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© Simon Buckingham Shum 1 Hypermedia Discourse & Human- Agent Knowledge Cartography Simon Buckingham Shum Knowledge Media Institute & Computing Research Centre The Open University, Milton Keynes, UK www.kmi.open.ac.uk/people/sbs email@example.com NASA-Ontolog-KMWG OKMDS mini-series Session-06 - Thu 17-April-2008 http://ontolog.cim3.net/cgi-bin/wiki.pl?ConferenceCall_2008_04_17
© Simon Buckingham Shum 2 Hypermedia Discourse
© Simon Buckingham Shum 3 Hypermedia Modelling discourse relations Expressing different perspectives on a conceptual space Supporting the incremental formalization of ideas Rendering structural visualizations Connecting heterogeneous content
© Simon Buckingham Shum 4 Discourse Verbal and written workplace communication Discourse communities: making and taking perspectives Dialogue Argumentation Claim making Analytical narrative Meetings
© Simon Buckingham Shum 5 Notation(s) Intuitive User Interface Computational Services Literacy/ Fluency Discourse Ontology Hypermedia Discourse research
© Simon Buckingham Shum 6 Compendium personal or group concept mappingpersonal or group concept mapping real time meeting capturereal time meeting capture participatory modellingparticipatory modelling discourse as semantic hypertextdiscourse as semantic hypertext
© Simon Buckingham Shum 7 Discourse grounded in Horst Rittels IBIS: Issue-Based Information System
© Simon Buckingham Shum 8 Compendium: hypertext discourse mapping/conceptual modelling
© Simon Buckingham Shum 9 Compendium: hypertext discourse mapping/conceptual modelling
© Simon Buckingham Shum 10 Compendium: Descendent of gIBIS
© Simon Buckingham Shum 11 Modelling using Issue-templates
© Simon Buckingham Shum 12 Modelling organisational processes in Compendium using a Template
© Simon Buckingham Shum 13 Completing a Compendium template
© Simon Buckingham Shum 14 Generating Custom Documents and Diagrams from Compendium Templates
© Simon Buckingham Shum 15 Structure management in Compendium Associative linking nodes in a shared context connected by graphical Map links Categorical membership nodes in different contexts connected by common attributes via metadata Tags Hypertextual Transclusion reuse of the same node in different views Templates reuse of the same structure in different views HTML, XML and RDF data exports for interoperability Java and SQL interfaces to add services
© Simon Buckingham Shum 16 Using Compendium for personnel recovery planning Example of Conversational Modelling: real time dialogue mapping combined with model driven templates (AI+IA) Co-OPR Project (with Austin Tate): http://www.aiai.ed.ac.uk/project/co-opr
© Simon Buckingham Shum 17 Mission Briefing: Intent template Answers to template issues provided in the JTFC Briefing. Answers may be constrained by predefined options, as specified in the XML schema
© Simon Buckingham Shum 18 Capturing political deliberation/rationale Dialogue Map capturing the planners discussion of this option
© Simon Buckingham Shum 19 Planning Engine input to Compendium Issues on which the I-X planning engine provided candidate Options
© Simon Buckingham Shum 20 Modelling a document corpus: The Iraq Debate http://kmi.open.ac.uk/projects/compendium/iraq
© Simon Buckingham Shum 21 Annotating a document corpus: Chomskys article in the Iraq Debate http://kmi.open.ac.uk/projects/compendium/iraq
© Simon Buckingham Shum 22 Large scale NASA e-science field trials: Interoperability with other databases, software agents and collaboration tools www.kmi.open.ac.uk/projects/coakting/nasa Clancey, W.J., Sierhuis, M., Alena, R., Berrios, D., Dowding, J., Graham, J.S., Tyree, K.S., Hirsh, R.L., Garry, W.B., Semple, A., Buckingham Shum, S.J., Shadbolt, N. and Rupert, S. (2005). Automating CapCom Using Mobile Agents and Robotic Assistants. 1 st Space Exploration Conference, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 31 Jan-1 Feb, 2005, Orlando, FL. Available from: AIAA Meeting Papers on Disc [CD-ROM]: Reston, VA, and as Advanced Knowledge Technologies ePrint 375: http://eprints.aktors.org/375http://eprints.aktors.org/375
© Simon Buckingham Shum 23 Image Credits--- Mars: NASA/JPL/MSSS; Earth: NASA/JSC; Composite: MSSS
© Simon Buckingham Shum 24 NASA e-science field trials (2004 and 2005) Distributed Mars-Earth planning and data analysis tools for Mars Habitat field trial in Utah desert, supported from US+UK www.kmi.open.ac.uk/projects/coakting/nasa
© Simon Buckingham Shum 25 NASA Mobile Agents Architecture
© Simon Buckingham Shum 26 Collaboration Configuration Scientist (Mars) Scientist (Earth) Scientist (Mars) Scientist (Earth) Software Agent Architecture (Mars) Compendium used as a collaboration medium at all intersections: humans+agents, reading+writing maps RST-telecon-2005-04-11.i.avi 00:49:08
© Simon Buckingham Shum 27 NASA testbed: Compendium activity plans for surface exploration, constructed by scientists on Earth, interpreted by software agents on Mars The Compendium nodes and relationships in this plan were interpreted by Brahms software agents for monitoring and coordinating astronaut and robot activity during surface explorations. Copyright, 2004, RIACS/NASA Ames, Open University, Southampton University Not to be used without permission RST-telecon-2005-04-11.i.avi 1:11:57
© Simon Buckingham Shum 28 CoAKTinG NASA testbed: Compendium science data map, generated by software agents, for interpretation by Mars+Earth scientists The Compendium maps were autonomously created and populated with science data by Brahms software agents that use models of the mission plan, work process, data flow and science data relationships to create the maps. Copyright, 2004, RIACS/NASA Ames, Open University, Southampton University Not to be used without permission
© Simon Buckingham Shum 29 CoAKTinG NASA testbed: Compendium-based photo analysis by geologists on Mars Copyright, 2004, RIACS/NASA Ames, Open University, Southampton University Not to be used without permission
© Simon Buckingham Shum 30 NASA testbed: Compendium scientific feedback map from Earth scientists to Mars colleagues Copyright, 2004, RIACS/NASA Ames, Open University, Southampton University Not to be used without permission
© Simon Buckingham Shum 31 Collaborative sensemaking in e-Science: Meeting Replay tool for Earth scientists, synchronising video of Mars crews discussion as they annotate their mission plans Copyright, 2004, RIACS/NASA Ames, Open University, Southampton University Not to be used without permission NASA MR Clip: 00:50
© Simon Buckingham Shum 32 Memetic Meeting Replay The CoAKTinG projects results are now mainstreamed in the Access Grid by the JISC Memetic VRE project
© Simon Buckingham Shum 33 Memetic Meeting Replay The CoAKTinG projects results are now mainstreamed in the Access Grid by the JISC Memetic VRE project
© Simon Buckingham Shum 34 In Gutenbergs shadow (or standing on his shoulders) Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London March 1665 Le Journal des Sçavans January 1665 Newspapers + Invisible Colleges = Scholarly Journals [Information Technology] + [Social Networks] = Knowledge Medium
© Simon Buckingham Shum 35 Jumping forward 343 years… Buckingham Shum, S. (2007). Digital Research Discourse? Computational Thinking Seminar Series, School of Informatics, University of Edinburgh, 25 Apr. 2007. http://kmi.open.ac.uk/projects/hyperdiscourse/docs/Simon-Edin-CompThink.pdf
© Simon Buckingham Shum 36 …digital paper! 2008… Ideas and arguments (=knowledge claims) are now digital…
© Simon Buckingham Shum 37 Paper: The Scent of a Site: A System for Analyzing and Predicting Information Scent, Usage, and Usability of a Web Site Web User Flow by Information Scent (WUFIS) Paper: Information foraging Information foraging theory Information scent models People try to maximise their rate of gaining information ? applies Beyond document citations… These annotations are freeform summaries of an idea, as one would find in researchers journals, fieldnotes, lit. review notes or blog entries Addressable triple which can be contested e.g. supported/challenged Method Theory Claim Making formal connections between ideas creates a semantic citation network > novel literature navigation, querying and visualization
© Simon Buckingham Shum 38 Combining formal relations with the expressive freedom of folksonomies Relational classes and dialects (KMi Scholarly Ontologies project)
© Simon Buckingham Shum 39 If we model concepts in a literature as concept maps… (KMis ClaiMapper, built on Compendium)
© Simon Buckingham Shum 40 Semantic del.icio.us: KMis ClaimSpotter assigning and linking freeform tags Sereno, B., Buckingham Shum, S. and Motta, E. (2007). Formalization, User Strategy and Interaction Design: Users Behaviour with Discourse Tagging Semantics. Workshop on Social and Collaborative Construction of Structured Knowledge, 16th Int. World Wide Web Conference (WWW 2007), Banff, 8-12 May 2007. http://www2007.org/workshops/paper_30.pdf
© Simon Buckingham Shum 41 Visualising claims and arguments claimfinder.open.ac.uk When multiple analysts annotate web documents via a server, they can generate a shared view of how they see the field, and where they agree/disagree
© Simon Buckingham Shum 42 Semantic Google Scholar KMis ClaimFinder
© Simon Buckingham Shum 43 Lineage tree (the roots of a concept)
© Simon Buckingham Shum 44 Adding Web 2.0 functionality to an open platform for mapping concepts and arguments Cohere: http://cohereweb.net
© Simon Buckingham Shum 45 Cohere: creating a new Idea for Googles Knol, linked to a website
© Simon Buckingham Shum 46 Cohere: embedding an Idea in a blog
© Simon Buckingham Shum 47 Cohere: raising issues about Googles Knol Idea
© Simon Buckingham Shum 48 Cohere: from tag clouds to idea webs
© Simon Buckingham Shum 49 Cohere: all incoming and outgoing links from a focal Idea
© Simon Buckingham Shum 50 Cohere: extensible connection language doesnt lock users into one ontology
© Simon Buckingham Shum 51 Cohere: Argument from Expert Opinion with Critical Questions
© Simon Buckingham Shum 52 Cohere: semantically filtering a focal Idea by contrasting connections
© Simon Buckingham Shum 53 Cohere: a mashup visualization merging different connections around a common Idea
© Simon Buckingham Shum 54 Cohere: homepage integrates People, Ideas and Connections
© Simon Buckingham Shum 55 Social Software vs Argumentation? Social SoftwareArgumentation Tools socialworkv. rapidhighly reflectivev. lowlearning required purpose pace entry threshold v. lowsemiformal / formal structure multimediatextual focal artifact
© Simon Buckingham Shum 56 Acknowledgements Funding gratefully acknowledged: Scholarly Ontologies Project: Victoria Uren Gangmin Li Clara Mancini Neil Benn Bertrand Sereno John Domingue Enrico Motta Compendium Project: Al Selvin (Verizon/Open U.) Maarten Sierhuis (NASA) Jeff Conklin (CogNexus Inst.) Michelle Bachler (Open U.)
© Simon Buckingham Shum 57 Hypermedia Discourse project: community / theory / software / screencasts / case studies / user studies www.kmi.open.ac.uk/projects/hyperdiscourse Compendium Institute www.CompendiumInstitute.org Dialogue Mapping www.cognexus.org Visualizing Argumentation www.VisualizingArgumentation.info Knowledge Cartography
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