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Exploration United States Adventures in Time and Place Chapter 5 Lessons 1 - 3.

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Presentation on theme: "Exploration United States Adventures in Time and Place Chapter 5 Lessons 1 - 3."— Presentation transcript:

1 Exploration United States Adventures in Time and Place Chapter 5 Lessons 1 - 3

2 The Chinese Empire Protected by Himalayas to the west, the Gobi Desert to the north, and the Pacific Ocean to the east. Even with the above protection, Mongols gained control in late 1200’s. Chinese pushed Mongols out in 1368. Zhu Di set out to rebuild China. This included the Great Wall. The Great Wall is the longest human-made feature ever built. 4,600 miles long. Mostly by hand. Can be seen from outer space.

3 The Silk Road This is a network of overland trade routes that stretched from China to Persia (Iran). Demand for silk in Europe was so high the trade route became known as the Silk Road. Oranges, gold, and horses were also bartered along the Silk Road There were trading posts along the way. sia/images/image_programs_ch ina7_silk.jpg

4 Zheng He In 1403 Emperor Zhu Di ordered the building of thousands of sailing ships and put Zheng He in charge. Zheng He explored India, SE Asia, Arabia, and the coast of East Africa. Over 200 ships in his fleet. Several ships over 400 feet long. They used magnetic compasses. Compasses were invented in China in 100 A.D. The compass provided the cardinal directions. China’s sea exploration stopped because the new emperor in 1525 ordered the destruction of the empire’s sailing ships. mages/compass_pocket.jpg

5 African Kingdoms Second largest continent in the world. Sahara is the largest desert in the world. Caravan is a group of people traveling together, especially through the desert.

6 King Sunni Ali Sunni Ali became king of Songhai, the powerful and wealthy kingdom that ruled a large part of West Africa. To maintain power, Sunni Ali enslaved the people he conquered. Many African rulers did this. African criminals and prisoners of war were often enslaved. African rulers traded slaves with Arab sailors. African slaves were often treated as family rather than property. Sunni Ali tolerated different religions and encouraged traders of gold, ivory, cloth, and salt. d/sghi/hg_d_sghi_d1map.jpg

7 The Songhai Kingdom A very large and powerful kingdom. Controlled trade and valuable salt and gold mines. Gao, Timbuktu, and Jenne were the major centers of trade in Songhai. Gao was a city full of skilled workers, craftworkers, and artists. Gold was so plentiful that miners sometimes had trouble finding a buyer. Timbuktu was a great cultural center. Astronomy, mathematics, music, and literature. Arabic was the main language Timbuktu had a university. Jenne had scholars of medicine. Human eye operations were performed here. They also discovered that mosquitoes cause malaria.

8 Europe’s Age of Exploration Marco Polo was one of the first Europeans to reach Asia. 20 yrs later he brought back ivory, jade, and silk. He also wrote a book about his travels. His 3 yr trip was along the Silk Road. He inspired other Europeans to go to China and Asia. Once Europeans saw the “wealth” in Asia, they began looking for a direct sea route there.

9 Europe’s Renaissance The Renaissance was a period of cultural and artistic growth that began in Italy in the 1300s. It spread to Europe in 1400s and 1500s. Artwork was popular: Michelangelo, Botticelli, and Leonardo da Vinci. Johannes Gutenberg invented the printing press in 1436. Therefore, books became more accessible. Science became more popular.

10 Trade with Asia Demand for silk was strong, but Europeans also wanted spices. No refrigeration Pepper and cloves were used to preserve food over the winter. Europeans paid high prices for spices. As it was traded along the Spice Road, the price went up. Europeans needed a cheaper route to trade with Asia. The Silk Road was dangerous and expensive.

11 Portuguese Exploration Prince Henry, the Navigator, got his name from the improvements in navigation he made. His scientists improved the astrolabe and magnetic compass. His shipbuilders, scientists, mapmakers, and ship captains invented the caravel. The caravel was about 70 ft long and could be steered more easily. It could sail faster through dangerous waters, even against the wind. It could hold lots of cargo. ges/caravel.jpg

12 More About Prince Henry When he died he had not reached southern Africa. In 1488 Bartholomeu Dias rounded the tip of southern Africa, which was later named the Cape of Good Hope. In 1498 Vasco da Gama reached Asia when he arrived in Calicut, India. Vasco da Gama’s voyage showed Europe there was another way to Asia besides the Silk Road. Spice prices dropped. ndexverzeichnis/allgemein/images/v asco_da_gama_reise.jpg

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