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Germany Before Bismarck Early 1800’s industry is growing rapidly Zollverein – Trade org. that excludes Austria Italian unification 1859 stimulated.

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Presentation on theme: "Germany Before Bismarck Early 1800’s industry is growing rapidly Zollverein – Trade org. that excludes Austria Italian unification 1859 stimulated."— Presentation transcript:



3 Germany Before Bismarck
Early 1800’s industry is growing rapidly Zollverein – Trade org. that excludes Austria Italian unification 1859 stimulated German nationalism

4 Bismarck 1862 Called upon to head ministry to suppress liberalism
Blood and Iron Prussia and Austria go to war with Denmark Bismarck wanted Prussia to control the northern Protestant part of Germany


6 Provokes Austria into war
Seven weeks. Prussia wins and gives Venetia to Italy Gives Austria generous terms


8 The Taming of Parliament
Conservatives had to make peace with the liberal middle class German Govt. Federation with king as pres. Chancellor responsible only to king Controls Army And foreign affairs Two houses Upper house appointed by different states Lower house universal male suffrage-appeals to working class Middle class liberals subdued and happy

9 Ruling Parties Align With the Lower Class
European Countries that have a large working class receive social programs Middle class taxes pay for social programs Governments gain support from the majority- The working class

10 The Franco Prussian War 1870-1871
The Ems Dispatch Bismarck edits a letter to insult the French over succession to the Spanish throne Napoleon III demands an apology Wilhelm I refuses France prepares to teach Prussia a lesson


12 Blood and Iron Vs. Elan and Cran

13 The War Southern German states support cause
Prussia defeats France at Sedan Sept Napoleon III is captured and humiliated Riots break out in Paris: wow that’s different Napoleon is deposed and The Third Republic is born Paris is surrounded and starved into submission

14 The Hall of Mirrors 1871

15 France is Humbled Wilhelm I is proclaimed Emperor of Germany at Versailles France receives harsh terms Pay 5 billion Francs Cedes the Alsace-Lorraine to Germany

16 The Paris Commune 1871 Parisian Socialists refuse to accept German peace terms Set up a socialists dictatorship backed by the International Working Men’s Association and Proudhon (Germinal) French troops backing the National Assembly of the Third Republic in May of 1871 enter Paris and kill 20,000 Communards “Thier that monstrous little gnome” Karl Marx

17 USA Indians Slaves War with Mexico Gold Rush Civil War Homestead Act
13th Amendment

18 The Aftermath of Crimea 1853

19 Modernization of Russia
The Great Reforms Background Serfs were property Army recruits – 25 years Sexually exploited Lost the Crimean War Ottomans Empire weak Russia is behind

20 Alexander II (r.1855 – 1881)

21 1861 Emancipation of Serfs

22 Alexander II Reforms Russia
1861 serfs are freed Villages were responsible for payments Collectives made it difficult for individuals to improve agriculture Zemstvo – local authorities – did not lead to greater liberalism. Gave Jews certain freedoms

23 Russia Marches With Europe Towards Industrialism

24 Industrialism in Russia
Two industrial surges 1860 – Railways 1,250 – 15,500 miles of track by 1880 Increases grain production Creates a class of modern factory workers

25 The Trans-Siberian Railway

26 Second Surge – Alexander III
1881- Alexander III – reactionary no political modernization State owned railways – The Trans Siberian Line connects Moscow with the Pacific Ocean Nationalism becomes key

27 Russian Steel and Oil Production

28 Encourages Foreign Investors
Extremely successful Modern steel factories, by 1900 Russia was one of the major producers Oil production equaled USA

29 Japan and Russia Collide Near Korea

30 Russo- Japanese War

31 The Revolution of 1905 The Russo-Japanese War Russia eyes Korea
Japan launches surprise attack Russia is defeated in 1905

32 Bloody Sunday 1905

33 Political Upheaval at Home
Factory workers were organized in illegal labor orgs. The Army still pinned down in the East Massive group of workers attempt to deliver a petition to Nicholas II Bloody Sunday – Guards open fire on demonstrators

34 Nicholas II

35 Upheaval Continues General strike of October 1905
Govt. gives in “The October Manifesto.” Granted full civil rights Promised a popularly elected Duma Middle class helped the survival of a constitutional monarchy

36 Liberalism Takes a Step Back
The tsar had absolute veto The Ministers were chosen by the tsar The tsar dismisses the Duma More power is given to the propertied classes Workers, peasants and national minorities are weakened

37 The Responsive National State
For the most part the Frame work of the Europe was set Mass Politics and mass loyalty to the state More people could vote By 1914 universal male suffrage was the rule Part of the system USA by 1913 women could vote in many state and local elections Many suffragettes emerged setting the way for women to vote after WWI

38 Mass Politics Political parties had to respond to the will of the people Multi party system appears in many countries In order to pass laws coalitions had to be formed Individual parties gain leverage

39 The Down Side to Nation States
The power structure can manipulate the population with nationalist rhetoric Patriotism and loyalty At the expense of international security WWI, Iraq? Hatred for certain ethnic groups create unity

40 The Kulturkampf and Socialism
Bismarck launches attack on Catholics as an impediment to German unity Socialism and Liberalism are gaining ground Has to reverse his “culture struggle” to achieve greater unity Has to give into to some social programs and the growing liberal middle class

41 The German Empire Bismarck controlled the Reichstag popular elected body Kulturkampf – fails Crash of 1873 Bismarck uses tariffs to protect German economy Led to anger among other counties and trade wars

42 German State Continued
Socialism was growing in Germany Socialist rhetoric transcended the nation state Bismarck tried to drive them underground The Socialists were too organized-The International Working Men’s Association

43 As a result… Germany becomes a leader in progressive socialist programs Social security laws Sickness and accident insurance 1889 – Old age pensions and retirement benefits

44 Bismarck is Let Go….”The dropping of the pilot”
Social Democratic party by the turn of the century gains power Many wealthy and middle–class Germans feared The Social Democrats but they were becoming less radical Opposition to military and imperialist aims declined Social Democrats were Germans first.

45 Republican France 1871 “The Third Republic”
Adolf Their – “The government that divides the least.” Gambetta by 1879 parliament becomes boss Upper and Lower houses of parliament were republicans. Many groups = coalition politics Jules Ferry-mandatory public education Teachers could marry Husband and wife team could support each other Example of secular republicanism

46 The Dreyfus Affair Jewish officer falsely accused of treason
Split France apart Catholic establishment- for the army Republican civil libertarians – for Dreyfus 1905 reaction against the Church – State withdrew support Members no longer paid by state Only socialism stood in the way of republican nationalism

47 Great Britain and Ireland
The Vote 1832- males of the “solid middle-class” 1859- utilitarian's struggle with how to protect the rights of individuals while franchise expanded. 1884 Disraeli’s conservative party expands franchise to every adult male. Lower class expected to be responsible. 1906 Lloyd George’s Liberal party raised taxes on the rich to create social programs.

48 Ireland Irish Famine 1840’s England began concessions
1880’s Gladstone’s Liberal party tried to pacify Ireland Bills did not pass Irish support Liberals to receive “Home Rule.” Irish Protestants and Catholics refused mix. Ulster refused to accept home rule Problem put on hold in WWI

49 Austro-Hungarian Empire
Magyar nationalism –Hungary 1866 defeated by Prussia Dual Monarchy Austria threatened by slavs 1914 Hungary – 1/4 of males could vote

50 Jewish Emancipation and Jew Hating
1791- French Rev. Jews gain rights continued gains through Liberalism and sometimes Socialism 1873 stock market crash Jews blamed Zionism =Jewish national state - Palestine

51 Marxism and the Socialist Movement
Marx wanted an international proletariat The Socialist International Rapid growth after 1871 1912 millions of followers – especially Germany The Workers International Marx Authors “Das Capital.” 1867 Embraced the Paris Commune First International collapses May Day – one day strike Second International

52 Unions and Revisionism
European Socialism became militantly moderate Gradual change Less revolution Sober action

53 Workers gained the right to vote, used elections to make change
National pride Schools Military Aggressive foreign policy Standard of living improved Growth of labor unions For a long time illegal legalized—Germany

54 Socialist not really interested in unions they wanted revolution
Unions focused on “bread and butter issues” Wages Working conditions Collective bargaining brought improvement- revision not revolution – Militant Marxist saw this as a sin. Second International rejects revision

55 By 1914 Socialist parties were clearly nationalistic
Germany France Great Britain By WWI socialist leaders supported their government

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