Presentation on theme: "Open Access policy and advocacy Iryna Kuchma, eIFL Open Access Program Manager, eIFL.net Presented at Using Open Access Models for Science Dissemination,"— Presentation transcript:
Open Access policy and advocacy Iryna Kuchma, eIFL Open Access Program Manager, eIFL.net Presented at Using Open Access Models for Science Dissemination, the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), Trieste, 15 July 2008
Open Access policies increasing number of Open Access policies from: – Research groups – Research centers – Universities – Funding bodies – Governments – National and international bodies
Self-Archiving Policies Research Organisations: CERN – Requires researchers to deposit papers in the CERN repository CNRS (Centre National de la recherche scientifique) Institutions: the University of Helsinki, Finland – June 2008 Harvard University – February 2008 Queensland University of Technology Bielefeld University University of Bremen University of Hamburg Universidade do Minho University of Southampton Case Western Reserve University University of Oslo Summary By Type (http://www.eprints.org/signup/fulllist.php):http://www.eprints.org/signup/fulllist.php 4DEPARTMENTAL Mandates5Proposed FUNDER Mandates 23FUNDER Mandates1Proposed INSTITUTIONAL Mandates 20INSTITUTIONAL Mandates2Proposed MULTI-INSTITUTIONAL Mandates 46TOTAL Mandates8TOTAL Proposed Mandates
Funder policies - mandates Australian Research Council National Health and Medical Research Council, Australia Fonds voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (Research Foundation Flanders) Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) European Research Council (ERC) Agence Nationale de la recherche (France) Health Research Board (HRB) of Ireland Irish Research Council for Science, Engineering & Technology Swiss National Science Foundation Arthritis Research Foundation, UK Arts and Humanities Research Council, UK Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC), UK British Heart Foundation Cancer Research UK Chief Scientist Office (Scottish Executive Health Department) Department of Health (UK) Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC), UK JISC (Joint Information Systems Committee), UK Medical Research Council (MRC), UK National Environmental Research Council (NERC), UK Science & Technology Facilities Council, UK Wellcome Trust, UK National Institutes of Health (NIH), USA Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI)
The U.S. The U.S. National Institutes of Health, the single largest funder of research in the U.S with an annual budget of $28.9 billion USD, implemented a policy requiring that its grant recipients make articles resulting from any NIH funding publicly available within 12 months of publication in a peer-reviewed journal. This policy, passed by the U.S. Congress and signed into law by the President, went into effect in April of 2008. – (Alliance for Taxpayer Access, Worldwide momentum for policies supporting public access to publicly funded research)
The U.S. The Director of the National Institutes of Health shall require that all investigators funded by the NIH submit or have submitted for them to the National Library of Medicines PubMed Central an electronic version of their final, peer-reviewed manuscripts upon acceptance for publication, to be made publicly available no later than 12 months after the official date of publication: Provided, that the NIH shall implement the public access policy in a manner consistent with copyright law. – (Alliance for Taxpayer Access, Worldwide momentum for policies supporting public access to publicly funded research)
The U.S. According to a 2006 Harris Interactive survey, 82% of American adults believe that if tax dollars pay for scientific research, people should have free access to the results of the research on the Internet – See http://www.harrisinteractive.com/harris_poll/ind ex.asp?PID=707 http://www.harrisinteractive.com/harris_poll/ind ex.asp?PID=707
Proposed Funder mandates European Commission European Research Advisory Board (EURAB) European University Association (EUA) National Knowledge Commission, India Federal Research Public Access Act (FRPAA), USA
The Council of the European Union The Council of the European Union in the Council Conclusions on scientific information in the digital age: access, dissemination and preservation – recognized that over the past years scientific libraries' capacity to provide researchers with access to a wide range of publications has been affected by rising overall prices of scientific journals (including electronic distribution of publications); – (Council Conclusions on scientific information in the digital age: access, dissemination and preservation. 2832nd COMPETITIVENESS (Internal market, Industry and Research) Council meeting Brussels, 22 and 23 November 2007: http://www.consilium.europa.eu/ueDocs/cms_Data/docs/pressData/en/intm/ 97236.pdf ) http://www.consilium.europa.eu/ueDocs/cms_Data/docs/pressData/en/intm/ 97236.pdf
The Council of the European Union and that its the strategic importance for Europes scientific development of current initiatives to develop sustainable models for open access to scientific information – (Council Conclusions on scientific information in the digital age: access, dissemination and preservation. 2832nd COMPETITIVENESS (Internal market, Industry and Research) Council meeting Brussels, 22 and 23 November 2007. http://www.consilium.europa.eu/ueDocs/cms_Data/docs/ pressData/en/intm/97236.pdf ) http://www.consilium.europa.eu/ueDocs/cms_Data/docs/ pressData/en/intm/97236.pdf
The Council of the European Union invites the member states to reinforce national strategies and structures for access to and preservation and dissemination of scientific information, tackling organizational, legal, technical and financial issues – (Council Conclusions on scientific information in the digital age: access, dissemination and preservation. 2832nd COMPETITIVENESS (Internal market, Industry and Research) Council meeting Brussels, 22 and 23 November 2007. http://www.consilium.europa.eu/ueDocs/cms_Data/docs/pressData/e n/intm/97236.pdf ) http://www.consilium.europa.eu/ueDocs/cms_Data/docs/pressData/e n/intm/97236.pdf
The Council of the European Union and invites the Commission to monitor good practices in relation to open access to European scientific production, including those arising from large scale experiments by scientific communities and large research institutions, and encourage the development of new models that could improve access to European scientific research results. – (Council Conclusions on scientific information in the digital age: access, dissemination and preservation. 2832nd COMPETITIVENESS (Internal market, Industry and Research) Council meeting Brussels, 22 and 23 November 2007. http://www.consilium.europa.eu/ueDocs/cms_Data/docs/pressData/en/intm/ 97236.pdf ) http://www.consilium.europa.eu/ueDocs/cms_Data/docs/pressData/en/intm/ 97236.pdf
Public access to publicly-funded research results preparing to the European Commission conference "Scientific information in the digital age: access, dissemination and preservation a number of University associations, Universities and research organizations, research funders, National academies and European Research Associations signed the Petition for guaranteed public access to publicly- funded research results. In November 2007 this petition had 26,906 signatories from all over the world. – See http://www.ec-petition.eu/http://www.ec-petition.eu/
The European Research Council In January of 2008 The European Research Council (ERC) implemented a mandatory public access policy for its funded researchers. The policy states: Requires that all peer-reviewed publications from ERC-funded research projects be deposited on publication into an appropriate research repository where available, such as PubMed Central, ArXiv or an institutional repository, and subsequently made Open Access within 6 months of publication. – (Alliance for Taxpayer Access, Worldwide momentum for policies supporting public access to publicly funded research)
The European Research Council The ERC is keenly aware of the desirability to shorten the period between publication and open access beyond the currently accepted standard of 6 months. And The ERC hopes that research funders across Europe will join forces in establishing common open- access rules and in building European open access repositories that will help make these rules operational. – (Alliance for Taxpayer Access, Worldwide momentum for policies supporting public access to publicly funded research)
European University Association Recommendations for University Leadership Universities should develop institutional policies and strategies that foster the availability of their quality-controlled research results for the broadest possible range of users, maximising their visibility, accessibility and scientific impact. The basic approach …should be the creation of an institutional repository or participation in a shared repository.. http://www.eua.be/fileadmin/user_upload/files/Policy_Position s/Recommendations_Open_Access_adopted_by_the_EUA_Co uncil_on_26th_of_March_2008_final.pdf
European University Association Recommendations for University Leadership University institutional policies should require that their researchers deposit (self-archive) their scientific publications in their institutional repository upon acceptance for publication. Permissible embargoes should apply only to the date of open access provision and not the date of deposit....It should be the responsibility of the university to inform their faculty researchers about IPR and copyright management… University institutional policies should explore also how resources could be found and made available to researchers for author fees to support the emerging "author pays model" of open access. http://www.eua.be/fileadmin/user_upload/files/Policy_Positions/Recommen dations_Open_Access_adopted_by_the_EUA_Council_on_26th_of_March _2008_final.pdf
Australia The Prime Minister announced in May 2004 that the Australian Government would establish Quality and Accessibility Frameworks for Publicly Funded Research. A key aim is to ensure that, through the establishment and linkage of electronic digital repositories, national scholarly output and research data derived from Australian Government funding will be available to researchers and the wider community. See: http://www.dest.gov.au/sectors/research_sector/policies_issues_reviews/key_issu es/accessibility_framework/ http://www.dest.gov.au/sectors/research_sector/policies_issues_reviews/key_issu es/accessibility_framework/ – (Alliance for Taxpayer Access, Worldwide momentum for policies supporting public access to publicly funded research)
Australia John Houghton, Colin Steele and Peter Sheehan in their report to the Department of Education, Science and Training Research Communication Costs in Australia: Emerging Opportunities and Benefits mentioned the most important potential benefit of open access – an enhanced access to, and greater use of, research findings, which would, in turn, increase the efficiency of R&D as it builds upon previous research.
Australia the list of benefits: Speed of access speeding up the research and discovery process, increasing returns to investment in R&D and, potentially, reducing the time/cost involved for a given outcome, and increasing the rate of accumulation of the stock of knowledge; Improved access leading to less duplicative research, saving duplicative R&D expenditure and improving the efficiency of R&D; – John Houghton, Colin Steele and Peter Sheehan, Research Communication Costs in Australia: Emerging Opportunities and Benefits.
Australia Faster access leading to better informed research, reducing the pursuit of blind alleys, saving R&D expenditure and improving the efficiency of R&D; Wider access providing enhanced opportunities for multi-disciplinary research, inter-institutional and inter-sectoral collaborations; Wider access enabling researchers to study their context more broadly, potentially leading to increased opportunities for, and rates of, application/commercialization; – John Houghton, Colin Steele and Peter Sheehan, Research Communication Costs in Australia: Emerging Opportunities and Benefits.
Australia Improved access leading to improved education outcomes, enabling a given education spend to produce a higher level of educational attainment (at least at the post secondary level), leading to an improvement in the quality of the stock of researchers and research users. – John Houghton, Colin Steele and Peter Sheehan, Research Communication Costs in Australia: Emerging Opportunities and Benefits.
Ireland The Irish Research Council for Science, Engineering and Technology (IRCSET) has adopted an ideal OA mandate. From the policy:Irish Research Council for Science, Engineering and Technologypolicy...Where a research publication arises in whole or in part from IRCSET funded research..., the following policy will be adhered to with effect from 1st May 2008..... 1. This publication policy confirms the freedom of researchers to publish first wherever they feel is the most appropriate.
Ireland 2. The effect of the policy is intended to increase the visibility of, and improve access to, the research funded by IRCSET and the State, where such research is intended to be published by the researcher(s) concerned. 3. The policy is based on recognised best practice. It is in keeping with the recommendations of the European Research Advisory Board (EURAB) Policy in relation to scientific publication. It is also in keeping with the combined OECD Ministers Declaration entrusting the OECD to work towards commonly agreed Principles and Guidelines on Access to Research Data from Public Funding.
Ireland Conditions to which IRCSET funded Award Recipients should adhere: 1. All researchers must lodge their publications resulting in whole or in part from IRCSET-funded research in an open access repository as soon as is practical, but within six calendar months at the latest. 2. The repository should ideally be a local institutional repository to which the appropriate rights must be granted to replicate to other repositories.
Ireland 3. Authors should deposit post-prints (or publishers version if permitted) plus metadata of articles accepted for publication in peer-reviewed journals and international conference proceedings; 4. Deposit should be made upon acceptance by the journal/conference. Repositories should release the metadata immediately, with access restrictions to full text article to be applied as required. Open access should be available as soon as practicable after the author-requested embargo, or six month, whichever comes first;
Ireland 5. Suitable repositories should make provision for long-term preservation of, and free public access to, published research findings....
Harvard Harvards Faculty of Arts and Sciences voted to adopt a policy under which (1) faculty are required to deposit a copy of their scholarly journal articles in an institutional repository and (2) automatically to grant to the University a University License (see definition in Section C below) to make those articles openly accessible on the Internet.
Harvard The Faculty of Arts and Sciences of Harvard University is committed to disseminating the fruits of its research and scholarship as widely as possible. In keeping with that commitment, the Faculty adopts the following policy: Each Faculty member grants to the President and Fellows of Harvard College permission to make available his or her scholarly articles and to exercise the copyright in those articles.
Harvard In legal terms, the permission granted by each Faculty member is a nonexclusive, irrevocable, paid- up, worldwide license to exercise any and all rights under copyright relating to each of his or her scholarly articles, in any medium, and to authorize others to do the same, provided that the articles are not sold for a profit.
Harvard The policy will apply to all scholarly articles written while the person is a member of the Faculty except for any articles completed before the adoption of this policy and any articles for which the Faculty member entered into an incompatible licensing or assignment agreement before the adoption of this policy. The Dean or the Deans designate will waive application of the policy for a particular article upon written request by a Faculty member explaining the need…
Brazil Brazil, House of Representatives (proposed-multi- institutional-mandate) http://www.camara.gov.br/ http://www.camara.gov.br/sileg/MostrarIntegra.asp?CodTeor =461698 http://www.camara.gov.br/sileg/MostrarIntegra.asp?CodTeor =461698 On May 23, 2007, Rodrigo Rollemberg, Member of Brazil's House of Representatives, introduced Proposed Law nº 1120/2007 concerning the dissemination of Brazil's technical- scientific output. The first article proposes that all Brazil's public institutions of higher education, as well as all research units, should be required to establish institutional repositories in which all the technical-scientific output of their academic and researcher staff must be deposited. The intention is to ensure that this content will be made openly accessible on the Web.
Colombia Universidad del Rosario (COLOMBIA) www.urosario.edu.co http://repository.urosario.edu.co The goal of e-docUR is to facilitate the access and to maximize the visibility of the scientific, academic and institutional production, of the Universidad del Rosario.
China Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology (CHINA) http://www.most.gov.cn/eng/ http://www.codataweb.org/06conf/ Mandate to deposit research data (not yet applicable to research articles themselves)
India National Institute of Technology, Rourkela (institutional-mandate) http://www.nitrkl.ac.in http://dspace.nitrkl.ac.in/dspace 10th Senate meeting, NIT Rourkela resolution All research papers by faculty and students, MTech (Research) and Ph. D. thesis is to be self-archived in Dspace@nitr or it should be submitted to the librarian for archiving, so that others interested may benefit by referring to these documents. The Administration may use this archive for assessment of faculty performance when needed.
India Bharathidasan University (institutional-mandate) http://www.bdu.ac.in/ http://dspace.bdu.ac.in/ As of November 2006, Bharathidasan University has made it mandatory for all faculty members publishing in refereed journals to send their papers to the University Informatics Centre (matram AT bdu.ac.in) for deposit in the university's Institutional Repository. The university believes that the repository will increase the citation of its publications and will boost interdisciplinary research collaboration among the faculty. The university stands second only to the National Institute of Technology, Rourkela, in implementing Open Access in India and it has taken the lead among general universities.
India National Knowledge Commission (proposed-funder-mandate) http://knowledgecommission.gov.in/ http://knowledgecommission.gov.in/downloads/documents/ wg_open_course.pdf http://knowledgecommission.gov.in/downloads/documents/ wg_open_course.pdf On a policy level, all research articles published by Indian authors receiving any government or public funding must be made available under Open Access and should be archived in the standard OA format on his/her website. Further, as a national academic OA portal is developed, these same research articles should be made available through this portal.
Lithuania the Lithuanian ETD Project as a Pilot for Baltic States designed in the framework of a UNESCO programme, prepared by Kaunas University of Technologies and the Lithuanian Network of Academic Libraries (LABT) in 2004. 14 Lithuanian universities and Riga Technical University participated in the ETD Information System project. The ETD project was supported by the academic communities and the Ministry of Science and Education, and included in the national programs. The Lithuanian ETD Information System (http://etd.elaba.lt/ ) includes 6 150 full-text dissertations, of which 2 386 (38%) are Open Access, others are accessible in the local intranets. It is planned that at the end of year 2008, ETD IS will cover 7 600 dissertations, and 50% of these should be Open Access.http://etd.elaba.lt/
Poland Institutional Repository of the Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Wroclaw University of Technology, Poland http://www.eny.pwr.wroc.pl/ang1/index.htm http://zet10.ipee.pwr.wroc.pl We provide permanent, toll-free, full-text online access, for all users webwide, for all research papers, monographs, reports and teaching materials.
Russia Central Economics and Mathematics Institute of Russian Academy ofSciences (institutional-mandate) http://www.cemi.rssi.ru/ http://socionet.ru/index-en.html http://cemi.socionet.ru/ http://www.cemi.rssi.ru/rus/news/initiat-eng.htm All researchers of the Central Economics and Mathematics Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences are mandated by director's decree to immediately deposit their papers/articles in the institutional Open Archive. ["...mandate researchers of CEMI RAS to deposit all completed research (in working paper form), including the full text, in institutional OA (repository) not later than 6 months after completion."] http://www.cemi.rssi.ru/rus/news/initiat-eng.htm
South Africa Department of Library Services http://www.library.up.ac.za https://www.up.ac.za/dspace/ UPSpace is a university-based institutional repository which offers a set of services to the reseachers of the UP Community, for the management and dissemination of digital academic/research materials (excluding work of administrative or commercial nature) donated to or created by the institution and its community members. The set of services includes the collection, storage and preservation in digital format, and retrieval of items submitted to UPSpace.
Turkey Middle East Technical University (institutional-mandate) http://www.metu.edu.tr/ http://library.metu.edu.tr/ In compliance with the principle of sharing scientific research results, electronic versions of Masters and Ph.D. theses of Middle East Technical University are open to national and international access. Based on the Berlin Declaration (Berlin, October 2003) Encourage and support their authors to publish their research articles in open access journals where a suitable journals exist and provide the support to enable that to happen.
Vietnam Research Center For Forest Ecology and Environment http://www.rcfee.org.vn http://blog.rcfee.org.vn/?cat=4&feed=rss2 Open access to all publication of RCFEE
Open Access – A Policy Issue Open Access policies are: Welcomed by authors Complied with by authors Compatible with copyright and respect authors moral rights Compatible with patent registration Respectful of academic and intellectual freedoms Aligned with the aims of most funding bodies and institutions Effective!
Open Access – Appealing to All the Major Stakeholders To the funders of researcher – both as a public service and as an increased return on their investment in research To the authors – as it gives wider dissemination and impact To readers – as it gives them access to all primary literature, making the most important research tool more powerful To editors and reviewers – as they feel their work is more valued To the libraries – as it allows them to meet the information needs of their users To the institutions – as it increases their presence and prestige To small and society publishers – as it gives them a survival strategy and fits with their central remit
Some examples - Ukraine Since January 2007 Ukraine has a law - proposed mandate for open access to publicly funded research. It was widely supported by most of the Parliament members. And it is already the second parliamentary inquiry mandating the Cabinet of Ministers to take actions on creating favourable conditions for developing open access repositories in archives, libraries, museums, scientific and research institutions with open access condition to state funded research. Law of Ukraine On the principles of developing information society in Ukraine for 2007-20015 at www.rada.gov.uawww.rada.gov.ua
How we started Awareness raising 1: – Mass media: March 2004: Article about Open Acess (OA) movement in Dzerkalo Tyzhnia (one of the most influential weeklies) Until now publications about OA journals and repositories in intellectual periodicals like Dzerkalo Tyzhnia, Krytyka
Awareness raising 2 Working with professional communities: seminars and workshops: – April 2004: The first seminar about OA journals for the editors of scientific and scholarly journals (society publishers) with the support from National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (NAS) – Until now workshops and presentations about OA Journals and Open Repositories for different audience (university librarians, society publishers, academic community)
International event February 17-19, 2005, hosted by National University Kyiv-Mohyla Academy, organized by International Renaissance Foundation, OSI, NAS, International Association of Academies of Sciences, supported by East-East Program: Partnership Beyond Boarders of OSI and the British Council Ukraine Over 140 researchers, administrators, librarians, information managers from higher educational institutions and scientific research laboratories from 17 countries
One of the results Recommendations that the Ukrainian authorities: – ensure the right of individuals and the public to access information and knowledge and to guarantee that IP regimes are not the obstacles to the public access to knowledge – encourage research and higher educational institutions to practice OA
Most important Recommendations that the Ukrainian authorities: – put an OA condition to state funded researches (except reasonable exceptions) and to provide state fund and technical assistance to research and higher educational institutions to set up and maintain Open repositories (with condition to adopt a policy to encourage or require OA research output)
And Recommendations that the Ukrainian authorities: – support ICT development in libraries, archives, museums and other organizations seeking to enhance access to information and to providing state fund and technical assistance to OA to cultural heritage.
Recommendations sent to Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine, Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine, Ministry of Health of Ukraine, Ministry of Culture and Arts of Ukraine, Parliament Committee on Education and Science, Parliament Committee on Culture and Spirituality, Parliament Committee on Freedom of Speech and Information, International Association of Academies of Sciences, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine, Ukrainian Academy of Agrarian Sciences, Academy of Law of Ukraine, Academy of Pedagogical Researches, National Institute for Strategical Researches, State Fund for Fundamental Researches, Higher Attestation Committee, UNESCO International Scientific- Educational center on information systems and technologies of NAS of Ukraine, rectors of higher educational institutions.
And Recommendations endorsed by Ukrainian Vice Prime Minister
OA policies development Cooperation is crucial: local partners: – NGO Privacy Ukraine – Internet Access and Training program (IATP) of International Researches and Exchanges Board (IREX) – Fulbright Exchange program – National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine – Parliamentary Committee for Education and Science – Internews Ukraine – Ukrainian Internet Society
Next steps The first Parliamentary hearings Developing information society in Ukraine (September 21, 2005) Resulted into Parliamentary Inquiry Harmonization of Governmental Educational Policies re OA (from December 1, 2005)
Tools for lobbying – web-site with public professional recommendations http://www.sluhannya.in.ua – workshops organized by the Parliamentary Committee on Education and Science, the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine, the National Academy of Sciences, Internet Association of Ukraine, International NGO Internews Ukraine, IRF, Microsoft Ukraine, and representative office of Intel in Ukraine. – informational leaflet to all members of the Parliament
Parliamentary Inquiry Harmonization of Governmental Educational Policies re OA (from December 1, 2005): – open access is one of the priorities in developing information society – the Cabinet of Ministers should create favorable conditions for developing open access repositories in archives, libraries, museums and other cultural institutions. – The Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine should encourage development of open access resources in science, technology and education with open access condition to state funded researches. http://zakon.rada.gov.ua/cgi-bin/laws/main.cgi?nreg=3175%2D15
A law Since January 2007 Ukraine has a law - proposed mandate of open access to publicly funded researches. And it is already the second parliamentary inquiry mandating the Cabinet of Ministers to take actions on creating favorable conditions for developing open access repositories in archives, libraries, museums, scientific and research institutions with open access condition to state funded researches. - Law of Ukraine On the principles of developing information society in Ukraine for 2007-20015 at www.rada.gov.uawww.rada.gov.ua
Not working According to the law, 6 month period was mentioned to develop the implementations strategy Governments change, change and change…
Lessons Implementation schedule has to be part of the law / policy mandate Not only libraries, but Universities support and pressure needed Harvard example is very encouraging
Nigeria COMMUNIQUE OF THE INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON OPEN ACCESS REPOSITORIES – NEW MODEL FOR SCHOLARLY COMMUNICATION HELD AT THE A.B.U., ZARIA. NIGERIA, APRIL 28.29, 2008
Nigeria Stakeholders at the workshop observed with serious concern that: 1. Open Access Institutional Repositories are now globally accepted as one of the best model for scholarly communication. 2. Only few countries in Africa have embraced the project. 3. Nigeria with 92 Universities and several other Research Institutes, there is only one pilot Institutional repository (IR) in Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria Nigeria.
Nigeria 4. The Open Access Repositories (OAR) has enormous benefits to the country, research scientists, scholars and information users in general. 5. Despite the benefits of open access/Institutional repositories, there is a very low level of awareness even among Authors, publishers and other stakeholders in Nigeria.
Nigeria In view of the above mentioned observations, the following recommendations are made: 1. The Federal Government should develop a strategic plan of action on open access repositories and open access journals with an activity timeline. 2. The Federal Government to setup a National Coordinating Committee for Open Access Repositories and open access journals in Nigeria. 3. Stakeholders should be sensitized on the need to support open access and Institutional repositories (IR) and open access journals.
Nigeria 4. Favourable policies should be formulated at different levels on open access repositories and open access journals in Nigeria. 5. Stakeholders should be trained and retrained on open access repositories and modality for the implementation of open access journals. 6. Stakeholders should be encouraged to source and make available funds for the open access repository projects and open access journals.