Common Medical Procedure Costs A regular office visit $80 Ambulance ride $500-$1,000 Step on a rusty nail $1,030 Allergic reaction to a bee sting $1,050 Fixing a broken arm $2,523 Appendectomy $12,000-$14,000 (depending on hospital stay) Healthcare per person on average annually $8,160
How do disease, healthcare, and poverty connect? Those who are in poverty don't have access to healthcare, which means that when they get sick they can't afford medical services to recover. Often, people's healthcare comes from their employer, so if the primary provider for a family is unemployed (and therefore the family is in poverty), the family doesn't have medical insurance. "Health Inequality" is the term used to describe unfair disparities between two demographics
How many people have healthcare in America? Nearly 45.5 million Americans-- 7 million of whom are children-- are uninsured (about 15% of the total population) 16 million (about 5% of the population) more have such inadequate coverage that they are forced to forgo needed care.
How much does healthcare cost? It costs an average of $8,160 per person to be insured, and is expected to reach $13,100 by the year 2013. The United States currently expends 14 percent of its gross domestic product (GDP) on health care, but that is expected to rise in the next decade.
Indemnity vs. HMO vs. Medicare Indemnity Insurance o Before 1990, most health insurance was this type o Simply reimburses patients for medical expenses o Patient is free to see any doctor o The patient pays the doctor and receives back most of the cost from the insurance company. Health Maintenance Organizations (HMO) o Also called managed care o Since 1990, it has dominated the market and now covers 85% of employed Americans o Insurance companies hire doctors and hospitals to provide care for their subscribers, who pay a monthly premium and small copayments to use those services. o Costs somewhat less o Subscribers agree to go to only the doctors and hospitals the company employs and the insurer decides what medical care they will pay for. Medicare/Medicaid o National healthcare plans o Medical insurance programs for the elderly, the disabled, and the poor created by President Lyndon B. Johnson in 1965 through an amendment to the 1935 Social Security Act
More on Medicare and Medicaid Medicare (Title XVIII of the Social Security Act) Provides health insurance for people aged 65 and over and those seriously disabled Covers short-term hospital and nursing home expenses, physician and outpatient services, and home health care. Does not cover long-term nursing home care, dental and eye care, or prescription drugs. Beneficiaries pay a portion of the insured services. Medicaid (Title XIX of the Social Security Act) Provides insurance for certain needy individuals. Federal government provides partial funding but states run the program within broad guidelines. The states must cover hospital, physician, diagnostic, and home health services; nursing home care; and family planning for beneficiaries. Coverage of prescription drugs, eyeglasses, and intermediate care is optional. Provides money for the treatment of patients with AIDS.
Who gets government healthcare? People with disabilities and the elderly have the highest priority. Parents, or adults with many dependents, have priority for government healthcare when in poverty. o In 1997, Massachusetts raised the income threshold for Medicaid eligibility for parents from 86% to 133% of poverty, and began providing premium assistance support to parents with incomes up to 200% of poverty. o In 1999, Wisconsin expanded coverage to parents with incomes up to 185% of poverty, an increase from 51%. o In 2000, New Jersey expanded coverage to parents with incomes up to 200% of poverty, up from 41%. o Also in 2000, California raised the income threshold for parents from 74% to 100% of poverty. Those without dependents have lower priority. o Massachusetts, which had previously not provided any coverage for nondisabled childless adults, began in 1997 providing premium assistance to such adults with incomes up to 200% of poverty.
What will President Obama do? Obama has pledged to "lower costs by taking on anticompetitive actions in the drug and insurance companies. He will support disease prevention and health promotion efforts and invest $50 billion over the next 5 years to accelerate adoption of health information technology. Healthcare issues are being considered as part of the early stimulus package to prevent people who lose their jobs from losing their coverage. –These items include increased federal support to states to maintain or expand their Medicaid enrollment –Reauthorization of and increased funding for the State Children's Health Insurance Program –Grants to states to speed adoption of health information technology –Expansion of the Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (COBRA) to give certain laid-off workers the right to temporarily continue insurance coverage at group rates.
Who has access to healthcare? 86% of women in the United States report having some sort of healthcare, compared to only 74% of men who have healthcare. In a study by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS), the greatest deficiency in care was observed for African Americans, who had a 60% greater likelihood of receiving inadequate dialysis (treatment for kidney disease) compared with whites. The young adult population are the least insured in America. Because theyre off their parents healthcare plan and not yet into a steady job with provided healthcare, they dont often have insurance.
Lack of Healthcare kills.... According to Urban Institute, there are 27,000 preventable deaths in America each year due to a lack of healthcare Uninsured people often postpone getting checked out by doctors because they know it will be too expensive, and often only seek care when it is too late. By that time, the procedures necessary are far more costly.
Trying to End the Inequalities In 2004 the Commonwealth Fund wrote a report outlining steps to combat healthcare disparities: expanded access for minorities greater minority representation within the healthcare workforce consistent racial and ethnic data collection by healthcare providers
Citations "Healthcare Coverage; Study asks if adults benefiting from state health insurance expansions." Life Science Weekly. 14 Feb 2006. 869. eLibrary. Proquest CSA. MOUNTAIN VIEW HIGH SCHOOL. 17 May 2009.. Iglehart, John K. "Visions for Change in U.S. Health Care -- The Players and the Possibilities." New England Journal of Medicine. 15 Jan 2009. 205. eLibrary. Proquest CSA. MOUNTAIN VIEW HIGH SCHOOL. 21 May 2009.. J. McDonough, B. Gibbs, J. Scott-Harris, K. Kronebusch, A. Navarro, and K. A. Taylor, "State Policy Agenda to Eliminate Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities," Commonwealth Fund (June 2004). Krugman, Paul. "Health Care Horror Stories." New York Times. 17 May 2009. Michael E. Makover, MD. "What's wrong with managed care and how to fix it." World & I. 01 Feb 2000. 299. eLibrary. Proquest CSA. MOUNTAIN VIEW HIGH SCHOOL. 17 May 2009.. Minnesota Council of Health Plans. "How Much Does It cost." mmhealthplans. 17 May 2009 <www.mnhealthplans.org/consumers/documents/ HowMuchDoesItCost2005.doc>. Owen, William F Jr; Szczech, Lynda A; Frankenfield, Diane L. "Healthcare system interventions for inequality in quality: Corrective action through evidence-based medicine." Journal of the National Medical Association. 8 2002. S83. eLibrary. Proquest CSA. MOUNTAIN VIEW HIGH SCHOOL. 17 May 2009.. Robert M. Hayes. "Preserve Medicare: The program could offer a solution to our nation's deepening healthcare crisis." Financial Planning. 01 Jul 2006. eLibrary. Proquest CSA. MOUNTAIN VIEW HIGH SCHOOL. 17 May 2009.. Sitkoff, Harvard. "Medicare and Medicaid." Postwar America: A Student Companion. n.p., Oxford University Press. 2000. n.pag. eLibrary. Proquest CSA. MOUNTAIN VIEW HIGH SCHOOL. 17 May 2009..