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1 © 2006 Adam Pease, Articulate Software - apease [at] articulatesoftware [dot] com Formal Upper Ontology for Interoperability Adam Pease Articulate Software.

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Presentation on theme: "1 © 2006 Adam Pease, Articulate Software - apease [at] articulatesoftware [dot] com Formal Upper Ontology for Interoperability Adam Pease Articulate Software."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 © 2006 Adam Pease, Articulate Software - apease [at] articulatesoftware [dot] com Formal Upper Ontology for Interoperability Adam Pease Articulate Software

2 2 © 2006 Adam Pease, Articulate Software - apease [at] articulatesoftware [dot] com Imagine...your view of the web CV name education work private Joe Smith BS Case Western Reserve, 1982 MS UC Davis, ACME Software, programmer Married, 2 children

3 3 © 2006 Adam Pease, Articulate Software - apease [at] articulatesoftware [dot] com...and the Computer's View name CV education work private Slide inspired by Frank von Harmelan

4 4 © 2006 Adam Pease, Articulate Software - apease [at] articulatesoftware [dot] com Wait, we've got semantics - Person Mammal JoeSmith instance subclass implies Mammal JoeSmith instance

5 5 © 2006 Adam Pease, Articulate Software - apease [at] articulatesoftware [dot] com Wait, we've got semantics - Person Mammal JoeSmith instance subclass implies Mammal JoeSmith instance u8475 x9834 p3489 r53 r22 implies x9834 p3489 r53

6 6 © 2006 Adam Pease, Articulate Software - apease [at] articulatesoftware [dot] com Suggested Upper Merged Ontology 1000 terms, 4000 axioms, 750 rules Mapped by hand to all of WordNet 1.6 then ported to 2.0 A starter document in the IEEE SUO group Associated domain ontologies totalling 20,000 terms and 60,000 axioms Free SUMO is owned by IEEE but basically public domain Domain ontologies are released under GNU

7 7 © 2006 Adam Pease, Articulate Software - apease [at] articulatesoftware [dot] com SUMO (continued) Formally defined, not dependent on a particular implementation Open source toolset for browsing and inference –https://sourceforge.net/projects/sigmakee/https://sourceforge Many uses of SUMO (independent of the SUMO authors and funders) –http://www.ontologyportal.org/Pubs.htmlhttp://www.ontologyportal.org/Pubs.html

8 8 © 2006 Adam Pease, Articulate Software - apease [at] articulatesoftware [dot] com WordNet Lexical database 100,000 word senses – synsets Created by George Miller's group at Princeton Free De facto standard in the linguistics world Global WordNet

9 9 © 2006 Adam Pease, Articulate Software - apease [at] articulatesoftware [dot] com SUMO Validation Mapping to all of WordNet lexicon –A check on coverage and completeness (at a given level of generality) Peer review –Open source since its inception Formal validation with a theorem prover –Free of contradictions (within a generous time bound for search) Application to dozens of domain ontologies

10 10 © 2006 Adam Pease, Articulate Software - apease [at] articulatesoftware [dot] com Internationalization Translation of SUMO paraphrases to diverse multiple languages –Some confidence theres no cultural or linguistic bias –Chinese, Hindi, Tagalog, Czech, German, Italian, Korean, Romanian –Estonian and Hungarian in development SUMO is linked to multiple very large lexicons (Euro WordNet, Balkanet, HowNet etc) –English, Chinese, Italian etc –Arabic in progress

11 11 © 2006 Adam Pease, Articulate Software - apease [at] articulatesoftware [dot] com SUMO Structure Structural Ontology Base Ontology Set/Class TheoryNumericTemporal Mereotopology GraphMeasureProcessesObjects Qualities

12 12 © 2006 Adam Pease, Articulate Software - apease [at] articulatesoftware [dot] com SUMO+Domain Ontology Structural Ontology Base Ontology Set/Class Theory NumericTemporal Mereotopology GraphMeasureProcessesObjects Qualities SUMO Mid-Level Military Geography Elements Terrorist Attack Types Communications People Transnational Issues Financial Ontology Terrorist EconomyNAICS Terrorist Attacks … France Afghanistan UnitedStates Distributed Computing Biological Viruses WMD ECommerce Services Government Transportation World Airports Total Terms Total Axioms Rules

13 13 © 2006 Adam Pease, Articulate Software - apease [at] articulatesoftware [dot] com Are SUMO Terms Directly Usable? Yes. Study – 1/3 of upper ontology terms directly appear in answers on large test –Cohen, P., Chaudhri, V., Pease A., and Schrag, R. (1999), Does Prior Knowledge Facilitate the Development of Knowledge Based Systems, In Proceedings of the Sixteenth National Conference on Artificial Intelligence (AAAI-1999). Menlo Park, Calif.: AAAI Press. cohen-aaai99.ps before (in time), agent (of a process), etc.

14 14 © 2006 Adam Pease, Articulate Software - apease [at] articulatesoftware [dot] com Isn't this stuff too hard?

15 15 © 2006 Adam Pease, Articulate Software - apease [at] articulatesoftware [dot] com Isn't this stuff too hard? Well, let's just look under the lamppost because the light is better there


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