Presentation on theme: "Please put this Directive Word on pg. 36A of your note book. Justify Give solid, specific reasons to prove that decisions, actions, or conclusions are."— Presentation transcript:
Please put this Directive Word on pg. 36A of your note book. Justify Give solid, specific reasons to prove that decisions, actions, or conclusions are right or just. Justify the crimes commited by soldiers during war time. Justify includes a Moral component. Something done must be the correct thing, but also, at the end, morally right. Please do not talk at this time.Nov. 12 - 13 When you are done, find the paper with your name at the front of the room and get a reading.
The Haitian Revolution: 1791-1803 Based on this picture and your work from last week, Describe the Haitian Revolution.
1623 Slaves harvest sugar cane doing back breaking work. Few live very long because the labor is so hard.
http://www.latinamericanstudies.org/haitian-revolution.htm In 1791, Haitian Slaves revolt in a violent uprising.
Find a partner ( or work alone) Read the info sheet on the background to the Haitian Revolution. Make a quick timeline of events on the top of the back of your Role card. Do not take up much space for this. Headphones ok.
Under what circumstances is it acceptable… To act violently against soldiers To attack or harm civilians To break promises To overthrow your government To trick your enemy with lies
Constitution of 1801 (excerpt) TITLE II Of the Inhabitants Art. 3. - There cannot exist slaves on this territory, servitude is therein forever abolished. All men are born, live and die free and French. Art. 4. – All men, regardless of color, are eligible to all employment. Art. 5. – There shall exist no distinction other than those based on virtue and talent, and other superiority afforded by law in the exercise of a public function. The law is the same for all whether in punishment or in protection. Give me three goals of this document…
Saint-Domingue, The Taking of La Ravine Aux Couleuvres), Book illustration by James Outhwaithe (19th century) after an original steel engraving by Karl Girardet (1813-1871). Give me 2 examples of dedication (beyond following orders) from this picture.
Napoleons Secret Instructions To General Leclerc If after the first 15 or 20 days it is impossible to bring back Toussaint….he is declared traitor to the country and, at the end of the delay, one will start war to the knife. Give me one consequence or result of this order.
Letter: from General Leclerc, 1802 Show no mercy with anyone that you suspect.... One must be unflinching and inspire great terror; it is the only thing that will suppress the blacks.
Louverture to Dessalines, 1802 …Tear up the roads with shot; throw corpses and horses into all the fountains; burn and annihilate everything, in order that those who have come to reduce us to slavery may have before their eyes the image of that hell which they deserve. Give me three effects this will have on Civilians.
"Revenge Taken by the Black Army." Engraving by J. Barlow from Marcus Rainsford's An Historical Account of the Black Empire of Hayti, 1805.
Excerpt from Birth of a Nation On both sides, it was a war of unsurpassed brutality. The bodies of rebel slaves swung from tree branches where they had been hanged, while fortifications the slaves built were lined with French skulls. ….The general… mounted his horse…and left camp with 600 men and four pieces of artillery. Two hours later one could not find a living Negro within a circle of two and a half miles, and the roads were strewn with their bloody remains." excerpt from Adam Hochschild, Birth of a Nation, San Francisco Chronicle, 2004 Explain two ways these actions would help the side in question win.
The Charge Crimes Against Humanity: Between the years 1791-1803, committed wide-spread murder of men, women and children. Give me one good reason these armies acted as they did.
Point Of View- Historical Perspective In this trial you will be judging or arguing that these soldiers acted appropriately for their Time Period, not our ideas of right and wrong today. Consider the following while deciding what behavior is appropriate for this time period Religious Beliefs (Christianity) Philosophical Beliefs (Enlightenment ideas, Greek and Roman Ideas, Renaissance and Reformation Ideas) Political Documents English and American Bill of Rights, French Declaration of the Rights of Man, American and French Constitutions and others) Forms of Government (Autocracy, Democracy, Parliamentary Monarchy) National History (Slavery, Violent Revolution in America and France)
Haitian War Crimes Trial- Jury You will be asked to interpret the events of the Haitian Revolution War within the context of the time period and not simply in terms of present day norms and values. Therefore, you will need to identify the appropriate standards that you will hold the Haitian and French soldiers accountable. At the conclusion of the post trial debrief, you will be expected to indicate whether each group met or failed to meet this standard you setthat is to say, whether each group is innocent or guilty of committing Crimes Against Humanity.
Haitian War Crimes Trial- Lawyers Review background information from your reading notes. Examine evidence packet. Identify quotes and instances that explain your clients motives and help to justify their actions during the war. Prepare arguments that focus on why your clients acted as they did, since the court has already concluded that atrocities occurred. Listen to the opposing sides opening statement. Through questioning, draw out testimony from the soldiers you are defending and identify questions to undermine the effectiveness of the cross-examination. Listen as the opposing lawyers question the enemy soldiers. Cross examine the enemy soldiers to try to undermine their testimony.
Haitian War crimes Trial- Soldiers Review background information from your reading notes. Examine evidence packet. Identify quotes and instances that explain your motives to help justify your actions during the war. Prepare your testimony using the table below. Be sure to focus on why you acted as you did, since the court has already concluded that atrocities occurred. Meet with your lawyers to plan their questioning of you during the trial, so that you have the opportunity to present your testimony. Listen to the opposing sides opening statement. Then listen closely as your lawyer presents an opening statement in your defense. Be prepared to respond to questioning by your lawyer. Be prepared to respond to cross-examination questioning by the opposing sides lawyers.
Please do not talk at this timeNov. 14 HW: Prepare for in class essay In class essay on Napoleon will happen on Tuesday. Two options. See the handout labeled Napoleon Essay. 15 minutes to prep for Haitian War Crimes Trial!
Trial Set up: Jury- Finalize your criteria Lawyers- Choose your questions Decide who will ask what Decide who will answer each question Brainstorm cross examination questions Soldiers- Prepare answers to all possible questions Know what questions will come your way