Presentation on theme: "PHYLUM Porifera Common name: Sponges"— Presentation transcript:
1 PHYLUM Porifera Common name: Sponges There are 900 species in this group - mostly marine .Below are several examples.Yellow spongeVase spongeTube sponge
2 Key Characteristics of Sponges multicellular with few specialized cells (no mouth, tissues, or organ systems)asymmetrical- no front/back or left/right sidessimple skeleton:Harder sponges: skeleton is made of spiny spiculesSofter sponges: skeleton is made of spongin, a network of flexible protein fibers.harvested and used as natural bath sponges.Natural bath sponge
5 Feeding specialized cells with flagella Filter feeders: sifting microscopic food particles from the water.Fundamental question:How do choanocytes help sponges feed?specialized cells with flagellamove a steady current of water (and food!) through the sponge.Note: also helps bring oxygen & carry away waste
6 Respiration, Circulation, Excretion As water moves through the body cavity, oxygen dissolved in the water diffuses into the cells of the sponge.At the same time, waste such as carbon dioxide and ammonia diffuse into the water and are carried away.Water flow brings oxygen and carries away wastes
7 Response Very limited… no nervous system. Many sponges protect themselves by producing toxins that make them poisonous to potential predators.Toxic Poison Finger Sponge- note the aposematic coloration!
8 Reproduction Sexual reproduction Hermaphrodites: Asexual reproduction produce both egg and sperm, but at different times.Asexual reproductionSome sponges can reproduce by a process called budding.
9 MovementSessile as adultsOnly able to move during the larva stage
10 EcologySPONGES…provide habitat for marine animals - snails, sea stars and shrimpare a food source for many organisms such as sea stars and fishes.Mutualistic symbiosis: provide a protected place for bacteria, algae and plantlike protists to grow.These photosynthetic organisms provide food and oxygen to the sponge.Small fish can hide inside sponges
11 Threatened species: Cloud Sponge -They are extremely fragile… bodies are composed of silica (glass)Bottom trawling breaks their bodies- threatening the survival of the populationThreatened cloud sponge
12 ResourcesMiller, Kenneth and Levine, Joseph. Biology. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall, "Marine Mysteries - Could Solving These Mysteries Save The Oceans?" Marine Mysteries. World Wildlife Federation, n.d. Web. 11 June < "Treasures of the Sea Exhibit." Treasures of the Sea. Delaware Technical Community College, n.d. Web. 11 June <