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2/6/20141 The Reformation. 2/6/20142 The Christian Church Itself Was Created by Reform.

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Presentation on theme: "2/6/20141 The Reformation. 2/6/20142 The Christian Church Itself Was Created by Reform."— Presentation transcript:

1 2/6/20141 The Reformation

2 2/6/20142 The Christian Church Itself Was Created by Reform

3 2/6/20143 St Pauls new covenant

4 2/6/20144 St Augustines Neo- Platonism

5 2/6/20145 St Aquinass Scholasticism

6 2/6/20146 Marsiglio, Wyclif and Huss

7 2/6/20147 Signs of Disorder At the local level- vulgarized and semi pagan, but still spiritual Reforms needed: Clerical immorality Clerical ignorance Pluralism

8 2/6/20148 The Condition of the Church The Babylonian Captivity The Great Schism The Councilor Movement

9 2/6/20149 Woolsey in England

10 2/6/ Borgia Family in Rome

11 2/6/ Signs of Vitality Brethren of the Common life Pilgrimages Ecumenical Councils

12 2/6/ Pope needs money to complete a special project.

13 2/6/ Martin Luther

14 2/6/ Early Years Studied Law Masters Degree at 21 Thunderstorm – Friar At 26 –PHD in Theology

15 2/6/ Luther and Paul Through Paul Luther determines Salvation cannot be earned

16 2/6/ Luthers need to reform Through Paul Luther determines: Salvation cannot be earned Salvation is determined by faith ALONE! Salvation comes as a gift from the grace of God.

17 2/6/ Indulgences John Tetzel is given permission to collect money to grant sinners forgiveness As soon as coin in the coffer rings, the soul from purgatory springs

18 2/6/ Ninety Five Thesis: Leo X allows pluralism in Mainz Albert borrowed a vast amount from the Fuggars Pope Allows him to collect indulgencies Pope gets half for St. Petes

19 2/6/ Luther defends Hus

20 2/6/ Luther posts his theses Indulgencies have no Biblical basis. The debate turns on the legal authority of the Pope. If not the pope then who has legal authority

21 2/6/ Luther receives a Papal Bull

22 2/6/ The Diet of Worms (1521) Germans begin to call for a revolt Charles V summons Luther Luther refuses to recant Luther is declared an outlaw

23 2/6/ Charles V – The protector of the faith

24 2/6/ Luther before the Diet I am bound by the scriptures

25 2/6/ Frederick of Saxony

26 2/6/ All vocations have equal merit 1. Abolition on monasticism 2. The Christian home 3. No confessionals 4. Protestant school

27 2/6/ No one is as free as a Christian Stirs a series of peasant revolts Luther rejects and condemns revolts. ( God hates a rebel ) 100,000 peasants are killed

28 Luther and the power of Language The Catechisms Sermons and Psalms Music- Excellent teaching device Appeals to most segments in society on an emotional level 2/6/201428

29 Luther :The greatest German ever to live… perhaps the greatest of all Europeans. 2/6/201429

30 2/6/ Four theological issues 1. How is a person saved? 2. Where does religious authority reside? 3. What is the church? 4. What is the highest form of Christian life?

31 2/6/ A person may be saved by faith alone

32 2/6/ Authority rests in the word of God as revealed in the Bible

33 2/6/ The Church is the entire Christian community

34 The Sacraments Catholic Baptism Eucharist – Communion Confirmation Penance- Confession Marriage Holy Orders Anointing the sick 2/6/201434

35 2/6/201435

36 2/6/ Transubstanation Wine and bread become the blood and body of Christ

37 2/6/ Consubstianation The spirit is present but the wine and bread remain unchanged

38 2/6/ All vocations have value as every person should serve God according to his or her calling. Link capitalism. Which makes the Reformation – in the mind of many intellectuals the greatest event in modern history

39 2/6/ Social Impact of the Reformation 1. Resentment of clerical privileges 2. Preacherships - Sermons over Eucharist 3. On Christian Liberty 4. Publishing in the vernacular

40 2/6/ Social Impact of Luthers Beliefs 1. Reduce the privileges of the clergy 2. Preacherships – became leaders – sermons not the Eucharist. 3. Peasant unrest – On Christian Liberty.

41 2/6/ Protestantism and Women

42 2/6/ The Christian Home 1 Abolition of monasticism 2 All vocations are worthy 3 abolition of private confession 4 Sexuality is as natural as eating or drinking

43 2/6/ Germany and Protestantism 1 No central power 2 Loose confederation of states 3 The rise of the Habsburgs 4 Burgundy and Austria – other nations wage war Habsburgs marry

44 2/6/ Charles V (1500 –58) 1 Duty to maintain political and religious unity of Western Christendom 2 German interests were subordinate to Habsburg interests

45 2/6/ Political impact of Luthers beliefs 1 Different religions represented a political threat 2 Local Princess began legal confiscation of Roman Catholic property 3 Proved to be a political disaster for Germany

46 2/6/ Germany Divided Turkish Threat

47 Divided Germany 2/6/ American Territories Habsburg Valois Wars Peace of Augsburg –1555 left a fragmented Germany

48 2/6/ The Growth of Protestantism

49 2/6/ Calvin Theocracy in Geneva Switzerland The Church is the state Predestination Redemptive work of Jesus Hard work is its own reward The Consistory The Institutes of the Christian Religion

50 2/6/ The Anabaptists Only adults could make a free choice Only a few received the inner light Religious toleration Women as ministers By their fruits you shall know them Pacifists

51 2/6/ The English Reformation The Lollards – Individual interpretation- they were few Sacraments were of no value

52 2/6/ Henry VIII The Catholic Church was healthy in England The Kings emotional life – brought about the English Reformation Divorced, beheaded, died, divorced, beheaded, survived

53 2/6/ Henry removes the Catholic Church 1. The Act of Restraint of Appeals – The Act of Submission of the Clergy – The Supremacy Act – The King is the head of the Church 4. By 1539 Henry with the help of Thomas Cromwell dissolves all the English monasteries

54 2/6/ Opposition to the King Little evidence from the lay people because few knew what was happening The Pilgrimage of Grace 1536 – Multi class rebellion in the north of England- all the leaders were executed by 1546

55 2/6/ Internal Reforms in England Cromwell centralized govt. New departments of state were created The Office of the Exchequer Surpluses were liquid and applied to deficits to balance the budget Growth of the modern bureaucratic state

56 2/6/ The Church in Scotland Weak political authority James V (I) Mary Queen of Scots Catholics: Stuarts -France John Knox – Reformer – Studied Calvin – Presbyterian becomes state religion… Much like the Puritans: Book of Common Prayer

57 2/6/ The protest becomes political

58 2/6/ Protestanism in Ireland English wanted to exterminate the Irish … but it cost too much The Church of Ireland was patterned after the The Church of England Many Irish remained Roman Catholic

59 2/6/ Lutheranism in Scandinavia Denmark was ruling the area These areas become Lutheran 1520 Sweden breaks away Norway will not be independent until 1814

60 2/6/ The Catholic Reformation and the Counter Reformation 1517 – Catholic Reformation – Promote Catholicism 1540 Counter Reformation – Coerce dissidents or heretics to return to the church They were not mutually exclusive

61 2/6/ Slowness of institutional Reform The preoccupation of the Popes with Italian politics Popes fear of conciliar power More interested in obtaining and sponsoring art: Clement VII Hapsburg – Valois conflicts 1527 – The Protestant sack of Rome

62 2/6/ The Council of Trent Reconcile with Protestants The argument over the scripture made reconciliation impossible The Conciliar movement again Sacraments remain Educational requirements for priests Jurisdiction over marriage

63 2/6/ Reaffirmed Catholic Doctrine Rejected Lutheran and Calvinist positions Laid the foundation for spiritual renewal Served as the foundation for Catholic doctrine for four centuries

64 2/6/ Jesuits - Ignatius Loyola Set up Church schools Recruited from Schools Missionary Zeal The best of the church go on missions Converts millions to Christianity India Asia The Americas

65 Teresa of Avila 2/6/ A reaction to raise the spiritual condition of the clergy and the laity The Ursuline Order Religious order for women Very popular Raised the intellectual and moral level or the clergy and the people

66 I saw in his hand a long spear of gold, and at the iron's point there seemed to be a little fire. He appeared to me to be thrusting it at times into my heart, and to pierce my very entrails; when he drew it out, he seemed to draw them out also, and to leave me all on fire with a great love of God. The pain was so great, that it made me moan; and yet so surpassing was the sweetness of this excessive pain, that I could not wish to be rid of it... 2/6/201466

67 The Ecstasy of St Teresa - Bernini 2/6/201467

68 2/6/ The Congregation of the Holy office Find heretics The index of Prohibited Books Weak enforcement outside of Papal States

69 2/6/ Introduction State the purpose of the discussion Identify yourself

70 2/6/ Topics of Discussion State the main ideas youll be talking about

71 2/6/ Topic One Details about this topic Supporting information and examples How it relates to your audience

72 2/6/ Topic Two Details about this topic Supporting information and examples How it relates to your audience

73 2/6/ Topic Three Details about this topic Supporting information and examples How it relates to your audience

74 2/6/ Real Life Give an example or real life anecdote Sympathize with the audiences situation if appropriate

75 2/6/ What This Means Add a strong statement that summarizes how you feel or think about this topic Summarize key points you want your audience to remember

76 2/6/ Next Steps Summarize any actions required of your audience Summarize any follow up action items required of you

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