# 1)Use your white board to draw the Lewis structure for ozone, O 3. 2)What does the word hybridization mean? Use your own words. While you are doing warm.

## Presentation on theme: "1)Use your white board to draw the Lewis structure for ozone, O 3. 2)What does the word hybridization mean? Use your own words. While you are doing warm."— Presentation transcript:

1)Use your white board to draw the Lewis structure for ozone, O 3. 2)What does the word hybridization mean? Use your own words. While you are doing warm up I will come around and check HW #24. (except 4 th period)

A resonance structure is a structure that occurs when it is possible to draw two or more valid electron dot structures. In the case of ozone, neither structure actually exists, but rather the actual bonding is an average of the two structures.

Definition of hybridization ….

-Learn what a sigma bond looks like -Learn what a pi bond looks like -Understand the concept of orbital hybridization and how it changes the bonding in an atom such as carbon

When two atomic orbitals combine to form a bond along the axis between two atoms … we call it a sigma bond ( )

When two p orbitals combine side by side we say they overlap to form a pi ( ) bond Pi bonds exist when we have double and triple bonds

Single bond – 1 sigma bond Double bond – 1 sigma and 1 pi bond Triple bond – 1 sigma and 2 pi bonds

The electron structure of a carbon atom can be written as: Based on this model, we would predict that carbon atoms should form two covalent bonds??!!

Instead carbon atoms almost always form 4 bonds. Why???? Hybridization

hybridization 1 s + 3 p = 4 sp 3 (All 4 orbitals are now equal at the 2nd energy level) Regular Carbon Aufbau Diagram Hybridized Carbon Aufbau Diagram

Electrons must be distributed among the new orbitals. Since these hybrid orbitals are equal in energy, the electrons must distributed according to Hunds Rule.

4 sp 3 orbitals

4 sp 3 orbitals bond with 4 hydrogen atoms - methane sp 3 carbon Overlap here is known as sigma bond

Lets predict what sp 2 hybridization around a carbon might look like? Take out your white boards

sp 2 hybridization

sp 2 hybridization carbon double bond - ethene

Can you predict sp geometry around a carbon?

sp hybridization

sp hybridization carbon triple bond - acetylene

234-236 in your text discusses these examples

Summary sp 3 hybridization involves single-bonded carbon sp 2 hybridization involves double-bonded carbon sp hybridization involves triple-bonded carbon

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