederick William I “ The Soldier King” 1713-1740 Prussian war psychology- cult of the military- with the Junkers as officersBest and strongest soldiers“Dog eat dog” view of world politicsViolent temper – immediate and severe punishmentsObsession for tall soldiers
21 The Prussian Military Grows from 38,000 to 83,000 Amazing discipline and precisionAlthough ready for war, he was usually at peaceTall males were recruited
22 Replaces the Estates with bureaucracy Frederick was austere which made his country economically conscientiousMinisters were honest and fair
23 RussiaIt is a riddle, wrapped in a mystery, inside an enigma … Winston Churchill
24 The Mongol Yoke Russia was forced to pay tribute The Greatest prince was the one that paid the most moneyIvan I – “money bags”(r )Collects taxes for the MongolsIvan III (r 1462 – 1505) Muscovite princes’ gain authorityIvan III stops acknowledging MongolsFall of Constantinople – holy Russia 1480
25 Ivan the Terrible(IV) R. 1533-1584 Turns west against the Poland and Lithuanian stateDestroys leading Boyars with secret policePurges many other elements of societyGreater oppression of the serfsAll were servants of the Prince
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