Presentation on theme: "Thailand Disaster Management Structure and Links to the ASEAN Agreement on Disaster Management and Emergency Response and Beyond ASEAN DEFENCE ESTABLISHMENTS."— Presentation transcript:
1 Thailand Disaster Management Structure and Links to the ASEAN Agreement on Disaster Management and Emergency Response and BeyondASEAN DEFENCE ESTABLISHMENTS AND CIVIL SOCIETY ORGANISATIONS (CSOs)COOPERATION ON NON-TRADITIONAL SECURITY ( Disaster Management )28 June 2010Royal Orchid Sheraton Hotel & Towers, BangkokThank you Mr. ChairLadies and gentlemen I would like to give presentation about Thailand’s Disaster Management Structure and on how the “link” between the existing structure or mechanism of Thailand and the ASEAN Agreement on Disaster Management and Emergency Response or AADMER can be created
2 Outline of presentation The Objectives and Elements of AADMERThailand’s Disaster Management SystemLinks to the AADMERAreas of linkage/howChallenges/GapsThe Road AheadThis is the outline of the presentation.First, I will talk a little bit about the background of the AADMER by taking a look from Thailand’s perspective.Then I will touch upon Thailand’s disaster management system, which has been changed recently and is being tested for its effectiveness.Next, I will elaborate how the AADMER, which, as you know, has already entered into force since December 2009, can be implemented or put into motions in Thailand. In other words, I will try to make you understand the link between the two systems. But it should be noted that we are in the beginning stage of the link establishment between the two systems. While a number of tasks have been accomplished, there are a lot of works that have yet to be done.I will also address the challenges and gaps we are facing. There are a number of them that I can tell you here but I would definitely welcome your comments on this.
3 The Objective AADMERTo provide effective mechanisms to achieve substantial reduction of disaster loss in lives and in the social, economic and environmental assets of the Parties, and to jointly respond through disaster emergencies through concerted national efforts and intensified regional and international co-operationThe Objective of the AADMER, as stated in Article 2 of the Agreement is to provide effective mechanisms to achieve substantial reduction of disaster loss in lives and in the social, economic and environmental assets of the Parties, and to jointly respond through disaster emergencies through concerted national efforts and intensified regional and international co-operation. So basically, there are two “key words” here. One is “mechanism” and the other is “jointly respond”. To say this in simple terms, the AADMER demands the establishment of mechanisms, not just only one but many mechanisms. And it also demands “action” as a group among ASEAN and International forces.
4 Core Elements of AADMER Disaster Risk Identification, Assessment, and MonitoringDisaster Prevention and MitigationDisaster PreparednessEmergency ResponseRehabilitationTechnical Co-Operation and Scientific ResearchAHA CentreInstitutional ArrangementsThese are the core elements of AADMER:Disaster Risk Identification, Assessment, and Monitoring;Disaster Prevention and Mitigation;Disaster Preparedness;Emergency Response;Rehabilitation;Technical Co-Operation and Scientific Research;AHA Centre; andInstitutional ArrangementsSo, you can see that the AADMER requires the “Parties” or All MEMBER STATES to do many things, starting from looking its own house to see what is the disaster risk, get rid of the risk, prepare for the risk, work with others to respond to “big disasters” and develop a long-term cooperation. And for the purpose of good and smooth coordination, the Agreement, by Article 20, requests the establishment of “The AHA Centre” and also set up the Institutional Arrangement such as “The Conference of the Parties” or COP .
5 Activities under AADMER ARDEX (an annual disaster response simulation exercise, guided by SASOP)ASEAN Standby Arrangements (List of earmarked assets and capacities)ASEAN Emergency Rapid Assessment Team (ASEAN ERAT)OthersEven before the entry into force of the Agreement, ASEAN have been conducting many activities. For example, we have conducted the annual regional disaster simulation exercise called “ARDEX” since Thailand was the host of ARDEX-08 in August 2008 in Pataya and Rayong province.Many member countries including Thailand have sent the list of earmarked assets and capacities to the Interim AHA Centre. This is done under the requirement of Article 8.4. Having the list of resources from our neighboring countries will be very helpful in the sense that the disaster affected country would know exactly what kind of resources from which country should be requested from.In the event of Cyclone Nargis in Myanmar in 2008, we began to know the ASEAN Emergency Rapid Assessment Team (or ASEAN ERAT) making its debut, by assisting the assessment of disaster impact and the coordination with international community. Right now, we are in the process of institutionalize the ASEAN ERAT to be another tool of ASEAN to work together within the framework of the Agreement.So, this is where we are. We had our Minister signed the AADMER in While waiting for the enforcement of the Agreement, we worked together in the areas that we can do.
6 Thailand Disaster Management System Policy level: National Disaster Prevention and Mitigation Committee (Report to The Cabinet)Strategic: Department of Disaster Prevention and Mitigation (DDPM) (Report to MOI)Strategic/Tactical Level: The Provinces (Report to MOI through DDPM)Operational Level: Local governments (Report to Provincial Governor)Now, I would like to turn your attention to the other thing that is required to link with the AADMER. This slide shows you how Thailand disaster management system looks like. This system is based on the Disaster Prevention and Mitigation Act There are 4 levels of functions from top to bottom as you can see on the slide.At the top we have the NDPMC or National Disaster Prevention and Mitigation Committee to look after policy issues. The Committee is chaired by the Prime Minister or a Deputy Prime Minister appointed by The Prime Minister. The 22 members of the NDPMC are from relevant ministries and government agencies including the Heads of Armed Forces and Police and Scholars. The Secretariat of the Committee is The Director-General of DDPM.Then at the strategic level, we have Department of Disaster Prevention and Mitigation (- or “ปภ” as we are known in local language and “DDPM” as we are known in English speaking community ) to serve The National Committee to make the policy or mandate or the National Committee becomes actions.The Provinces. In Thailand we have 76 provinces. All provinces except Bangkok are headed by “provincial governor” which is appointed by The Ministry of Interior (MOI). Bangkok governor comes from direct election from the people of Bangkok. The governors are the key actors in our disaster management system.At operational level or the actual work on the ground is undertaken by “The Local Governments”. There are various forms of local governments depending on the size of population, areas and annual income.
7 National Plan for Disaster Prevention and Mitigation The National Plan for Disaster Prevention and Mitigation is the very important mechanism for disaster management work in the country.Procedures for actions of (1) Pre-disaster; (2) during disaster; and (3) after disaster are the main parts of the National PlanProvisions under the National Plan:Conceptual Framework of disaster managementClassification of disaster scaleRole and Responsibility of government ministries , agencies, state enterprises etc.Standard Operating ProcedureCommunication line and meansTools, equipment and personnelThe National Plan for Disaster Prevention and Mitigation is the very important mechanism for disaster management work in the country.Procedures for actions of (1) Pre-disaster; (2) during disaster; and (3) after disaster are the main parts of the National PlanWhat are provided in the National Plan. Here are some examples.Conceptual Framework of disaster managementClassification of disaster scaleRole and Responsibility of government ministries , agencies, state enterprises etc.Standard Operating ProcedureCommunication line and meansTools, equipment and personnelThe plan lasts for 4 years and according to the law DDPM is to prepare the draft plan for the consideration of the National Committee and the Cabinet respectively prior to the expiration of the old plan.
8 When a disaster strikes…… National/Provincial/local Plans shall be activatedLocal government shall react firstNeighboring local governments shall assistProvincial government to supportDDPM shall support and coordinate with other national agenciesThe National Master Plan on Disaster Prevention and Mitigation shall be activated. In summary, the Plan says that:If the disaster is small, like fire in house or small-scale flood, the local government (Operational level) will take care of it and then report to the Province.If the disaster is beyond the capacity of the local government or is affecting more than one local government area, the Province will take the control.And if there are more than one province affected it will activate national mechanism and DDPM will be in charge and DDPM will play a coordination role with other government agencies.And if there is a special kind of disaster, the special plan for the special disaster will be activated.
9 Linking National DM Structure with AADMER Thailand’s DisasterManagement SystemPreparednessNationalFocal PointsRisk IdentificationAssessmentRiskCabinetProvincial Governor?Prime MinisterCOPEarly WarningArmed ForcesMOIWork ProgrammeCIMICCompetentAuthorityNDPMCAs AADMER has many elements in it as I mentioned. It has AHA Centre, SASOP, ERAT, Standby Arrangement, CIMIC etc.It is the same in our national system said earlier. There are different levels of function and there are many actors in the field. We have the Prime Minister, The Cabinet, Ministers, National Security Council, National Committee on Disaster Prevention and Mitigation, DDPM, National Plan etc.So, making a good link between the two is perhaps not an easy job to do. Right now, we are in the planning stage to establish the mechanisms that would meet the requirement.But, let me give you some ideas how some major elements of AADMER can be implemented in our country.AHA CentreSASOPTechnicalCooperationLocal governmentsDDPMPolicyNGOsResearchRehabilitation
10 Areas of linkage Disaster Risk Assessment Disaster Monitoring Disaster Prevention and MitigationDisaster PreparednessDisaster ResponseDisaster ReliefDisaster Reconstruction and RecoveryCivil Military CoordinationHere, based on the AADMER, I will look at the core areas that can and shall be linked namely:Disaster Risk AssessmentDisaster MonitoringDisaster Prevention and MitigationDisaster PreparednessDisaster ResponseDisaster ReliefDisaster Reconstruction and RecoveryCivil Military CoordinationLet me go one by one on each point.
11 National Mechanism/System Areas of linkageAreasNational Mechanism/SystemLink with AADMER1. Risk AssessmentNational DPM Committee/ National PlanLandslide risk assessment by DMREarthquake risk assessment by TMD, DMRFlood risk assessment by RID, DDPMDrought risk assessment by DDPMThe Provinces/Local governmentsLocal Risk Assessment via CBDRMThrough joint activities under the AADMER Work ProgramDDPM as the NFP to coordinate with the agencies concerned and AHA CentreCompetent AuthoritiesOthers2. Warning/MonitoringNational DPM Committee/ National PlanNational Disaster Warning Centre (Tropical cyclone, tsunami, earthquake)TMD (Tropical Cyclone, earthquake)DDPMMr.Disaster Warning ProjectThrough joint activities under the AADMER Work ProgramDDPM as the NFP to coordinate with the agencies concerned and AHA CentreIn Disaster Risk Assessment, we don’t have a single agency or mechanism that takes care of this issue. But the assessments are conducted by various government departments. For instance, landslide risk assessment is mainly done by The Department of Mineral Resources. DDPM is also in charge of conducting flood and drought risk assessment. Linking these systems with AADMER can be happened through joint activities under the AADMER Work Programme. DDPM would also play a key role in coordinating the national efforts with the AHA Centre. And under the provision of the AADMER we can also designate these Agencies as Competent Authority so they can have a direct communication with AHA Centre in that particular work.With regards to Disaster Early Warning and Monitoring we have The National Disaster Warning Centre (NDWC) and The Thai Meteorological Department (TMD) as the key actors and DDPM as well as The provinces play a supportive role. Linking this component with the Agreement will be the same as the risk assessment.
12 National Mechanism/System Areas of linkageAreasNational Mechanism/SystemLink with AADMER3. Prevention and MitigationNational DPM Committee/ National PlanDDPMCBDRMMr.Disaster WarningPrevention ProjectsThe Provinces/Local governmentsThrough joint activities under the AADMER Work ProgramDDPM as the NFP to coordinate with the agencies concerned and AHA CentreCompetent AuthoritiesOthers4. PreparednessDPM Academy (Training)CMEX, Provincial simulation exercise (at least twice a year)Civil Defense VolunteersCBDRM trainingList of Earmarked Assets and CapacitiesASEAN Day for DM (Drawing Competition)ARDEX ExerciseOn Prevention and Mitigation we have DDPM playing a key role in close collaboration with The Provinces and Local Governments. Over the past years, DDPM has conducted many projects concerning Disaster Prevention and Mitigation.Number four on Disaster Preparedness. DDPM plays a major role. It has a number of projects and activities to get the people ready for future disasters including trainings, drills, exercise, establishment of volunteers, building disaster risk awareness among the people and so on. Linking this with AADMER would be the same as mentioned before.
13 National Mechanism/System Areas of linkageAreasNational Mechanism/SystemLink with AADMER5. ResponseNational DPM Committee/ National PlanDDPMERT TeamCBDRMCMEX ExerciseMilitary Response TeamMedical TeamVolunteers/Red CrossThe Provinces/Local governments (as first responders, OTOS)Through joint activities under the AADMER Work ProgramDDPM as the NFP to coordinate with the agencies concerned and AHA CentreCompetent AuthoritiesARDEX, ASEAN ERATOthers6. Disaster ReliefEmergency Relief Fund/suppliesKnock-down houseDept. of Social Welfare / Red CrossMilitaryThe Provinces/Local governmentsThen on Disaster Response and Disaster Reliefs we have many responders: DDPM ERT Team, Military, Medical, Redcross etc. But you must bear in mind that the local governments will definitely the first responders. The others are play the supportive roles as guided by the National Plan.Linking disaster response and relief can be done through many activities like the Exercise ARDEX, the Deployment of ASEAN Rapid Assessment Team.
14 Areas of linkage Areas National Mechanism Link with AADMER 7. Reconstruction and RecoveryNational DPM Committee/ National PlanLine Agencies/Ministries (Development Agencies etc)DDPMSpecial projectsThe Provinces/Local governmentsThrough joint activities under the AADMER Work ProgramDDPM as the NFP to coordinate with the agencies concerned and AHA Centre8. Civil Military CoordinationNational DPM Committee/ National PlanArmed Forces (Army, Navy, Air Force)The Provinces/ Local governmentsARDEXDDPM as the NFP to coordinate with the agencies concerned and AHA CentreIn terms of Reconstruction and Recovery, it is usually the work under the responsibility of line agencies or ministries. Here we talk about the restoration of livelihoods and infrastructure of the disaster affected areas. Reconstruction of damaged roads or bridges, for example, is under the control of Highway Department. In some cases, local governments also take the responsibility of infrastructure restoration. Implementation of AADMER that is related to reconstruction and recovery would be done in a long –term basis not just a couple of weeks.Last, in the area of Civil Military Coordination what can be done? In Thailand we are lucky enough that we have a good platform where civilian and military authorities can meet quite often. In the National Committee on Disaster Prevention and Mitigation we have all the heads of armed forces serving as the Members. So we discussed policy matters with Military leaders quite often. At tactical level, military and civilian planners work together very closely to formulate plans and procedures. At the operational level military commanders located in the provinces also work very closely with provincial governors through disaster assistance efforts or even in disaster drills and exercises.Link with AADMER can be done through AADMER Work Program, Regional Exercise, which is ARDEX. As you may know that the ARDEX-10 which is going to be held in early November this year in Indonesia, will be testing the Civil Military Coordination component under the guidance of Chapter Six of the SASOP.And that is the big picture to give you some ideas how the AADMER will work in Thailand’s context. I believe that my Thai colleagues on the floor would have some additional points to add to what I have mentioned and I think you can do that when we get to the “Questions and Answers” session later on.
15 ChallengesThere are many actors in disaster management system in Thailand. It is a big challenge to give an equal or suitable role to allAs Thailand is “not much” a disaster prone country, to make the disaster risk reduction on top of the National Agenda is not an easy jobThe challenge will be on the shoulder of DDPM, as the National Focal Point in Disaster Management, to start the process of linking national mechanism with the AADMERLet me move on.Now, at this point, you may want to know what are our challenges in the implementation of AADMER. I have three points to make here.There are many actors in disaster management system in Thailand. It is a big challenge to give an equal or suitable role to allAs Thailand is “not much” a disaster prone country, to make the disaster risk reduction on top of the National Agenda is not an easy jobThe challenge will be on the shoulder of DDPM, as the National Focal Point in Disaster Management, to start the process of linking national mechanism with the AADMER
16 The Road AheadEstablishment of a national committee (or sub- committee under the National DPM Committee, that would be directly responsible for the Implementation of the AgreementFormulation of National SOPs (Request and Offer Assistance)Establishment of SAR team, ERAT relief teams that has the international capacityMake the AADMER more widely known to other agencies/organizations and have more engagements from themOthersHow we move on from now is a good question. The following things can be considered as the solutions:Establishment of a national committee (or sub-committee under the National DPM Committee, that would be directly responsible for the Implementation of the AgreementFormulation of National SOPs (Request and Offer Assistance)Establishment of SAR team, ERAT relief teams that has the international capacityMake the AADMER more widely known to other agencies/organizations and have more engagements from themOthers
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