Presentation on theme: "Presented by Aditi Dass Winrock International India May 11, 2006"— Presentation transcript:
1Presented by Aditi Dass Winrock International India May 11, 2006 Building upon the Adaptive Capacity to Livelihood Resilience in arid, semi arid and flood prone regionsPresented byAditi DassWinrock International IndiaMay 11, 2006
2Outline of presentation Case Study on Drought and Flood in IndiaRisks & vulnerabilitiesAdaptation strategies
3Case StudiesStates selected on the basis of the level of vulnerability of the states to droughts, floods and cyclones which is a function of damages reportedVillages within the most drought prone districts of Rajasthan, Andhrapradesh and Karnataka have been selected.Similarly, a case study in Orissa has been taken up within a flood prone district, which is also susceptible to cyclones.
4Damages due to extreme events between the period 1900 to 2004 Number of people affected due to various extreme events in India.
5Probability of Occurrence of Droughts A perennial feature19% of area affecting 12% of population annuallyFrequency of droughts:Tamilnadu, J&K, Telangana, West Rajasthan - every 2.5 yearsGujarat, E. Rajasthan & Western Uttarpradesh – every 3 yearsOther states have droughts every 4-5 yearsBased on the rainfall deficiency for the last 100 years
6Severe droughts in India in last 100 years % of country area affected% of less rainfall over entire India% of less rainfall over drought reg.191871-26-49196541-17-36197247-25-35197945-21-38198750-18-45After 1987, India experienced severe drought in 2002, where 29% ofthe area was affected
7Temporal-spatial spread of drought & impacts Drought is occurring in some or the other part of the countryPrimary impacts: water availability, agriculture production, hydropower generationSecondary Impact: Agricultural GDP dips, increase in commodity prices, livelihood of people dependent on rainfed farming (marginal farmers & farm laborers surviving) affectedRainfed areas (61%) – most affected200019841986200119972002
9Case study analysis: Risks associated with droughts Depletion in water resources for agriculture and drinking : women walk 1-2 kms to fetch waterReduction in crop yields and change in cropping patternDwindling fodder stock and declining income of farmers lead cattle selling; esp. marginal and small farmers who sell at depressed pricesIncreased incidences of debt:Decline in nutrition and health status: malnutrition strikes (esp. among children and women) whenever drought occurs
10Adaptation Local Level Adaptation Case studies in Rajasthan, Karnataka, AndhrapradeshLevel of adaptation not sameGovernment Institutions and policies to combat droughtsCentral Arid Zone Research Institute (CAZRI)Rural Works ProgrammeDrought Prone Area Programme (DPAP) - labor intensive schemes such as medium and minor irrigation, road construction, soil conservation and afforest actionDissemination of technologies relating to soil management, water harvesting, improved agronomic practices and drought-resistant crops - CRIDADesert Development Programme (DDP)Integrated Watershed Management Programme – rejuvenate depleted natural resources on watershed basisNational Watershed Program for Rainfed Areas (NWSDPRA) –around 22 mha
11Traditional coping strategies in response to drought PhysicalHousehold/CommunityMigration (15-30%)Sale of assets (land, livestock, durable assets)Reduce intake of food and decline in other expenditureShift from superior to inferior food grainMixed croppingState/GovernmentFood distribution systemWater supply (tanker, new wells etc)Employment programs
12Traditional coping strategies in response to drought (contd.) SocialEconomicSharing and cooperationBorrowingSacrifice by senior hh membersImports/assistanceNew Community relationshipsDiversification in source of incomeInter and intra community exchange programsSubsidy/grants-Relief works
13Modern coping strategies Farming techniques to retain productivity during droughtsSoil & water conservation practicesFarm Pond : enables storing runoff waterPlanting drought resistant varieties: provided by the state Agriculture Univ.low adaptability of the aboveLivelihood: Education & skill based diversification of occupationLivestock: ownership pattern changed from few people owning bigger herd size to almost all hh owning few small animalsGovt. efforts: area – specific development programs initiated for drought prone areas to mitigate poverty
14Conclusion - droughtMarginal & small farmers and landless hh are most vulnerable to droughtMiddle level farmers in AP have also fallen prey to recurrent droughts due to:Decline of crop acreageFall in water table & water harvesting structuresFall in employment & purchasing powerScarcity of food and fodderLack of change in cropping pattern & lack of drought resistant seedsInability of farmers to repay loans with continuous droughtsDrought in Rajasthan was effectively managedDominant strategies in drought prone areas:Adopting mixed farming system (crop, livestock & agro-forestry)Resources conservation approachCollective sustenance
15Floods in India and its impacts 20031986198820002001
16Government expenditure and Damages due to floods
17Impact of floodsFloods play major role in poverty & vulnerability, esp. of marginalized communitiesDamage on Infrastructure: health, sanitation, water supply, roads, educational institutions and opportunities for environmentLoss of individual property:destroy of ‘kachcha’ houses, stored food & hh goodsPoor looses assets each time flood occursPoor have to take loans at high rate of interest for survivalHealth:water borne diseases like cholera, dysentery, typhoid & other gastrointestinal diseases are commonLack of effective health care systemUnavailable & inaccessible due to prohibitive costsLack of clean drinking water, well water mixes with flood waterEffect on women:loose control over food, fodder, fuel & cattle rearingIn post-disaster recovery phases, women suffer the mostCan’t get loans against lands because it is never in their name
18Coping with Floods Structural measures:- Construction of storage dams, reservoirs, embankments, drainage structures as required at suitable locationsRaising the levels of the roads and constructing houses at higher heights or raising the plinth level of the housesNon-structural measures:Flood forecasting & warning. The Central Water Commission (CWC) has a flood forecasting system covering 62 major rivers in 13 States with 157 stations for transmission of flood warnings on real time basis.Post-flood activities for rescue, relief and rehabilitation operations.People’s Participation
19Case study : Measures taken by Jagatsinghpur in Orissa (worst flood affected in 2001) Heights of embankments raised by 3-4 ftRepairing jobs of weak points of embankment was taken up by govt.Elevated spot “merdha’ were used for immediate shelter to flood affected peopleMud houses which were completely washed away, were rebuilt at an elevated areaJust before onset of monsoon people got ready with dry food reserve and other essential itemsDifferent variety of paddy is sown in flood prone areas which are not destroyed even if the plant remains under water until 10 days
20Conclusion - flood3 successive disasters have seriously affected sustainability of livelihoods in JagatsinghpurSuper cyclone 1999Flood 2001Flood 2003Loss of thousands of livesAreas most affected by flood of 2001 and 2003 were areas affected by cyclone in 1999Poor disaster preparednessRestoration works have to extend beyond normal time frameDevastating flood has given opportunity to reflect gaps in our disaster preparedness methods & mechanisms
21Mainstreaming Climate Change, Vulnerability & Adaptation Concerns WhyClimate change long term & impacts may be irreversibleLong gestation period required for adaptation (such as developing drought resistant varieties)Infrastructure lifetimes are long and are at riskLong time scales required for institutional arrangements to be in place for combating impacts of CC (national to village level)
22Policy QuestionWhat do we need to do differently because of the expected adverse impacts of climate change?