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Semantic Wikis: The Wiki Way to the Semantic Web?

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Presentation on theme: "Semantic Wikis: The Wiki Way to the Semantic Web?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Semantic Wikis: The Wiki Way to the Semantic Web?
Semantic Wiki Mini-Series 1st session: A Survey of the Landscape and State-of-Art in Semantic Wiki Co-chairs: Sebastian Schaffert (Salzburg Research, Austria), Max Völkel (FZI Karlsruhe)

2 Agenda Introduction History State of the Art Trends

3 Introduction Introduction

4 Introduction: Semantic Wikis
wiki principles metaweb two perspectives on Semantic Wikis characteristics of Semantic Wikis example

5 Wiki Principles wikis allow anyone to edit
Introduction Wiki Principles wikis allow anyone to edit wikis are easy to use and do not require additional software wiki content is easy to link wikis support versioning of all changes wikis support all media

6 Introduction Nova Spivack: Metaweb Semantic Wikis

7 Two Perspectives on Semantic Wikis
Introduction Two Perspectives on Semantic Wikis Wikis for Metadata Metadata for Wikis no clear separation, but tendencies!

8 Wikis for Metadata creating metadata on the Semantic Web is difficult!
Introduction Wikis for Metadata creating metadata on the Semantic Web is difficult! requires domain knowledge requires knowledge engineering skills complicated, insufficient tools Wikis for metadata: simplified technological access to the creation of metadata collaboration of domain experts and knowledge engineers dynamically evolving knowledge networks and knowledge models

9 Metadata for Wikis Wikis
Introduction Metadata for Wikis Wikis huge amounts of digital content (e.g. Wikipedia) strong connection of content via hyperlinks problem: structure exists, but is only used for presentation and not accessible by computers finding relevant content is increasingly difficult integration and exchange between different systems is difficult

10 Introduction Semantic Wikis annotation of existing structures with machine readable metadata links carry meaning, typing of links, typing of pages context dependent adaptation and presentation different domains have different ways of presenting content, personal preferences, etc. improved, „intelligent“, search and navigation queries to the structure, visualisation of structure, derived information improved interoperability between systems exchange of content, integration of different systems, agents, etc

11 Semantic Wikis: Example
Introduction Semantic Wikis: Example

12 History History

13 History 1995: The First Wiki Wiki First developed by Ward Cunningham as an add-on to the Portland Pattern Repository on  our interpretation Incremental - Pages can cite other pages, including pages that have not been written yet.  network of pages Organic - The structure and text content of the site is open to editing and evolution.  different from classical content management systems Universal - The mechanisms of editing and organizing are the same as those of writing so that any writer is automatically an editor and organizer.  integrated creation and organization of content Unified - Page names will be drawn from a flat space so that no additional context is required to interpret them.  humans can remember names Precise - Pages will be titled with sufficient precision to avoid most name clashes, typically by forming noun phrases.  names are quasi-unique Tolerant - Interpretable (even if undesirable) behavior is preferred to error messages.  usability: novice users have less fear to start using it Observable - Activity within the site can be watched and reviewed by any other visitor to the site.  exchange of meta-information Convergent - Duplication can be discouraged or removed by finding and citing similar or related content. 

14 2004/2005: First Semantic Wikis
History 2004/2005: First Semantic Wikis Platypus Wiki from Stefano Campanini, Paolo Castagna, Roberto Tazzoli presented at ISWC2004 WikSAR from David Aumüller wins best Demo award at ESWC2005

15 2005: Wikipedia became popular
History 2005: Wikipedia became popular Comparing search volume on Google Trends on

16 2006: Wikis became popular History
Comparing search volume on Google Trends on

17 2006: Semantic Wikis followed the trend
History 2006: Semantic Wikis followed the trend Wiki Ontology Semantic web Semantic wiki Web Search Volume, Worldwide, 2004 – , /!\ Scales are different between diagrams!

18 2006: Semantic Wiki as a research topic
History 2006: Semantic Wiki as a research topic 2005: [swikig] mailing list launched 2006: First Workshop on Semantic Wikis: From Wiki to Semantics [SemWiki2006] at ESWC2006, Budva, Montenrego 2006: Second Workshop on Semantic Wikis: Wiki-based Knowledge-Engineering [WibKe2006] at WikiSym 2006 in Odense, Denmark 2008: Third Workshop on Semantic Wikis: The Wiki Way of Semantics [SemWiki2008] at ESWC2008, Tenerife

19 State of the Art State of the Art

20 What is a Semantic Wiki? I/II
State of the Art What is a Semantic Wiki? I/II Semantic Wikis* try to combine the strengths of Semantic Web machine processable, data integration complex queries Wiki easy to use and contribute, strongly interconnected, collaborative. Emergence of Semantic Wikis from to sources: A) Semantic technologies for wikis („ST4W“) i.e. better navigation, better queries Most semantic wiki engines are here B) Wikis for semantic technologies („W4ST“) i.e. Ontology engineering, ontology learning E.g. Many papers on mining wikipedia * Schaffert & Völkel, 2006

21 What is a Semantic Wiki? II/II
State of the Art What is a Semantic Wiki? II/II A Semantic Wiki is like the Semantic Web in a Petri dish Many terms emerge – how to consilidate the vocabulary? Many people work together – how to achieve consensus? Queries over multiple resources Import of semantic web data Export to other semantic web tools Versioning Access rights Trust ...

22 Semantic Wiki Engines AceWiki – controlled english
State of the Art Semantic Wiki Engines AceWiki – controlled english Artificial Memory – personal knowledge management BOWiki – biomedical domain Confluence Plugins (Metadata, Scaffolding) - commercial Hypertext Knowledge Workbench – personal knowledge management IkeWiki SWiM - offshoot of IkeWiki KiWI – successor in scope of KiWi project OntoWiki – free-form database OpenRecord – free-form database SweetWiki – semantic tagging Semantic MediaWiki (MediaWiki extension) – Semantic Wikipedia HaloExtension – extension of Semantic MediaWiki, browsing & refactoring Semantic Forms – free-form database ... Many more Semantic MediaWiki extensions SWOOKI – a peer-to-peer based SemWiki

23 SemWiki2006 Results How is metadata created? How is metadata used?
State of the Art SemWiki2006 Results How is metadata created? Incentives for creating formal data Low in semantic web, higher in semantic wikis with direct benefit Page vs. Concept How is metadata used? Trust - Can trustworthiness of article content be determined from the article metadata? Navigation - alternative views on the data Search … Automated content generation including reasoning Ontology engineering Why/for what are Semantic Wikis used? Like normal wikis, but more sophisticated, doing everything better Integration Integartion of structured text and RDF world still unsolved No common wiki metadata ontology

24 SemWiki2008 More application oriented than 2006 State of the Art
Alexandre Passant and Philippe Laublet. Towards an Interlinked Semantic Wiki Farm Christoph Lange. Mathematical Semantic Markup in a Wiki: The Roles of Symbols and Notations Max Völkel. Hypertext Knowledge Workbench Andrea Bonomi, Alessandro Mosca, Matteo Palmonari and Giuseppe Vizzari. Integrating a Wiki in an Ontology Driven Web Site: Approach, Architecture and Application in the Archaeological Domain Jochen Reutelshoefer, Joachim Baumeister and Frank Puppe. Ad-Hoc Knowledge Engineering with Semantic Knowledge Wikis Christoph Lange, Sean McLaughlin and Florian Rabe. Flyspeck in a Semantic Wiki Cezary Kaliszyk, Pierre Corbineau, Freek Wiedijk, James McKinna and Herman Geuvers. A real Semantic Web for mathematics deserves a real semantics Florian Schmedding, Christoph Hanke and Thomas Hornung. RDF Authoring in Wikis Axel Rauschmayer. Next-Generation Wikis: What Users Expect; How RDF Helps Malte Kiesel, Sven Schwarz, Ludger van Elst and Georg Buscher. Using Attention and Context Information for Annotations in a Semantic Wiki Karsten Dello, Lyndon Nixon and Robert Tolksdorf. Extending the Makna Semantic Wiki to support workflows Tobias Kuhn. AceWiki: Collaborative Ontology Management in Controlled Natural Language Sau Dan Lee, Patrick Yee, Thomas Lee, David Cheung and Wenjun Yuan. Descriptive Schema: Semantics-based Query Answering Markus Luczak-Rösch and Ralf Heese. A Generic Corporate Ontology Lifecycle Charbel Rahhal, Hala Skaf-Molli and Pascal Molli. SWOOKI: A Peer-to-peer Semantic Wiki Gero Scholz. Semantic MediaWiki with Property Clusters Joshua Bacher, Robert Hoehndorf and Janet Kelso. BOWiki: ontology-based semantic wiki with ABox reasoning

25 Semantic Wikis: Trends

26 Semantic Wikis: Trends
Application Areas what kinds of application areas can be addressed by Semantic Wikis? Platform what kinds of software will Semantic Wikis develop into? Technology what kinds of technological development/improvements will Semantic Wikis see?

27 Trends Application Areas

28 Application Areas Knowledge Management
Trends Application Areas Knowledge Management Semantic Wikipedia / Semantic Encyclopaedia eLearning Ontology Engineering

29 Knowledge Management for me: primary application area
Trends Knowledge Management for me: primary application area from “knowledge is power” to “sharing is power” supporting the user by semantic technologies

30 Knowledge Management: Examples
Trends Knowledge Management: Examples connect software documentation (design documents, code documentation) about components with relevant bug reports and present developer a summary view of his tasks allow project managers in consultancies to share project knowledge, e.g. “look for projects that are similar to mine” or “generate instances of all relevant QM process definitions for my project setup”

31 Knowledge Management: Examples
Trends Knowledge Management: Examples allow project managers to modify project workplan in different ways, e.g. as a table, as a Gantt diagram, … with direct connection to ERP system allow head of department to get a summary view over all projects

32 Knowledge Management: Challenges
Trends Knowledge Management: Challenges different perspectives on same content integration with existing tools (and here the Semantic Web can help) requires heavy support for the user, e.g. extensive reasoning, calculation, … often very formal environments (contradiction with Wiki Philosophy)

33 Trends Semantic Wikipedia making the “wisdom of the crowds” in Wikipedia (and similar applications) accessible not restricted to Wikipedia, not even to Wikis as technology (see “platform” later)

34 Semantic Wikipedia: Challenges
Trends Semantic Wikipedia: Challenges requires high performance and scalability (i.e. little reasoning) community needs to be convinced to make use of semantic features (only if immediate benefit)

35 Trends Learning ePortfolio systems: collection of learning artefacts, reflection on learning collaborative story telling personal development planning and alignment with actual achievements

36 Trends Learning: Challenges requires functionalities current Wikis cannot provide, e.g. collaborative text writing require lots of metadata for planning

37 Ontology Engineering make ontology development simpler
Trends Ontology Engineering make ontology development simpler allow knowledge workers and ontology engineers to collaborate in one system

38 Ontology Engineering: Challenges
Trends Ontology Engineering: Challenges allow different perspectives on same content (ontology engineer: ontology view, knowledge worker: domain specific view or wiki view) full support for ontologies and reasoning

39 Trends Platform

40 Semantic Wiki Platform
Trends Semantic Wiki Platform wiki as philosophy rather than technology: same principle holds for most other Web 2.0/Social Web applications breaking information and system boundaries: integrating information and giving different perspectives on the same information Semantic Wikis as generic platform for developing many different kinds of Social Web applications

41 Wiki as Philosophy wikis allow anyone to edit
Trends Wiki as Philosophy wikis allow anyone to edit wikis are easy to use and do not require additional software wiki content is easy to link wikis support versioning of all changes wikis support all media same holds for other social software applications!

42 Breaking Information and System Boundaries
Trends Breaking Information and System Boundaries integration of different kinds of content in one system (wiki text, photos, code, …) different perspectives on the same content (wiki, blog, social network, tagit, …) users edit the system behaviour, not only the content (e.g. widgets - zembly, custom layouts, declarative rules)

43 Trends Example: Wiki

44 Trends Example: TagIT

45 Trends Example: Blog no image (yet) but entries to wiki/tagit could also be displayed in blog style (ordered by creation time)!

46 Example: Social Networking
Trends Example: Social Networking user information in the wiki could be used as basis for social networks (e.g. based on tags) information represented as foaf data (RDF) just another perspective on the same data!

47 Example: Community Equity
Trends Example: Community Equity Community Equity: valuation system for community content developed by Sun content can be rated by users -> information equity tags inherit information equity -> tag equity users inherit information equity for their content -> contribution equity users inherit tag equity for the tags of their content -> skills equity

48 Trends Technology

49 Semantic Wikis as Testbed for the Semantic Web
Trends Semantic Wikis as Testbed for the Semantic Web Semantic Wikis connect the real world with the Semantic Web Semantic Wikis are the “Semantic Web in Small”, because a Wiki is “Web in Small” Semantic Wikis share many common properties with the Semantic Web most technologies developed on the Semantic Web can be used and evaluated in Semantic Wikis (my challenge: if it is not useful in Semantic Wikis, it is not useful at all!)

50 Challenge 1: Proof Benefit
Trends Challenge 1: Proof Benefit the Semantic Web and Semantic Wikis must show how they are beneficial to ordinary users

51 Challenge 2: User Interfaces
Trends Challenge 2: User Interfaces all users like simple interfaces; tools like Protégé are way too complicated how to do as much semantics as possible with as little user exposure as possible

52 Challenge 3: Personalisation
Trends Challenge 3: Personalisation semantic data offers the possibility for personalising content presentation e.g. preferences, observed behaviour, context

53 Trends Challenge 4: Tagging users like tagging (various reasons: simplicity, low cognitive barrier, …) how to „lift“ non-semantic tags to the Semantic Web?

54 Challenge 5: Revisions & Versioning
Trends Challenge 5: Revisions & Versioning essential aspect of the wiki philosophy much harder with meta-data than only with textual content

55 Challenge 6: Reasoning how can reasoning support users?
Trends Challenge 6: Reasoning how can reasoning support users? what kinds of reasoning are useful in Semantic Wikis (guess: rule-based)? how to deal with performance issues (needs to be close to real-time)?

56 Challenge 7: Reason Maintenance
Trends Challenge 7: Reason Maintenance what rules are the justification for a triple? how can results of reasoning be explained to users? example: background turns purple because a rule says that all pages concerning “foo” should be rendered as purple; user needs to be able to get an explanation example: Amazon “why was this recommended to me”

57 Challenge 8: Permissions, Trust, Provenance
Trends Challenge 8: Permissions, Trust, Provenance big outstanding issue of the Semantic Web reputation systems can help (e.g. Community Equity by Sun) is metadata about metadata

58 KiWi – Knowledge in a Wiki Applications
Trends KiWi – Knowledge in a Wiki Applications Software Knowledge Management: Supporting Software Engineers in sharing knowledge (Sun Microsystems) Project Knowledge Management: Supporting Project Managers in documenting project knowledge (Logica) KiWi Showcase: “KiWi PhotoStories”, a social networking and story and image sharing platform

59 KiWi – Knowledge in a Wiki Technology
Trends KiWi – Knowledge in a Wiki Technology KiWi addresses personalisation KiWi allows arbitrary resources to tag other resources KiWi partly addresses reason maintenance KiWi addresses rule-based reasoning in Semantic Wikis KiWi has a proposal for versioning and transactions (implemented but undocumented)

60 KiWi – Knowledge in a Wiki
Trends KiWi – Knowledge in a Wiki website: contact: Coordinator: Sebastian Schaffert Dissemination: Julia Eder

61 Semantic Wikis: The Wiki Way to the Semantic Web?
Semantic Wiki Mini-Series 1st session: A Survey of the Landscape and State-of-Art in Semantic Wiki Co-chairs: Sebastian Schaffert (Salzburg Research, Austria) Max Völkel (AIFB-Karlsruhe) Thanks for listening! 61 61

62 Semantic Wiki Mini Series Plan & Dates
Planning Semantic Wiki Mini Series Plan & Dates Session 2 scheduled on 20th November Semantic Wiki Technology (1): An introduction to some of the Semantic Wiki Engines Chair? Panelists (tentative): MarkusKrotzsch and/or DennyVrendecic; SebastianSchaffert; TobiasKuhn; MartinHepp; ...(?) Engines (tentative): Semantic MediaWiki, IkeWiki, AceWiki, OntoWiki, ...(?) Session 3 scheduled on 11th December 2008 Semantic Wiki Technology (2): Semantic Wiki Extension, Add-on's and other Enhancements Panelists (tentative): YaronKoren; MarkGreaves and/or Thomas Schweitzer(?); JieBao and/or LiDing; PeterYim and/or KenBaclawski; HaroldSolbrig(?), ...(?) Engines (tentative): Semantic Forms, SMWHalo extension, blog, purple number tag (PMWX), Lex Wiki extension(?), ...

63 Semantic Wiki Mini Series Plan & Dates
Planning Semantic Wiki Mini Series Plan & Dates Session 4 scheduled on 22th Januar Semantic Wiki Applications & Use Cases (1): vertical applications Panelists: HaroldSolbrig; ...; ChristophLange; MarkGreaves; ...(?) Topics: Applications in Healthcare and Life Science, e-Science, Mathematics, AI, Education, – panelists to brief the participants on the "what," "why" and "how" of their semantic wiki project/implementations Session 5 on Februar 2009 Semantic Wiki Applications & Use Cases (2): horizontal applications Panelists: SebastianSchaffert and/or PeterDolog; ...; PeterYim; MikeDean; ...(?) Topics: applications in Knowledge Management, software engineering, collaboration and community support, open ontology repository, panelists to brief the participants on the "what," "why" and "how" of their semantic wiki project/implementations 63 63

64 Semantic Wiki Mini Series Plan & Dates
Planning Semantic Wiki Mini Series Plan & Dates Session 6 in March 2009 The Future of Semantic Wiki: Trends, Challenges and Outlook (Panel Discussion) Co-chair: candidates - DeborahMcGuinness, RudiStuder, MarkMusen Panelists: hopefully, all panelists from previous session can join us in this discussion and to answer questions as well looking for as many panelists as we can, 5-minute briefs from each, and an extensive moderated discussion segment issues relating to scope, KR, Reasoning, HCI, access control, adoption, ...


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