Presentation on theme: "Integration of Climate Mitigation into National policies A Framework for Analysis of Chinas sustainable development policies Xiangyang WU Research Centre."— Presentation transcript:
Integration of Climate Mitigation into National policies A Framework for Analysis of Chinas sustainable development policies Xiangyang WU Research Centre for Sustainable Development (RCSD) Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (CASS) Workshop on BASIC Beijing, 18 February 2006
Outline Introduction The relevance of SD policies to CC mitigation Understanding the impact: a framework for analysis SD policies to CC mitigation Case study: energy saving policies Conclusions and suggestions
Introduction China has no climate change policies, but has sustainable development policies and measures relevant to CC. As Chinas national strategy, sustainable development has been taken as the primary objective for policy making China has been contributing to climate mitigation through improving energy efficiency, developing renewable energy, afforestation, family planning, poverty alleviation, etc.
SD Policies Climate Policies Policies Relevant to CC Non-CC policies Policy areas: implications for CC mitigation Economy policies Environmental policies Social policies SD Policies
The relevance of policies to CC mitigation Criteria: positive /negative impact on GHG emissions Measurement: cost-effectiveness of reductions and potentials for mitigation CC mitigation: a co-benefit from SD policies Inadequate information for measurement
Framework of Policy Evaluation Orientation of SD policies Its primary objective Its coverage? national, sectoral, or local? Its mechanism for implementation: incentive, compulsory, voluntary, guidance? Implementation: cost and its effect Implication to GHG emissions, ? Prospects for integration
Major SD Policies with direct relevance to CC mitigation Climate Change Energy policies Environmental/ecol ogical policies Social policies Family Planning Poverty Alleviation Energy industry institutional reform Optimizing energy structure Energy saving Forest Air pollution control
Chinas energy policies (1) Institutional reform in energy industry: market liberalization Price controlled by government dual price system (government + market) market price Examples Coal sector: 1987, govt price and market price; 2002, market price only. Power sector: 2002, institutional reform against monopoly, divided into generation enterprises and power grid enterprises. Separated govt. function and enterprises.
Chinas energy policies (2) Policies in optimizing energy structure: cleaner Renewable energy: (a) plan: the development plan of new and renewable energy(1995), the 10 th Five-year plan of … and plan of … (b) the Renewable Energy Law(2005). Shut down small thermal power units. Encourage CHP Use new- and advanced-technology in thermal power plants
Renewable achievement Wind power: Small hydro: By 2004 solar PV cell:60MW, solar heater: 65million m2,a share of 40% in the world. Bio-methane in Rural areas: 11 million digesters, 5.5 billion m3 per year 1994: renewable energy Mtce. 2000: 33.57Mtce. Wind power Small hydro
Energy saving policies: reduce (case study)
Major SD Policies with direct relevance to CC mitigation Climate Change Energy policies Environmental / Ecological policies Social policies Family Planning Poverty Alleviation Energy industry institutional reform Optimizing energy structure Energy saving Forest Air pollution control
Environmental / ecological policies (1) Air pollution control Polluter pays: introduced in 1982 Emission permit system (1994) Plan of Total Emission Control (1996) SO2 pollutions control zone & acidity control zone (1998) Air Pollution Prevent and Control Law (2000): the pilot program of SO2 Emission Trading (2002) 10th Five-year Plan: 2005 SO2 emission reduce 20% on HOWEVER,
Total SO2 emission Industry SO2 emission household SO2 emission Why?
Environmental / ecological policies (2) Forestry The Forest Law (1979, revised in 1998) barren land and mountainous areas: long term lease for private investment allowed Land use change: sloping farmland to forest (starting from 2000, in 17 provinces) No disturbance for natural re-generation policy: 30.2 m ha Tree planting: by m ha
Major SD Policies with direct relevance to CC mitigation Climate Change Energy policies Environmental / Ecological policies Energy industry institutional reform Optimizing energy structure Energy saving Forest Air pollution control Family Planning Poverty Alleviation Social policies
Poverty alleviation policies combined with rural energy development and ecological protection , 3 rounds of the programs for building rural preliminary electrification counties through small hydro development. Alleviation poverty through giving science and technology, education to … 2500 million 2.9 million Family planning policy Family planning: 1970s, late, wide interval, less 1980s, only one. prediction: the peak will be billion in 2030, will not exceed 1.5 billion. Avoidance of births: 300 million.
Case study: energy saving policies evaluation primary objective: reduce energy consumption, improve energy efficiency CC implication: mitigation Policies introduced: Energy Saving Law (1997) management rules for main energy-consume enterprises (1999) energy saving product certificate
Incentives Grants and subsidies: Direct investment and low interest loans. key energy saving projects Energy technologies R&D, demonstration and deployment Energy related funds: set up by government, local authorities and power companies State owned investment company: CECIC sep up by government in 1998 ESCo: since 1997, 60 ESCo has established to implement over 500 projects, invest 1.4 billion and achieve 1.75 Mtce energy saving. Deposit refund: to encourage deployment of energy saving construction materials Energy saving products list: encourage its deployment by governmental procurement
Ambitious Targets in the 11th Five-year Plan ( ) National goals: to reduce energy intensity 20%, to control GHGs emissions Energy Conservation Plan : specific targets: set up for main energy intensive products, energy consuming equipment and energy management 3 Priority areas : industry, transport, buildings of business and residents 10 Key energy saving projects 10 Supportive policies and measures, emphasizing necessity to introduce market-based incentives and new initiatives and enhancing energy management to large energy user
Achievement: Energy Intensity decreased Equivalent to 700 Mtce of Energy saving, 1050 Mt SO 2 and 440 MtC emissions reduction GDP is Calculated with comparable price in 2000;
Problems on energy saving policies Weak implementation: rules were not obeyed strictly. Insufficient incentives energy saving policies were not harmonized.
Conclusions and suggestions Chinas SD policies (energy, environmental / ecological and social policies) lead to positive contribution to CC mitigation Policy-coordination is necessary to address CC Integrating CC into SD framework
Next step Typical cases with cost and benefit analysis on several key policies Policy making cost, implemental cost, supervising cost, etc. Benefit: refer mostly to GHG emission, environmental, ecological and social aspects. Comparative analysis among different policies How to highlight CC initiatives in SD framework