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Jean Brodeur ISO/TC 211 PT19150 & PT19101rev Project leader

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Presentation on theme: "Jean Brodeur ISO/TC 211 PT19150 & PT19101rev Project leader"— Presentation transcript:

1 Jean Brodeur ISO/TC 211 PT19150 & PT19101rev Project leader
PT19150 – Ontology Overview and Introduction to PT19101rev – Reference Model Jean Brodeur ISO/TC 211 PT19150 & PT19101rev Project leader

2 Outline Introduction PT19150
Scope and objectives Outcomes and recommendations ISO/TC 211 revision of its reference model Conclusion

3 Introduction ISO/TC 211 has progressed significantly with respect to syntactic interoperability of geographic information Encoding of geographic information Spatial and temporal primitives Methodology to catalogue features Rules for application schemas Metadata Description of coordinate reference systems By coordinates By geographic identifiers Service interfaces Location-based services for navigation

4 Introduction High level of structure in terms of data;
Simplify largely the sharing and the use of geographic information; Significant contribution to support the direct access of geographic information from the Internet and the Web.

5 Introduction The Web has progressed significantly towards the Semantic Web; The Web could be seen as a tremendous worldwide open database; Same geographic features may be described differently according to the specific context making difficult to benefit from the richness of the various representations; The semantic issue needs to be addressed more rigorously in the ISO19100 suites of standards to improve the interoperability of geographic information.

6 PT19150 Scope and Objectives
Preliminary work to collect and compile information, and to investigate how ontology and semantic web approaches can benefit ISO/TC 211 objectives At the end, recommendations will be provided to the TC for further actions.

7 Meetings 1st meeting: UN FAO HQ, Rome, Italy, May 28-29, 2007
2nd meeting: Xi’an, China, October 30, 2007 3rd meeting: Copenhagen, Denmark, May 27, 2008 4th meeting: Tsukuba, Japan, December 2, 2008 Final report has been submitted to ISO/TC 211 recently

8 Project Team Outcomes Review ISO/TC 211 objectives
Reach a common understanding of what is intended by Semantic Web Ontology(ies) Review of ISO/TC 211 related works List of relevant issues for ISO/TC 211 Values of ontology and Semantic Web Recommandations

9 ISO/TC 211 Objectives Develop a family of international standards on geographic information To support the understanding and usage of geographic information To increase the availability, access, integration, and sharing of geographic information, i.e. to enable interoperability of geospatially enabled computer systems and data To support the establishment of geospatial data infrastructures on local, regional and global level

10 Interoperability of Geographic Information Trough Communication
(Communication channel) “Factories within Kyoto?” -Building (factory) -Factory -Administrative -Kyoto area (Kyoto) |S| = T Request recognition from database’s geographic concepts then search of corresponding geographic information. User’s request with his own concepts in memory (e.g. Factory, Mill, Plant, etc.) -Factory -Kyoto -Factory -Kyoto Provider User Administrative area (Kyoto) Building (factory) <Factory> <name>FactoryA</name> <Factory> <name>FactoryA</name> Interoperability = correspondence of received data with the initial request. = T |S| -FactoryA -EPSG:21418 , (Communication channel) <Factory> <name>FactoryA</name> <location> <GPL_CoordinateTuple>    <tuple CrsName="urn:EPSG::21418">

11 Semantic Web From a Web of documents for humans to a Web of data and information processable by computers

12 Ontology A formal representation of phenomena with an underlying vocabulary including definitions and axioms that make the intended meaning explicit and describe phenomena and their interrelationships A foundation for the success of the Semantic Web Meaning of data in a format that machine can understand Data derived its semantics from ontology To support integration of heterogeneous data across communities

13 ISO/TC 211 Related Works Terminology Content description Schemas …
ISO19104: Terminology ISO19135: Procedures for registration of geographic information items ISO19127: Geodetic codes and parameters ISO19138: Data quality measures Content description ISO19109: Rules for application schema ISO19110: Feature cataloguing methodology ISO19126: Feature concept dictionaries and registers ISO19131: Data product specification Schemas ISO19103: Conceptual schema language ISO19107: Spatial schema ISO19108: Temporal schema ISO19115/-2/19: Metadata ISO19123: Schema for coverage geometry and functions ISO : Simple feature access - Common architecture ISO19133: Tracking and navigation ISO19134: Multimodal routing and navigation ISO19141: Moving features

14 Values of ontology and Semantic Web
Interoperability across domains Automatic machine reasoning and inference From information description to knowledge description Focus on online access of information and knowledge (as opposed to offline access) Expose ISO/TC 211 to other communities that are not aware of the spatial domain Interrelating different concepts (such as different keywords for similar concepts in metadata) Associates (similar/different) concepts between domains

15 Relevant issues for ISO/TC211 (1)
Review of the reference model (ISO19101:2002) from information to knowledge, i.e. a new way to see information from a semantic perspective Develop rules for application ontologies Introduction of ontologies as part of product specification applications Developing content is becoming more and more an important issue with respect to ISO/TC 211 Pragmatic orientation Development of top level ontologies which allow ontology mapping between domains

16 Relevant issues for ISO/TC211 (2)
Reasoning and inference Spatial operator in ISO19107:2003/ISO :2004, could they be defined and used as part of semantic Web languages (RDF, RDF-S, and OWL) Semantic operators about the semantic similarity with respect to concepts, definition and use as part of semantic Web languages (RDF, RDF-S, and OWL) Translation of ISO/TC 211 UML models in a Semantic Web language (ex. OWL) Investigate tools and methodologies for developing ontologies

17 Recommendation 1 Review of the ISO/TC 211 reference model
A review of ISO19101:2002 Geographic Information – Reference Model becomes essential to address more clearly the issues of semantic interoperability of geographic information, ontology, and Semantic Web.

18 Recommendation 2 Cast ISO/TC 211 standards so they can benefit from and support the Semantic Web OWL as complementary to UML: ISO/TC 211 shall recognize OWL-DL as a complementary language to UML for the description of ISO/TC 211 concepts to benefit from and support the Semantic Web. OWL ontology rules: ISO/TC 211 shall initiate a new work item to elaborate rules for consistent derivation of OWL-DL ontologies from the ISO/TC 211 UML models for ISO19103, application schemas, and ISO/TC 211 other UML models. This work should consider the exploratory works presented in annex A. Conformance clauses shall be defined carefully to ensure the quality of the OWL-DL ontologies. OWL-DL ontology derivation: ISO/TC 211 shall initiate the derivation of OWL-DL ontologies equivalent to ISO/TC 211 UML models using the rules in (b). Further, ISO/TC 211 shall made these OWL-DL ontologies freely available on the ISO/TC 211 Web site to support Semantic Web applications. Additionnally, awareness of these ontologies shall be developed, so they should be posted on ontology registries (e.g. "swoogle“).

19 Recommendation 3 Developing content ontologies
ISO/TC 211 shall encourage high level content definition. This shall be done by the definition of high level ontologies. These high level ontologies would serve as a basic framework to define ontologies at greater level of details and will allow mapping of concepts between application ontologies within a given domain as well as interrelate concepts across domains. All content ontologies shall be accessible in OWL-DL and made accessible on the ISO/TC 211 Web site.

20 Recommendation 4 Service ontology
ISO/TC 211 shall initiate the revision of ISO19119:2005 geographic information - Services to enhance service metadata in order to support discovery of Web services on the Semantic Web. The work item shall decide which way would be preferable for ISO/TC 211 to describe Web Services: OWL-S, WSML, or another.

21 Recommendation 5 Semantic operators
ISO/TC 211 shall initiate a new work item to define semantic proximity operators between concepts associated with geometric and temporal representations. These operators will complement the current suites of geometric and temporal operators as defined in ISO19107:2003, ISO19108:2002, ISO :2004, and ISO19141:2008.

22 ISO/TC 211 revision of its reference model
defines the framework for standardization in the field of geographic information; and sets forth the basic principles by which standardization in GI takes place. The ISO19101rev project will update and revise the standard by revisiting the definition of interoperability in the geographic information context, precising the role of semantics, including the role of the Web, updating relationships between standards, introducing the support of Semantic Web, addressing any newly submitted comments/clarifications, and harmonizing with related standards that have been revised and/or developed in ISO/TC 211 since ISO19101 was published.

23 New issues for 19101 Computer science, geographic information, Web, mobility and ubiquitous computing have progressed tremendously during the last 10 years or so GeoWeb has become a reality from the development of the reference model webServices (WMS, WFS, etc.) XML encodings (GML, KML, etc.) Registries and registers Etc. Semantic interoperability, Semantic Web, and Geosemantic Web Knowledge Ontologies Inferencing OWL (ontology encoding) Content standards ( , 19152)

24 Other ISO/TC 211 reference models
19129 19132 19153 19154 Should we integrate them? Introduce them?

25 Candidate terms, symbols and abbreviations
Base standard Knowledge Ontology Web Semantic Web Reasoning Description logic XML OWL WWW / Web DL

26 Additional issues Relationships and similarities between
Ontology GFM Application schema Feature catalogue Data description is currently a component of data administration Is it still true or is it more an inherent component of data that allow reasoning capabilities?

27 ISO19101 current definitions of interoperability
Definition of interoperability ability of a system or system component to provide information sharing and inter-application co-operative process control Definition of semantic interoperability Semantic interoperability refers to applications interpreting data consistently in the same manner in order to provide the intended representation of the data. Semantic interoperability may be achieved using translators to convert data from a database to an application.

28 Semantic interoperability UML vs. other languages (OWL???)
ISO 19100 series uses UML for conceptual schema language for specification of the normative parts of the ISO 19100 series of standards To satisfy the goal of ISO/TC 211, to create a framework to enable syntactic interoperability and to support semantic interoperability

29 Reality, conceptual schema and ontology
Ontology in philosophy: there is only one ontology; description of the world in itself Ontology in AI : A formal representation of phenomena with an underlying vocabulary including definitions and axioms that make the intended meaning explicit and describe phenomena and their interrelationships Global, Domain, and Application ontology (application schema level) OWL

30 Conclusion The Semantic Web brings a new vision and technologies, which enhance interoperability across disciplines Ontology is an underpinning in the Semantic Web vision Adherence to the Semantic Web by ISO/TC 211 would allow smarter geographic information interoperability between different data sources allow ISO/TC 211 standards to reach a wider community and to support a broader variety of applications requires ISO/TC 211 additional work: review of reference model, providing UML models in OWL ontologies, etc. ISO/TC 211 playing a more significant role with respect to content standardization

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