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World War I The Great Break All previous morality questioned Life is absurd lost Generation Totalitarian States Socialism and Fascism Vs. Western Democracies.

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Presentation on theme: "World War I The Great Break All previous morality questioned Life is absurd lost Generation Totalitarian States Socialism and Fascism Vs. Western Democracies."— Presentation transcript:


2 World War I The Great Break All previous morality questioned Life is absurd lost Generation Totalitarian States Socialism and Fascism Vs. Western Democracies WWII Cold War

3 Some Numbers… 65,038,810- soldiers, sailors, airman 8,020,780- military deaths 6,642,633- civilian deaths 21,228,813- military wounded 20,000,000 Great Epidemic

4 Early Alliances- History Triple Alliance history: To Isolate France 1882- German alliance with Austria-Hungary, Italy-Triple Alliance 1887- German alliance with Russia allowed to lapse

5 Early Alliances Triple Entente history 1892- French alliance with Russia England believed Germans were rivals…Navy was the issue 1907 Triple Entente: France Great Britain, Russia – The Allies


7 Allies and Central Powers

8 The Stage is Set Central Powers Germany Austria Italy Jumps out Ottomans Join (Turks) Bulgaria Joins Allies France Russia Great Britain Italy Russia quits 1917 USA comes in 1917

9 The Outbreak of War Causes of WWI Militarism Alliances 2 rival groups in Europe Nationalism Industrialism Imperialism Arms Race

10 Nationalism Competition among European rivalries: Social Darwinism Slavs Greater Serbia- unite south Slavs, under from Austria- Hungary rule Russian Pan Slavism


12 2. Militarism & Arms Race Total Defense Expenditures for the Great Powers [Ger., A-H, It., Fr., Br., Rus.] in millions of £s. 187018801890190019101914 94130154268289398 1910-1914 Increase in Defense Expenditures France10% Britain13% Russia39% Germany73%


14 Some damned foolish thing in the Balkans. -Bismarcks prediction on what would provoke the next war

15 Murder in Sarajevo June 28, 1914 Gavrilo Princip- (Nationalism) Member of Black Hand Assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to A-H throne Why: prepare way for a Slavic revolution Not sentenced to death, under 20






21 Austrian Response Murder used as excuse for action against Serbia Austria turns to Germany July 5- blank check Russia feared Austrian control of Balkans Austria issues an ultimatum

22 The Ultimatums Set of Demands (48 hr. to respond) End all anti-Austrian activity Allow Austria to handle murder investigation & judge accused Austria knew Serbia would NOT agree

23 Russia Mobilizes Stood behind Serbia Troops moved to Austrian border Nicholas II tells Kaiser just precautionary Germans see as 1 st move to war Russia looks to France

24 The Start of War 1914 July 28- Austria declares war on Serbia July 30- Russia mobilizes for war August 1- Germany declares on Russia August 4- France declares war on Germany August 4- Britain declares war on Germany (Belgiums neutrality violated)

25 Start of War cont. August 5-Austria declares war on Russia August 6- Serbia declares war on Germany August 10- France declares war on Austria August 12- England declares war on Austria

26 Start of War cont. August 23- Japan declares war on Germany August 25-Austria declares war on Japan **Alliances caused a chain reaction of declarations of war

27 Central Powers Battle Plans German- Schlieffen Plan Neutralize France in a couple of weeks and turn to east Great Wheel- wide turning movement through Belgium (neutral) into France from north Quick attack, then turn to Russia

28 Allies Battle Plans French- XVII Offensive-immediate and overwhelming force against Alsace- Lorraine Russian Plan G- Defensive- If Germans committed troop to Russia not France Plan A- if Germans concentrated forces against France- Russian move into East Prussia









37 …I fell down on my knees and thanked Heaven…for granting me the good fortune of being permitted to live at this time. -Adolf Hitler 1924


39 Boys we will be home before the leaves fall from the trees. Kaiser Wilhelm of Germany… August 4 th 1914 on the eastern Belgian border







46 The Maxim Gun







53 New Weapons Zeppelin- dirigible Howitzer- penetrate concrete Poison gas- ammonia Machine gun Dreadnought battleship Airplane- observation then bombing Submarine







60 Allied ships sunk by the U-Boot

61 Sea Power Will Give Way to Air Power


63 Types of Fighting Trench Warfare= STALEMATE 600 miles of trenches in France no mans land- wasteland of barbed wire, trees, earth U-boats (untersea)- Used to cut off supplies from Britain Interfered in shipping of neutral countries

64 Important Battles Battle of the Marne Sept 6 1914 End Schlieffen Plan Britain and France drive wedge in German troops, NO quick victory Battle of Verdun 1916 Major German offensive Results in stalemate (700,000 French and Germans die)

65 Total War


67 Role of the United States Americas original stance= Neutral Use of propaganda- info designed to influence peoples beliefs or actions France and England tried to gain US support- war as struggle between democracy and authoritarian govt.

68 WWI Propaganda






















90 1915 Sinking of the Lusitania


92 Zimmerman Note

93 US motives to enter war… Economic- American banks and businesses loaned $1.5billion to Allied govts. Lose war, not pay back money Lusitania- British passenger ship sunk by German U-boats 128 Americans killed (women, kids) Arms also being transported

94 American entry into war… Zimmermann Note From German diplomat to Mexican govt. If Mexico helps Germany, Germany would help them regain land in Texas and Southwest British broke code, reported to US The British are broke! April 1917 US declares war on Germany

95 The Yanks Are Coming and they wont be back until its over, over there! War time propaganda song millions Americans try to enlist

96 John Black Jack Pershing Five Star General

97 The Eastern Front Countries Involved Important Battles/Events Important People Type of Fighting

98 Decisive victories and movement on Eastern Front Russian Problems- junior and mid level officers tended to be illiterate Encryption too difficult not done, enemies easily discovered or heard plans

99 Russian Female Soldiers

100 Important Battles, Events March 1917- Czar Nicholas II is forced to abdicate after heavy casualties and food shortages Soldiers leaving front lines and going home March 1918 Treaty of Brest-Litovsk- New Communist Russian govt. signs humiliating treaty with Germany Peace, Bread, Land

101 Russian Surrender Brest –Litovsk 1917-18


103 T.E. Lawrence Lawrence of Arabia

104 The Armistice A halt to fighting The Eleventh Hour The Eleventh Day The Eleventh Month 1918

105 Railway Car Where Surrender Took Place Put in Museum

106 Central Powers Battle Plans Germany- 2 front war Austrian Plan B- if war confined to Serbia 3 armies invade Serbia 3 armies watch Russian border Plan R More troops concentrated in Russia German action in North

107 Western Front Countries involved Important battles Important people Type of fighting

108 Countries Involved Germany France Britain

109 Important Battles Sept. 2, 1914- Germans near Paris Problem- Russia mobilizes too quickly Germany sends soldiers to Eastern Front ** 2 Front War- German lines will be stretched


111 Countries Involved Germany Russia Austria-Hungary

112 Important People… Gen. John J. Pershing- led US troops Helped Allies stop offensive at 2 nd battle of the Marne Allies now on counter-offensive Joseph Papa Joffre- French commander-in-chief Kept failing French army together and fighting













125 Other Fronts Italy- 1915 Secret agreement with France and Britain Land in Austria and Africa Asia and the Pacific- 1914 Japan joins Allies Japan takes over German spheres of influence in Asia

126 Other Fronts cont… Ottoman Empire- Mines prevented Allies from coming to Russias aid Arabs helped defeat Ottomans- crush Ottomans power in Middle East Africa- Germany colonies in Africa taken over by Allies

127 The Peace Treaties David Lloyd George- Britain Georges Clemenceau- France Woodrow Wilson- United States Vittorio Orlando- Italy


129 Wilsons 14 Point Plan Self-determination- Govts. Free from foreign control A fair peace- peace without victory where enemies wouldnt want revenge Disarmament- lasting peace meant end to militarism

130 Wilsons 14 Point Plan cont… Fair treatment of colonial people- Imperialist power look out for welfare of people (part of govt.) League of Nations- International peace keeping group, settle quarrels, no secret treaty

131 Problems with Plan France strongly opposed most battles in France fear of future attack Self-determination- no way to draw borders and please everyone too many nationalities

132 Peace of Paris 5 treaties- one with each defeated country Most important was Treaty of Versailles negotiated with Germany June 1919

133 Treaty of Versailles 5 major issues Territorial Changes Mandates Reparations New States League of Nations

134 Territorial Changes France- regains Alsace- Lorraine, Saar region (coal mines) Poland- Polish corridor (German land), Danzig established as free city

135 Territorial Changes cont… Germany Rhine river demilitarized Army reduced to 100,000 with no heavy artillery Draft abolished Navy greatly reduced

136 Mandates Regions administered by another country until ready for independence Germany lost overseas territories in Africa, Asia, Pacific Ocean

137 Reparations- war damages War blamed on Germany Germany forced to pay to make up for loss of property, ships, farms 1921- amount to pay= $33 billion ***German resentment of Allies***

138 New States Austria-Hungary= Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, Hungary Austria forbidden from uniting with Germany again Ottoman Empire= lost land outside Turkey (Turkish nationalists overthrew Ottomans

139 League of Nations 160 countries US did NOT join- isolationism (stay out of foreign entanglements) Members respect each others borders and settle disputes within League

140 Problems with Treaty Treaty too harsh on Germany Hard for new govt. to survive following treaty conditions Germans resent Allies Just stopped fighting did NOT surrender

141 The Aftermath Total War- all human and material resources of countries used 8 million dead, 21 million wounded Civilians killed, population sacrificed, propaganda, censorship




145 The Players Allies (Triple Entente)- France, Britain, and Russia Formed by Treaty of London 1915- Italy joins Central Powers (Triple Alliance)- Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire, Bulgaria (1915)



148 Women 1928- women in Britain given right to vote 1920- 19 th Amendment gives US women the right to vote

149 Unresolved Problems Militarist ideas persisted- REVENGE Imperialism- colonies could only wait for independence Nationalism- rivalries intensified League of Nations- weak with no real power


151 Important People Paul von Hindenburg- German Fieldmarshal Battle of Tannenberg: Ends initial Russian victories Russias war effort begins to collapse 92,000 prisoners, 30,000 dead Unrestricted sub warfare on British


153 Alliances Triple Alliance- (protect from invasion) Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy Formed after 1871 (1882) Franco-Prussian War- against France (Alsace-Lorraine) 1907 Triple Entente-(not fight each other) France, England, Russia British Fear of German industrial expansion

154 Militarism Policy of glorifying war and readying the armed forces for war Build-up of armaments- weapons and armies Signs of crisis brought public cries for war

155 Militarism War- purest form of patriotism People forgot horrors of past wars People believed war would be short Great Powers, except GB,- large standing army

156 Important People cont… T.E. Lawrence- Lawrence of Arabia British leader of Arab guerilla forces fighting against Turks Henri Philippe Petain- French His defense of Verdun made him a national hero Ferdinand Foch- French Most brilliantly aggressive general of WWI Supreme Allied Commander by end of war


158 Imperialism Disputes over colonies led to jealousy and mistrust Italy and Germany wanted to catch up with England and France

159 Nationalism France- desire to regain Alsace- Lorraine Germany- extend power and territory Russian Pan-Slavists- rule over Slavs of Eastern Europe Access of Mediterranean

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