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Semantic Wiki Mini-Series 1st session: A Survey of the Landscape and State-of-Art in Semantic Wiki Co-chairs: Sebastian Schaffert (Salzburg Research, Austria),

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Presentation on theme: "Semantic Wiki Mini-Series 1st session: A Survey of the Landscape and State-of-Art in Semantic Wiki Co-chairs: Sebastian Schaffert (Salzburg Research, Austria),"— Presentation transcript:

1 Semantic Wiki Mini-Series 1st session: A Survey of the Landscape and State-of-Art in Semantic Wiki Co-chairs: Sebastian Schaffert (Salzburg Research, Austria), Max Völkel (FZI Karlsruhe) Semantic Wikis: The Wiki Way to the Semantic Web? 1

2 Agenda History State of the Art Trends Introduction 2

3 3

4 Introduction: Semantic Wikis wiki principles metaweb two perspectives on Semantic Wikis characteristics of Semantic Wikis example 4 Introduction

5 Wiki Principles wikis allow anyone to edit wikis are easy to use and do not require additional software wiki content is easy to link wikis support versioning of all changes wikis support all media 5 Introduction

6 Nova Spivack: Metaweb 6 Semantic Wikis Introduction

7 Two Perspectives on Semantic Wikis Wikis for Metadata Metadata for Wikis no clear separation, but tendencies! 7 Introduction

8 Wikis for Metadata creating metadata on the Semantic Web is difficult! –requires domain knowledge –requires knowledge engineering skills –complicated, insufficient tools Wikis for metadata: –simplified technological access to the creation of metadata –collaboration of domain experts and knowledge engineers –dynamically evolving knowledge networks and knowledge models 8 Introduction

9 Metadata for Wikis Wikis huge amounts of digital content (e.g. Wikipedia) strong connection of content via hyperlinks problem: structure exists, but is only used for presentation and not accessible by computers finding relevant content is increasingly difficult integration and exchange between different systems is difficult 9 Introduction

10 Semantic Wikis annotation of existing structures with machine readable metadata links carry meaning, typing of links, typing of pages context dependent adaptation and presentation different domains have different ways of presenting content, personal preferences, etc. improved, intelligent, search and navigation queries to the structure, visualisation of structure, derived information improved interoperability between systems exchange of content, integration of different systems, agents, etc 10 Introduction

11 Semantic Wikis: Example 11 Introduction

12 History 12

13 1995: The First Wiki Wiki First developed by Ward Cunningham as an add-on to the Portland Pattern Repository on our interpretation Incremental - Pages can cite other pages, including pages that have not been written yet. network of pages Organic - The structure and text content of the site is open to editing and evolution. different from classical content management systems Universal - The mechanisms of editing and organizing are the same as those of writing so that any writer is automatically an editor and organizer. integrated creation and organization of content Unified - Page names will be drawn from a flat space so that no additional context is required to interpret them. humans can remember names Precise - Pages will be titled with sufficient precision to avoid most name clashes, typically by forming noun phrases. names are quasi-unique Tolerant - Interpretable (even if undesirable) behavior is preferred to error messages. usability: novice users have less fear to start using it Observable - Activity within the site can be watched and reviewed by any other visitor to the site. exchange of meta-information Convergent - Duplication can be discouraged or removed by finding and citing similar or related content. History 13

14 2004/2005: First Semantic Wikis Platypus Wiki from Stefano Campanini, Paolo Castagna, Roberto Tazzoli presented at ISWC2004 Platypus Wiki WikSAR from David Aumüller wins best Demo award at ESWC2005 WikSAR History 14

15 2005: Wikipedia became popular Comparing search volume on Google Trends on History 15

16 2006: Wikis became popular Comparing search volume on Google Trends on History 16

17 2006: Semantic Wikis followed the trend Web Search Volume, Worldwide, 2004 – , /!\ Scales are different between diagrams! Wiki Ontology Semantic web Semantic wiki History 17

18 2006: Semantic Wiki as a research topic 2005: [swikig] mailing list launched 2006: First Workshop on Semantic Wikis: From Wiki to Semantics [SemWiki2006] at ESWC2006, Budva, Montenrego 2006: Second Workshop on Semantic Wikis: Wiki- based Knowledge-Engineering [WibKe2006] at WikiSym 2006 in Odense, Denmark 2008: Third Workshop on Semantic Wikis: The Wiki Way of Semantics [SemWiki2008] at ESWC2008, Tenerife History 18

19 State of the Art 19

20 What is a Semantic Wiki? I/II Semantic Wikis* try to combine the strengths of Semantic Web –machine processable, –data integration –complex queries Wiki –easy to use and contribute, –strongly interconnected, –collaborative. Emergence of Semantic Wikis from to sources: A) Semantic technologies for wikis (ST4W) –i.e. better navigation, better queries –Most semantic wiki engines are here B) Wikis for semantic technologies (W4ST) –i.e. Ontology engineering, ontology learning –E.g. Many papers on mining wikipedia State of the Art * Schaffert & Völkel, 2006 20

21 What is a Semantic Wiki? II/II A Semantic Wiki is like the Semantic Web in a Petri dish Many terms emerge – how to consilidate the vocabulary? Many people work together – how to achieve consensus? Queries over multiple resources Import of semantic web data Export to other semantic web tools Versioning Access rights Trust... State of the Art 21

22 Semantic Wiki Engines AceWiki – controlled english Artificial Memory – personal knowledge management BOWiki – biomedical domain Confluence Plugins (Metadata, Scaffolding) - commercialMetadataScaffolding Hypertext Knowledge Workbench – personal knowledge management IkeWiki SWiM - offshoot of IkeWiki KiWI – successor in scope of KiWi project OntoWiki – free-form database OpenRecord – free-form database SweetWiki – semantic tagging Semantic MediaWiki (MediaWiki extension) – Semantic Wikipedia HaloExtension – extension of Semantic MediaWiki, browsing & refactoring Semantic Forms – free-form database... Many more Semantic MediaWiki extensions SWOOKI – a peer-to-peer based SemWiki State of the Art 22

23 SemWiki2006 Results How is metadata created? Incentives for creating formal data Low in semantic web, higher in semantic wikis with direct benefit Page vs. Concept How is metadata used? Trust - Can trustworthiness of article content be determined from the article metadata? Navigation - alternative views on the data Search … Automated content generation including reasoning Ontology engineering Why/for what are Semantic Wikis used? Like normal wikis, but more sophisticated, doing everything better Integration Integartion of structured text and RDF world still unsolved No common wiki metadata ontology State of the Art 23

24 SemWiki2008 Alexandre Passant and Philippe Laublet. Towards an Interlinked Semantic Wiki Farm Christoph Lange. Mathematical Semantic Markup in a Wiki: The Roles of Symbols and Notations Max Völkel. Hypertext Knowledge Workbench Andrea Bonomi, Alessandro Mosca, Matteo Palmonari and Giuseppe Vizzari. Integrating a Wiki in an Ontology Driven Web Site: Approach, Architecture and Application in the Archaeological Domain Jochen Reutelshoefer, Joachim Baumeister and Frank Puppe. Ad-Hoc Knowledge Engineering with Semantic Knowledge Wikis Christoph Lange, Sean McLaughlin and Florian Rabe. Flyspeck in a Semantic Wiki Cezary Kaliszyk, Pierre Corbineau, Freek Wiedijk, James McKinna and Herman Geuvers. A real Semantic Web for mathematics deserves a real semantics Florian Schmedding, Christoph Hanke and Thomas Hornung. RDF Authoring in Wikis Axel Rauschmayer. Next-Generation Wikis: What Users Expect; How RDF Helps Malte Kiesel, Sven Schwarz, Ludger van Elst and Georg Buscher. Using Attention and Context Information for Annotations in a Semantic Wiki Karsten Dello, Lyndon Nixon and Robert Tolksdorf. Extending the Makna Semantic Wiki to support workflows Tobias Kuhn. AceWiki: Collaborative Ontology Management in Controlled Natural Language Sau Dan Lee, Patrick Yee, Thomas Lee, David Cheung and Wenjun Yuan. Descriptive Schema: Semantics-based Query Answering Markus Luczak-Rösch and Ralf Heese. A Generic Corporate Ontology Lifecycle Charbel Rahhal, Hala Skaf-Molli and Pascal Molli. SWOOKI: A Peer-to-peer Semantic Wiki Gero Scholz. Semantic MediaWiki with Property Clusters Joshua Bacher, Robert Hoehndorf and Janet Kelso. BOWiki: ontology-based semantic wiki with ABox reasoning State of the Art More application oriented than

25 Semantic Wikis: Trends Trends 25

26 Semantic Wikis: Trends Application Areas what kinds of application areas can be addressed by Semantic Wikis? Platform what kinds of software will Semantic Wikis develop into? Technology what kinds of technological development/improvements will Semantic Wikis see? Trends 26

27 Application Areas Trends 27

28 Application Areas Knowledge Management Semantic Wikipedia / Semantic Encyclopaedia eLearning Ontology Engineering Trends 28

29 Knowledge Management for me: primary application area from knowledge is power to sharing is power supporting the user by semantic technologies Trends 29

30 Knowledge Management: Examples connect software documentation (design documents, code documentation) about components with relevant bug reports and present developer a summary view of his tasks allow project managers in consultancies to share project knowledge, e.g. look for projects that are similar to mine or generate instances of all relevant QM process definitions for my project setup Trends 30

31 Knowledge Management: Examples allow project managers to modify project workplan in different ways, e.g. as a table, as a Gantt diagram, … with direct connection to ERP system allow head of department to get a summary view over all projects Trends 31

32 Knowledge Management: Challenges different perspectives on same content integration with existing tools (and here the Semantic Web can help) requires heavy support for the user, e.g. extensive reasoning, calculation, … often very formal environments (contradiction with Wiki Philosophy) Trends 32

33 Semantic Wikipedia making the wisdom of the crowds in Wikipedia (and similar applications) accessible not restricted to Wikipedia, not even to Wikis as technology (see platform later) Trends 33

34 Semantic Wikipedia: Challenges requires high performance and scalability (i.e. little reasoning) community needs to be convinced to make use of semantic features (only if immediate benefit) Trends 34

35 Learning ePortfolio systems: collection of learning artefacts, reflection on learning collaborative story telling personal development planning and alignment with actual achievements Trends 35

36 Learning: Challenges requires functionalities current Wikis cannot provide, e.g. collaborative text writing require lots of metadata for planning Trends 36

37 Ontology Engineering make ontology development simpler allow knowledge workers and ontology engineers to collaborate in one system Trends 37

38 Ontology Engineering: Challenges allow different perspectives on same content (ontology engineer: ontology view, knowledge worker: domain specific view or wiki view) full support for ontologies and reasoning Trends 38

39 Platform Trends 39

40 Semantic Wiki Platform wiki as philosophy rather than technology: same principle holds for most other Web 2.0/Social Web applications breaking information and system boundaries: integrating information and giving different perspectives on the same information Semantic Wikis as generic platform for developing many different kinds of Social Web applications Trends 40

41 Wiki as Philosophy wikis allow anyone to edit wikis are easy to use and do not require additional software wiki content is easy to link wikis support versioning of all changes wikis support all media same holds for other social software applications! Trends 41

42 Breaking Information and System Boundaries integration of different kinds of content in one system (wiki text, photos, code, …) different perspectives on the same content (wiki, blog, social network, tagit, …) users edit the system behaviour, not only the content (e.g. widgets - zembly, custom layouts, declarative rules) Trends 42

43 Example: Wiki Trends 43

44 Example: TagIT Trends 44

45 Example: Blog no image (yet) but entries to wiki/tagit could also be displayed in blog style (ordered by creation time)! Trends 45

46 Example: Social Networking user information in the wiki could be used as basis for social networks (e.g. based on tags) information represented as foaf data (RDF) just another perspective on the same data! Trends 46

47 Example: Community Equity Community Equity: valuation system for community content developed by Sun content can be rated by users -> information equity tags inherit information equity -> tag equity users inherit information equity for their content -> contribution equity users inherit tag equity for the tags of their content -> skills equity Trends 47

48 Technology Trends 48

49 Semantic Wikis as Testbed for the Semantic Web Semantic Wikis connect the real world with the Semantic Web Semantic Wikis are the Semantic Web in Small, because a Wiki is Web in Small Semantic Wikis share many common properties with the Semantic Web most technologies developed on the Semantic Web can be used and evaluated in Semantic Wikis (my challenge: if it is not useful in Semantic Wikis, it is not useful at all!) Trends 49

50 Challenge 1: Proof Benefit the Semantic Web and Semantic Wikis must show how they are beneficial to ordinary users Trends 50

51 Challenge 2: User Interfaces all users like simple interfaces; tools like Protégé are way too complicated how to do as much semantics as possible with as little user exposure as possible Trends 51

52 Challenge 3: Personalisation semantic data offers the possibility for personalising content presentation e.g. preferences, observed behaviour, context Trends 52

53 Challenge 4: Tagging users like tagging (various reasons: simplicity, low cognitive barrier, …) how to lift non-semantic tags to the Semantic Web? Trends 53

54 Challenge 5: Revisions & Versioning essential aspect of the wiki philosophy much harder with meta-data than only with textual content Trends 54

55 Challenge 6: Reasoning how can reasoning support users? what kinds of reasoning are useful in Semantic Wikis (guess: rule-based)? how to deal with performance issues (needs to be close to real-time)? Trends 55

56 Challenge 7: Reason Maintenance what rules are the justification for a triple? how can results of reasoning be explained to users? example: background turns purple because a rule says that all pages concerning foo should be rendered as purple; user needs to be able to get an explanation example: Amazon why was this recommended to me Trends 56

57 Challenge 8: Permissions, Trust, Provenance big outstanding issue of the Semantic Web reputation systems can help (e.g. Community Equity by Sun) is metadata about metadata Trends 57

58 KiWi – Knowledge in a Wiki Applications Software Knowledge Management: Supporting Software Engineers in sharing knowledge (Sun Microsystems) Project Knowledge Management: Supporting Project Managers in documenting project knowledge (Logica) KiWi Showcase: KiWi PhotoStories, a social networking and story and image sharing platform Trends 58

59 KiWi – Knowledge in a Wiki Technology KiWi addresses personalisation KiWi allows arbitrary resources to tag other resources KiWi partly addresses reason maintenance KiWi addresses rule-based reasoning in Semantic Wikis KiWi has a proposal for versioning and transactions (implemented but undocumented) Trends 59

60 KiWi – Knowledge in a Wiki website: contact: Coordinator: Sebastian Schaffert Dissemination: Julia Eder Trends 60

61 Semantic Wikis: The Wiki Way to the Semantic Web? Semantic Wiki Mini-Series 1st session: A Survey of the Landscape and State-of-Art in Semantic Wiki Co-chairs: –Sebastian Schaffert (Salzburg Research, Austria) –Max Völkel (AIFB-Karlsruhe) Thanks for listening! 61

62 Semantic Wiki Mini Series Plan & Dates Session 2 scheduled on 20th November 2008 Semantic Wiki Technology (1): An introduction to some of the Semantic Wiki Engines Chair? Panelists (tentative): MarkusKrotzsch and/or DennyVrendecic; SebastianSchaffert; TobiasKuhn; MartinHepp;...(?) Engines (tentative): Semantic MediaWiki, IkeWiki, AceWiki, OntoWiki,...(?) Session 3 scheduled on 11th December 2008 Semantic Wiki Technology (2): Semantic Wiki Extension, Add-on's and other Enhancements Chair? Panelists (tentative): YaronKoren; MarkGreaves and/or Thomas Schweitzer(?); JieBao and/or LiDing; PeterYim and/or KenBaclawski; HaroldSolbrig(?),...(?) Engines (tentative): Semantic Forms, SMWHalo extension, blog, purple number tag (PMWX), Lex Wiki extension(?), Planning

63 Semantic Wiki Mini Series Plan & Dates Session 4 scheduled on 22th Januar 2009 Semantic Wiki Applications & Use Cases (1): vertical applications Panelists: HaroldSolbrig;...; ChristophLange; MarkGreaves;...(?) Topics: Applications in Healthcare and Life Science, e-Science, Mathematics, AI, Education,... – panelists to brief the participants on the "what," "why" and "how" of their semantic wiki project/implementations Session 5 on Februar 2009 Semantic Wiki Applications & Use Cases (2): horizontal applications Panelists: SebastianSchaffert and/or PeterDolog;...; PeterYim; MikeDean;...(?) Topics: applications in Knowledge Management, software engineering, collaboration and community support, open ontology repository,... - panelists to brief the participants on the "what," "why" and "how" of their semantic wiki project/implementations 63 Planning

64 Semantic Wiki Mini Series Plan & Dates Session 6 in March 2009 The Future of Semantic Wiki: Trends, Challenges and Outlook (Panel Discussion) Co-chair: candidates - DeborahMcGuinness, RudiStuder, MarkMusen Panelists: hopefully, all panelists from previous session can join us in this discussion and to answer questions as well looking for as many panelists as we can, 5-minute briefs from each, and an extensive moderated discussion segment issues relating to scope, KR, Reasoning, HCI, access control, adoption,... Planning

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