Presentation on theme: "Semantic Wikis: The Wiki Way to the Semantic Web?"— Presentation transcript:
1Semantic Wikis: The Wiki Way to the Semantic Web? Semantic Wiki Mini-Series 1st session: A Survey of the Landscape and State-of-Art in Semantic WikiCo-chairs:Sebastian Schaffert (Salzburg Research, Austria), Max Völkel (FZI Karlsruhe)
4Introduction: Semantic Wikis wiki principlesmetawebtwo perspectives on Semantic Wikischaracteristics of Semantic Wikisexample
5Wiki Principles wikis allow anyone to edit IntroductionWiki Principleswikis allow anyone to editwikis are easy to use and do not require additional softwarewiki content is easy to linkwikis support versioning of all changeswikis support all media
7Two Perspectives on Semantic Wikis IntroductionTwo Perspectives on Semantic WikisWikis for MetadataMetadata for Wikisno clear separation, but tendencies!
8Wikis for Metadata creating metadata on the Semantic Web is difficult! IntroductionWikis for Metadatacreating metadata on the Semantic Web is difficult!requires domain knowledgerequires knowledge engineering skillscomplicated, insufficient toolsWikis for metadata:simplified technological access to the creation of metadatacollaboration of domain experts and knowledge engineersdynamically evolving knowledge networks and knowledge models
9Metadata for Wikis Wikis IntroductionMetadata for WikisWikishuge amounts of digital content (e.g. Wikipedia)strong connection of content via hyperlinksproblem: structure exists, but is only used for presentation and not accessible by computersfinding relevant content is increasingly difficultintegration and exchange between different systems is difficult
10IntroductionSemantic Wikisannotation of existing structures with machine readable metadata links carry meaning, typing of links, typing of pagescontext dependent adaptation and presentation different domains have different ways of presenting content, personal preferences, etc.improved, „intelligent“, search and navigation queries to the structure, visualisation of structure, derived informationimproved interoperability between systems exchange of content, integration of different systems, agents, etc
11Semantic Wikis: Example IntroductionSemantic Wikis: Example
13History1995: The First WikiWikiFirst developed by Ward Cunningham as an add-on to the Portland Pattern Repository on our interpretationIncremental - Pages can cite other pages, including pages that have not been written yet. network of pagesOrganic - The structure and text content of the site is open to editing and evolution. different from classical content management systemsUniversal - The mechanisms of editing and organizing are the same as those of writing so that any writer is automatically an editor and organizer. integrated creation and organization of contentUnified - Page names will be drawn from a flat space so that no additional context is required to interpret them. humans can remember namesPrecise - Pages will be titled with sufficient precision to avoid most name clashes, typically by forming noun phrases. names are quasi-uniqueTolerant - Interpretable (even if undesirable) behavior is preferred to error messages. usability: novice users have less fear to start using itObservable - Activity within the site can be watched and reviewed by any other visitor to the site. exchange of meta-informationConvergent - Duplication can be discouraged or removed by finding and citing similar or related content.
142004/2005: First Semantic Wikis History2004/2005: First Semantic WikisPlatypus Wiki from Stefano Campanini, Paolo Castagna, Roberto Tazzoli presented at ISWC2004WikSAR from David Aumüller wins best Demo award at ESWC2005
152005: Wikipedia became popular History2005: Wikipedia became popularComparing search volume on Google Trends on
162006: Wikis became popular History Comparing search volume on Google Trends on
172006: Semantic Wikis followed the trend History2006: Semantic Wikis followed the trendWikiOntologySemantic webSemantic wikiWeb Search Volume, Worldwide, 2004 – , /!\ Scales are different between diagrams!
182006: Semantic Wiki as a research topic History2006: Semantic Wiki as a research topic2005: [swikig] mailing list launched2006: First Workshop on Semantic Wikis: From Wiki to Semantics [SemWiki2006] at ESWC2006, Budva, Montenrego2006: Second Workshop on Semantic Wikis: Wiki-based Knowledge-Engineering [WibKe2006] at WikiSym 2006 in Odense, Denmark2008: Third Workshop on Semantic Wikis: The Wiki Way of Semantics [SemWiki2008] at ESWC2008, Tenerife
20What is a Semantic Wiki? I/II State of the ArtWhat is a Semantic Wiki? I/IISemantic Wikis* try to combine the strengths ofSemantic Webmachine processable,data integrationcomplex queriesWikieasy to use and contribute,strongly interconnected,collaborative.Emergence of Semantic Wikis from to sources:A) Semantic technologies for wikis („ST4W“)i.e. better navigation, better queriesMost semantic wiki engines are hereB) Wikis for semantic technologies („W4ST“)i.e. Ontology engineering, ontology learningE.g. Many papers on mining wikipedia* Schaffert & Völkel, 2006
21What is a Semantic Wiki? II/II State of the ArtWhat is a Semantic Wiki? II/IIA Semantic Wiki is like the Semantic Web in a Petri dishMany terms emerge – how to consilidate the vocabulary?Many people work together – how to achieve consensus?Queries over multiple resourcesImport of semantic web dataExport to other semantic web toolsVersioningAccess rightsTrust...
22Semantic Wiki Engines AceWiki – controlled english State of the ArtSemantic Wiki EnginesAceWiki – controlled englishArtificial Memory – personal knowledge managementBOWiki – biomedical domainConfluence Plugins (Metadata, Scaffolding) - commercialHypertext Knowledge Workbench – personal knowledge managementIkeWikiSWiM - offshoot of IkeWikiKiWI – successor in scope of KiWi projectOntoWiki – free-form databaseOpenRecord – free-form databaseSweetWiki – semantic taggingSemantic MediaWiki (MediaWiki extension) – Semantic WikipediaHaloExtension – extension of Semantic MediaWiki, browsing & refactoringSemantic Forms – free-form database... Many more Semantic MediaWiki extensionsSWOOKI – a peer-to-peer based SemWiki
23SemWiki2006 Results How is metadata created? How is metadata used? State of the ArtSemWiki2006 ResultsHow is metadata created?Incentives for creating formal dataLow in semantic web, higher in semantic wikis with direct benefitPage vs. ConceptHow is metadata used?Trust - Can trustworthiness of article content be determined from the article metadata?Navigation - alternative views on the dataSearch …Automated content generation including reasoningOntology engineeringWhy/for what are Semantic Wikis used?Like normal wikis, but more sophisticated, doing everything betterIntegrationIntegartion of structured text and RDF world still unsolvedNo common wiki metadata ontology
24SemWiki2008 More application oriented than 2006 State of the Art Alexandre Passant and Philippe Laublet. Towards an Interlinked Semantic Wiki FarmChristoph Lange. Mathematical Semantic Markup in a Wiki: The Roles of Symbols and NotationsMax Völkel. Hypertext Knowledge WorkbenchAndrea Bonomi, Alessandro Mosca, Matteo Palmonari and Giuseppe Vizzari. Integrating a Wiki in an Ontology Driven Web Site: Approach, Architecture and Application in the Archaeological DomainJochen Reutelshoefer, Joachim Baumeister and Frank Puppe. Ad-Hoc Knowledge Engineering with Semantic Knowledge WikisChristoph Lange, Sean McLaughlin and Florian Rabe. Flyspeck in a Semantic WikiCezary Kaliszyk, Pierre Corbineau, Freek Wiedijk, James McKinna and Herman Geuvers. A real Semantic Web for mathematics deserves a real semanticsFlorian Schmedding, Christoph Hanke and Thomas Hornung. RDF Authoring in WikisAxel Rauschmayer. Next-Generation Wikis: What Users Expect; How RDF HelpsMalte Kiesel, Sven Schwarz, Ludger van Elst and Georg Buscher. Using Attention and Context Information for Annotations in a Semantic WikiKarsten Dello, Lyndon Nixon and Robert Tolksdorf. Extending the Makna Semantic Wiki to support workflowsTobias Kuhn. AceWiki: Collaborative Ontology Management in Controlled Natural LanguageSau Dan Lee, Patrick Yee, Thomas Lee, David Cheung and Wenjun Yuan. Descriptive Schema: Semantics-based Query AnsweringMarkus Luczak-Rösch and Ralf Heese. A Generic Corporate Ontology LifecycleCharbel Rahhal, Hala Skaf-Molli and Pascal Molli. SWOOKI: A Peer-to-peer Semantic WikiGero Scholz. Semantic MediaWiki with Property ClustersJoshua Bacher, Robert Hoehndorf and Janet Kelso. BOWiki: ontology-based semantic wiki with ABox reasoning
26Semantic Wikis: Trends Application Areas what kinds of application areas can be addressed by Semantic Wikis?Platform what kinds of software will Semantic Wikis develop into?Technology what kinds of technological development/improvements will Semantic Wikis see?
28Application Areas Knowledge Management TrendsApplication AreasKnowledge ManagementSemantic Wikipedia / Semantic EncyclopaediaeLearningOntology Engineering
29Knowledge Management for me: primary application area TrendsKnowledge Managementfor me: primary application areafrom “knowledge is power” to “sharing is power”supporting the user by semantic technologies
30Knowledge Management: Examples TrendsKnowledge Management: Examplesconnect software documentation (design documents, code documentation) about components with relevant bug reports and present developer a summary view of his tasksallow project managers in consultancies to share project knowledge, e.g. “look for projects that are similar to mine” or “generate instances of all relevant QM process definitions for my project setup”
31Knowledge Management: Examples TrendsKnowledge Management: Examplesallow project managers to modify project workplan in different ways, e.g. as a table, as a Gantt diagram, … with direct connection to ERP systemallow head of department to get a summary view over all projects
32Knowledge Management: Challenges TrendsKnowledge Management: Challengesdifferent perspectives on same contentintegration with existing tools (and here the Semantic Web can help)requires heavy support for the user, e.g. extensive reasoning, calculation, …often very formal environments (contradiction with Wiki Philosophy)
33TrendsSemantic Wikipediamaking the “wisdom of the crowds” in Wikipedia (and similar applications) accessiblenot restricted to Wikipedia, not even to Wikis as technology (see “platform” later)
34Semantic Wikipedia: Challenges TrendsSemantic Wikipedia: Challengesrequires high performance and scalability (i.e. little reasoning)community needs to be convinced to make use of semantic features (only if immediate benefit)
35TrendsLearningePortfolio systems: collection of learning artefacts, reflection on learningcollaborative story tellingpersonal development planning and alignment with actual achievements
36TrendsLearning: Challengesrequires functionalities current Wikis cannot provide, e.g. collaborative text writingrequire lots of metadata for planning
37Ontology Engineering make ontology development simpler TrendsOntology Engineeringmake ontology development simplerallow knowledge workers and ontology engineers to collaborate in one system
38Ontology Engineering: Challenges TrendsOntology Engineering: Challengesallow different perspectives on same content (ontology engineer: ontology view, knowledge worker: domain specific view or wiki view)full support for ontologies and reasoning
40Semantic Wiki Platform TrendsSemantic Wiki Platformwiki as philosophy rather than technology: same principle holds for most other Web 2.0/Social Web applicationsbreaking information and system boundaries: integrating information and giving different perspectives on the same informationSemantic Wikis as generic platform for developing many different kinds of Social Web applications
41Wiki as Philosophy wikis allow anyone to edit TrendsWiki as Philosophywikis allow anyone to editwikis are easy to use and do not require additional softwarewiki content is easy to linkwikis support versioning of all changeswikis support all mediasame holds for other social software applications!
42Breaking Information and System Boundaries TrendsBreaking Information and System Boundariesintegration of different kinds of content in one system (wiki text, photos, code, …)different perspectives on the same content (wiki, blog, social network, tagit, …)users edit the system behaviour, not only the content (e.g. widgets - zembly, custom layouts, declarative rules)
45TrendsExample: Blogno image (yet) but entries to wiki/tagit could also be displayed in blog style (ordered by creation time)!
46Example: Social Networking TrendsExample: Social Networkinguser information in the wiki could be used as basis for social networks (e.g. based on tags)information represented as foaf data (RDF)just another perspective on the same data!
47Example: Community Equity TrendsExample: Community EquityCommunity Equity: valuation system for community content developed by Suncontent can be rated by users -> information equitytags inherit information equity -> tag equityusers inherit information equity for their content -> contribution equityusers inherit tag equity for the tags of their content -> skills equity
49Semantic Wikis as Testbed for the Semantic Web TrendsSemantic Wikis as Testbed for the Semantic WebSemantic Wikis connect the real world with the Semantic WebSemantic Wikis are the “Semantic Web in Small”, because a Wiki is “Web in Small”Semantic Wikis share many common properties with the Semantic Webmost technologies developed on the Semantic Web can be used and evaluated in Semantic Wikis(my challenge: if it is not useful in Semantic Wikis, it is not useful at all!)
50Challenge 1: Proof Benefit TrendsChallenge 1: Proof Benefitthe Semantic Web and Semantic Wikis must show how they are beneficial to ordinary users
51Challenge 2: User Interfaces TrendsChallenge 2: User Interfacesall users like simple interfaces; tools like Protégé are way too complicatedhow to do as much semantics as possible with as little user exposure as possible
52Challenge 3: Personalisation TrendsChallenge 3: Personalisationsemantic data offers the possibility for personalising content presentatione.g. preferences, observed behaviour, context
53TrendsChallenge 4: Taggingusers like tagging (various reasons: simplicity, low cognitive barrier, …)how to „lift“ non-semantic tags to the Semantic Web?
54Challenge 5: Revisions & Versioning TrendsChallenge 5: Revisions & Versioningessential aspect of the wiki philosophymuch harder with meta-data than only with textual content
55Challenge 6: Reasoning how can reasoning support users? TrendsChallenge 6: Reasoninghow can reasoning support users?what kinds of reasoning are useful in Semantic Wikis (guess: rule-based)?how to deal with performance issues (needs to be close to real-time)?
56Challenge 7: Reason Maintenance TrendsChallenge 7: Reason Maintenancewhat rules are the justification for a triple?how can results of reasoning be explained to users?example: background turns purple because a rule says that all pages concerning “foo” should be rendered as purple; user needs to be able to get an explanationexample: Amazon “why was this recommended to me”
57Challenge 8: Permissions, Trust, Provenance TrendsChallenge 8: Permissions, Trust, Provenancebig outstanding issue of the Semantic Webreputation systems can help (e.g. Community Equity by Sun)is metadata about metadata
58KiWi – Knowledge in a Wiki Applications TrendsKiWi – Knowledge in a Wiki ApplicationsSoftware Knowledge Management: Supporting Software Engineers in sharing knowledge (Sun Microsystems)Project Knowledge Management: Supporting Project Managers in documenting project knowledge (Logica)KiWi Showcase: “KiWi PhotoStories”, a social networking and story and image sharing platform
59KiWi – Knowledge in a Wiki Technology TrendsKiWi – Knowledge in a Wiki TechnologyKiWi addresses personalisationKiWi allows arbitrary resources to tag other resourcesKiWi partly addresses reason maintenanceKiWi addresses rule-based reasoning in Semantic WikisKiWi has a proposal for versioning and transactions (implemented but undocumented)
60KiWi – Knowledge in a Wiki TrendsKiWi – Knowledge in a Wikiwebsite:contact:Coordinator: Sebastian SchaffertDissemination: Julia Eder
61Semantic Wikis: The Wiki Way to the Semantic Web? Semantic Wiki Mini-Series1st session: A Survey of the Landscape and State-of-Art in Semantic WikiCo-chairs:Sebastian Schaffert (Salzburg Research, Austria)Max Völkel (AIFB-Karlsruhe)Thanks for listening!6161
62Semantic Wiki Mini Series Plan & Dates PlanningSemantic Wiki Mini Series Plan & DatesSession 2 scheduled on 20th November Semantic Wiki Technology (1): An introduction to some of the Semantic Wiki EnginesChair?Panelists (tentative): MarkusKrotzsch and/or DennyVrendecic; SebastianSchaffert; TobiasKuhn; MartinHepp; ...(?)Engines (tentative): Semantic MediaWiki, IkeWiki, AceWiki, OntoWiki, ...(?)Session 3 scheduled on 11th December 2008 Semantic Wiki Technology (2): Semantic Wiki Extension, Add-on's and other EnhancementsPanelists (tentative): YaronKoren; MarkGreaves and/or Thomas Schweitzer(?); JieBao and/or LiDing; PeterYim and/or KenBaclawski; HaroldSolbrig(?), ...(?)Engines (tentative): Semantic Forms, SMWHalo extension, blog, purple number tag (PMWX), Lex Wiki extension(?), ...
63Semantic Wiki Mini Series Plan & Dates PlanningSemantic Wiki Mini Series Plan & DatesSession 4 scheduled on 22th Januar Semantic Wiki Applications & Use Cases (1): vertical applicationsPanelists: HaroldSolbrig; ...; ChristophLange; MarkGreaves; ...(?)Topics: Applications in Healthcare and Life Science, e-Science, Mathematics, AI, Education, – panelists to brief the participants on the "what," "why" and "how" of their semantic wiki project/implementationsSession 5 on Februar 2009 Semantic Wiki Applications & Use Cases (2): horizontal applicationsPanelists: SebastianSchaffert and/or PeterDolog; ...; PeterYim; MikeDean; ...(?)Topics: applications in Knowledge Management, software engineering, collaboration and community support, open ontology repository, panelists to brief the participants on the "what," "why" and "how" of their semantic wiki project/implementations6363
64Semantic Wiki Mini Series Plan & Dates PlanningSemantic Wiki Mini Series Plan & DatesSession 6 in March 2009 The Future of Semantic Wiki: Trends, Challenges and Outlook (Panel Discussion)Co-chair: candidates - DeborahMcGuinness, RudiStuder, MarkMusenPanelists: hopefully, all panelists from previous session can join us in this discussion and to answer questions as welllooking for as many panelists as we can, 5-minute briefs from each, and an extensive moderated discussion segmentissues relating to scope, KR, Reasoning, HCI, access control, adoption, ...