2 I. A Prosperous Empire1. Augustus was Rome’s first emperor, who led a long era of peace known as the Pax Romana, or Roman Peace.2. Augustus provided security for his empire by building a professional army of Roman citizens. He also rebuilt Rome, fed the poor, improved government, and reformed the tax system.
4 3. No laws stated how the next emperor would be chosen after the death of Augustus. Members of his family known as the Julio-Claudian emperors followed him. Some were poor and cruel.4. After the Julio-Claudian emperors, Rome went through a period of disorder. Vespasian took the throne and eventually restored order.
5 Emperor NeroKnown as a cruel emperorEmperor VespasianThe “Good Emperor”
6 5. After Vespasian, five emperors unrelated to Augustus or Vespasian came to power. These emperors were known as the “good emperors.” The empire expanded and prospered under their rule.6. Hadrian, the third emperor, decided the empire had grown too large and he pulled troops out of Mesopotamia.
7 The wall Hadrian had built separating Britain into theLand controlled by Rome andThe land of the barbarians.Hadrian – Third of the five “goodEmperors”Limit expansion and control the area Rome hasalready conquered. Build a wall to keep out thosethat would cause harm to Rome (Hadrian)
8 7. The Roman Empire was one of the greatest empires in history 7. The Roman Empire was one of the greatest empires in history. It was very large and contained people who spoke different languages, and practiced different customs. All these people shared Roman law.Comparative history: How is the Roman Empire similar to the United States?
9 II> Roman Culture1. The Romans admired the Greeks and copied some of their ideas.2. Roman statues portrayed flaws while Greek statues portrayed ideal (NO IMPERFECTIONS) people.
10 3. The Romans incorporated Greek ideas into their architecture such as columns and porches. The Romans also had their own ideas such as domes, arches, and vaults.
11 4. Two of Rome’s most famous buildings still stand today: The Colosseum, a large arena, and the Pantheon, a large temple built to honor the gods.
12 5. The Roman writer Virgil wrote the Aeneid, which tells the story of the Trojan prince Aeneas. 6. The poet Horace wrote satires, works that poke fun at human weaknesses and odes which express strong emotions.Virgil
13 7. The writers Ovid and Catullus were both inspired by Greek writing and myths 8. Livy, one of Rome’s most famous historians wrote “The History of Rome”
14 9. Many modern European languages today are based on Latin, the language of the Romans. 10. The Greek doctor Galen brought many ideas to Rome.11. Ptolemy was a famous scientist who studied the stars.12. Engineers built advanced road systems and aqueducts to bring water into Roman cities.
15 13. Greek gods and goddesses were popular in Rome. 14.Romans borrowed from the Greeks the idea of Stoicism, which encouraged Romans to live in a practical way.