2Injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere Injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere. Martin Luther King Jr.
3Justice is the use of law and being fair What is JusticeMoral principle that determines what is just, equitable, and morally right based on ethical, political, environmental, and religious beliefs and values.Just: guided by truth, reason, and fairnessPromoting welfare, virtue, and freedomKeeping intact the foundations of our democracy including upholding the lawSecuring natural rightsAccording to Merriam WebsterJustice is the use of law and being fair
4Sandel’s Theories of Justice Michael Sandel is a professor of history and philosophy at Harvard University. He is one of the most prominent thinkers and writers on the idea of justice today.JusticeMaximizing WelfarePromoting VirtueRespecting Freedom
5Maximizing Welfare Improving standard of living for society as a whole Bringing the “greatest happiness for the greatest number” of people = UTILITARIANThis means that a persons theory of justice is based on promoting prosperity or spurring economic growth, to seek the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people.Examples: Social Security, healthcare (Medicare and Medicaid), public schools, criminal justice system with prisons
6Respecting FreedomThis means that you have respect for individual rights and universal human rights. E.g. the Bill of RightsEmphasis on respect for individual rightsLaissez-faire camp (free-market libertarians)Policies that respect voluntary choices so minimal government intervention in individual lives and choices.Fairness camp (egalitarian theorists)Policies that give everyone a fair chance at success so government passes laws that ensure everyone has equal opportunity.
7“A just society affirms certain virtues” Promoting VirtueThis means that you look at justice by affirming certain virtues and conceptions of the ‘good life’.These virtues must be defined by society by drawing from moral or religious ideals.“A just society affirms certain virtues”Policies and laws are made based on those virtues.
8Other PhilosophersAristotle - justice means giving people what they deserve.John Rawls – a fair society respects each person’s freedom to decide what is virtue.
9Justice involves REAL issues that deal with the equality and fair treatment of humanity and the environment.Justice also involves the laws in a country or nation, and the arrangement of how a government will protect it’s values and maintain order while preserving the rights of the people.
10Essential Questions: How is justice defined? Can a free society ensure both justice and liberty?Should justice be our first priority?