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International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors

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Presentation on theme: "International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors"— Presentation transcript:

1 International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors
Assembly and Packaging 2007

2 Assembly and Packaging Roadmap 2007 Participants
W. R. Bottoms, Chair William Chen, Co-chair Seiichi Abe Joseph Adam Mudasir Ahmad Bernd Appelt Ivor Barber Muhannad Bakir Mario Bolanos-Avila Craig Beddinfield Kwang Yoo Byun Carl Chen Chi Chi Chang Bob N. Chylak Sonjin Cho Jason Cho Chetan Desai           Kishor Desai Darvin Edwards John T. "Jack" Fisher Darrell Frear                              George Harman Ryo Haruta Harry Hedler           Harold Hosack John Hunt Mike Hung, Ph.D Sreenivasan Koduri  Li Li Rongshen Lee Dongho Lee David Love Mike Lamson  HeeSoo Lee  Choon Heung Lee Sebastian Liau Hongwei Liang  Weichung Lo Michitaka Kimura Debendra Mallik Lei Mercado Stan Mihelcic Abhay Maheshwari Gary Morrison  Jean-Pierre Moscicki Hikari Murai Rajen Murugan Manoj Nagulapally  Hirofumi Nakajima Keith Newman Luu Nguyen Dick Otte Masashi Otsuka Bob Pfahl Ralf Plieninger Klaus Pressel Marc Petersen  Gilles Poupon Charles Richardson Bernd Roemer Bill Reynolds Bidyut Sen Yong-Bin Sun Coen Tak Henry Utsunomiya Shoji Uegaki David Walter  Lawrence Williams M. Juergen Wolf Jie Xue Zhiping Yang, Ph.D. Edgar Zuniga

3 ITRS A&P Chapter Organization
This Chapter is organized in eight major sections: Difficult Challenges Single Chip Packaging Wafer Level Packaging System-in-Package Packaging for Specialized Functions Advanced Packaging Technologies Equipment Requirements Cross-Cut Issues

4 Packaging Technology Challenges
Interconnect Scaling Connect Si features (nm) to circuit board features (cm) High Speed Signaling Facilitate distortion –free signaling Power Delivery Efficiently deliver Power to enable high speed Si performance Power Removal Efficiently duct away dissipated power

5 Assembly and Packaging
Difficult Challenges Pb free transition presents cost, reliability and process compatibility problems that are not yet fully resolved A new generation of DFM & DFT solutions will be required for complex SiP, SoC 3D packaging Thermal issues for complex 3D packaging Stress induced changes in electrical properties for very thin die Reliability for through wafer vias and die layer bonding Warpage control for stacked die Interconnect for nano-scale structures Handling of ultra thin die and self assembly for very small die

6 The Pace of Change in Packaging is Accelerating
As traditional CMOS scaling nears it natural limits other technologies are needed to continue progress This has resulted in an increase in the pace of innovation. Many areas has outpaced ITRS Roadmap forecasts. Among these are: Wafer thinning and handling of thinned wafers/die Wafer level packaging Incorporation of new materials 3D integration The consumerization of electronics is the primary driving force.

7 Consumer Markets Drive Innovation
Consumers now drive more than half of integrated circuit revenue Assembly and Packaging technology is a primary differentiator for consumer electronics These factors are driving an unprecedented pace of innovation in: New Materials New Technologies New Systems Integration architecture

8 New Packaging Technologies
Thinned wafers 3D systems integration Wafer level packaging Bio-chips Integrated optics Embedded/integrated active and passive devices MEMS Flexible (wearable) electronics Printable circuits Semiconductors Light emitters RF Interconnect Texflex embroidered interconnects (Fraunhofer IZM)

9 Wafer Thinning It was easier than we thought.
Table 102a&b Thinned Silicon Wafer Thickness 200 mm/300 mm Year of Production 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Min. thickness of thinned wafer (microns) (general product) 50 45 40 Min. thickness of thinned wafer (microns) (For extreme thin package ex. Smart card)* 20 15 10 8 Handling of Thinned wafers and die will be the limiting factor

10 Wafer Level Packaging One of the fastest growing
packaging architectures WLP offers portable consumer products : inherent lower cost improved electrical performance lower power requirements Smaller size Several architectural variations are in use today

11 Applications for New Materials
In this decade most if not all packaging materials will change due to changing functional and regulatory requirements Bonding wire Molding compounds Underfill Thermal interface materials Die attach materials Substrates Solder

12 Many are in development
New Materials Many are in use today Many are in development Cu interconnect Ultra Low k dielectrics High k dielectrics Organic semiconductors Green Materials Pb free Halogen free Nanotubes Nano Wires Macromolecules Nano Particles Composite materials

13 Through Silicon Vias (TSV)
From front side From back side A Key technology for both wafer level packaging and 3D integration

14 System in Package (SiP) “The next step in Assembly and Packaging:
System in Package (SiP) “The next step in Assembly and Packaging: Systems Level Integration” Introduction & Motivation The basic elements generic to all SiP System level integration applications will be defined. Examples will be used from various application areas to show how the basic elements are incorporated into these applications.

15 SiP: Multi-level System Integration
SiP may include SoC and other traditional packages Packages may include: Sub-system packages Stacked thin packages including WLP, passives and active chips Mechanical, optical and other non electrical functions Complete systems or sub-systems with embedded components Bare die Source: Fraunhofer IZM

16 Categories of SiP PiP, PoP and more

17 3D Packaging increases Performance Density and enables system level integration
New System in Package (SIP) solutions enables rapid integration of different functions Sibley Spacer 256M NAND Wire bonded stacked die Converged computing and communications devices more performance per mm3. More Mbits, More MIPS in shrinking volumetric dimensions Thru-Si via Stacking Small form factor for ultramobile PCs, hand-helds, phones & other consumer electronics

18 3D Integration Table 101 System-in-a-Package Requirements
Year of Production 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Number of terminals—low cost handheld 700 800 Number of terminals—high performance (digital) 3050 3190 3350 3509 3684 3860 4053 4246 4458 Number of terminals—maximum RF 200 Low cost handheld / #die / stack* 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 high performance / die / stack 3 4 5 Low cost handheld / #die / SiP high performance / #die / SiP 6 Minimum TSV pitch 10.0 8.0 6.0 5.0 4.0 3.8 3.6 3.4 3.3 TSV maximum aspect ratio** TSV exit diameter(um) 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.9 1.8 1.7 1.6 TSV layer thickness for minimum pitch 50 20 15 Minimum component size (micron) 1005 600x300 400x200 200x100

19 3D System Integration & Packaging
Stacked functional Layers with TSV and /or flexible polymer Interposer

20 3D Stacked Die Package TSV of Tezzaron TSV of Ziptronix Samsung TSV
35 micron thick Elpida (Poly-Si TSV)

21 Stacked die SiP packages 2014 through 2020
Limited by thermal density

22 Mold resin thickness on top of die: 0.10 mm
Typical SiP in 2010 TSV 0.025mm Mold resin thickness on top of die: 0.10 mm ● ●                    ● ● 1.0 Substrate thickness: 0.16 ● ● ● ●          ● ● ● ● Die attach thickness  0.015 Ball pitch: 0.8 mm Embedded

23 Interconnect Challenges for Complex SiPs
New circuit elements and components place expanded demands on the environment provided by the package Evolutionary and revolutionary interconnect technologies are needed to enable the migration of microsystems from conventional state-of-art to 3D SiP.

24 Interconnect Requirements may be satisfied by Optical Wave Guide Solutions
Solder bump Die Mirror VCSEL/PD Substrate Polymer pin Lens Fiber Board-level integrated optical devices Fiber-to-the-chip Quasi free-space optical I/O Lens assisted quasi free-space optical I/O Surface-normal optical waveguide I/O Optical source/PD Examples of guided wave optical interconnects for chip-to-chip interconnection.

25 Low k Dielectric will Require Low Stress IO Interconnections
Si die Innovations in low stress electrical I/O can potentially eliminate the need for underfill reducing cost and processing complexity as I/O density rises.

26 SiP presents new challenges for Thermal management
High performance and form factor reduction generate high thermal density Heat removal requires much greater volume than the semiconductor Increased volume means increased wiring length causing higher interconnect latency, higher power dissipation, lower bandwidth, and higher interconnect losses These consequences of increased volume generates more heat to restore the same performance ITRS projection for 14nm node Power density >100W/cm2 Junction to ambient thermal resistance <0.2degrees C/W

27 Thermofluidic Heat Sinks may be the Solution
Conventional thermal Interconnects Back-side integrated fluidic heat sink and Back and front-side inlets/outlets Thermal interface Material fluidic heat sink using TIM and inlets/outlets tube Die fluidic I/O Examples of thermofluidic cooling integration with CMOS technology

28 Summary Packaging innovation enables “More than Moore”
3D packaging technologies Equivalent scaling through functional diversity Consumer market demands drive innovation in packaging Size, power, cost, performance, time to market New materials and architectures are required to meet today’s market demand but will enable many future advances in packaging

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