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ISO/TC 211 Geographic information/Geomatics PT19150 – Ontology Overview and Introduction to PT19101rev – Reference Model Jean Brodeur ISO/TC 211 PT19150.

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Presentation on theme: "ISO/TC 211 Geographic information/Geomatics PT19150 – Ontology Overview and Introduction to PT19101rev – Reference Model Jean Brodeur ISO/TC 211 PT19150."— Presentation transcript:

1 ISO/TC 211 Geographic information/Geomatics PT19150 – Ontology Overview and Introduction to PT19101rev – Reference Model Jean Brodeur ISO/TC 211 PT19150 & PT19101rev Project leader

2 ISO/TC 211 Outline 1.Introduction 2.PT19150 Scope and objectives Outcomes and recommendations 3.ISO/TC 211 revision of its reference model 4.Conclusion

3 ISO/TC 211 Introduction ISO/TC 211 has progressed significantly with respect to syntactic interoperability of geographic information Spatial and temporal primitives Rules for application schemas Methodology to catalogue features Description of coordinate reference systems By coordinates By geographic identifiers Metadata Encoding of geographic information Service interfaces Location-based services for navigation

4 ISO/TC 211 Introduction High level of structure in terms of data; Simplify largely the sharing and the use of geographic information; Significant contribution to support the direct access of geographic information from the Internet and the Web.

5 ISO/TC 211 Introduction The Web has progressed significantly towards the Semantic Web; The Web could be seen as a tremendous worldwide open database; Same geographic features may be described differently according to the specific context making difficult to benefit from the richness of the various representations; The semantic issue needs to be addressed more rigorously in the ISO19100 suites of standards to improve the interoperability of geographic information.

6 ISO/TC 211 PT19150 Scope and Objectives Preliminary work to –collect and compile information, and –to investigate how ontology and semantic web approaches can benefit ISO/TC 211 objectives At the end, recommendations will be provided to the TC for further actions.

7 ISO/TC 211 Meetings 1 st meeting: UN FAO HQ, Rome, Italy, May 28-29, nd meeting: Xian, China, October 30, rd meeting: Copenhagen, Denmark, May 27, th meeting: Tsukuba, Japan, December 2, 2008 Final report has been submitted to ISO/TC 211 recently

8 ISO/TC 211 Project Team Outcomes Review ISO/TC 211 objectives Reach a common understanding of what is intended by –Semantic Web –Ontology(ies) Review of ISO/TC 211 related works List of relevant issues for ISO/TC 211 Values of ontology and Semantic Web Recommandations

9 ISO/TC 211 ISO/TC 211 Objectives Develop a family of international standards on geographic information –To support the understanding and usage of geographic information –To increase the availability, access, integration, and sharing of geographic information, i.e. to enable interoperability of geospatially enabled computer systems and data –To support the establishment of geospatial data infrastructures on local, regional and global level

10 ISO/TC 211 Interoperability of Geographic Information Trough Communication FactoryA … Users request with his own concepts in memory (e.g. Factory, Mill, Plant, etc.) (Communication channel) Factories within Kyoto? FactoryA … Provider User Administrative area (Kyoto) Building (factory) (Communication channel) FactoryA … Interoperability = correspondence of received data with the initial request. = T|S||S| -FactoryA-EPSG: , Factory-Kyoto -Factory -Kyoto -Building (factory)-Factory -Administrative -Kyoto area (Kyoto) |S||S|= T Request recognition from databases geographic concepts then search of corresponding geographic information.

11 ISO/TC 211 Semantic Web From a Web of documents for humans to a Web of data and information processable by computers

12 ISO/TC 211 Ontology A formal representation of phenomena with an underlying vocabulary including definitions and axioms that make the intended meaning explicit and describe phenomena and their interrelationships A foundation for the success of the Semantic Web Meaning of data in a format that machine can understand Data derived its semantics from ontology To support integration of heterogeneous data across communities

13 ISO/TC 211 ISO/TC 211 Related Works Terminology –ISO19104: Terminology –ISO19135: Procedures for registration of geographic information items –ISO19127: Geodetic codes and parameters –ISO19138: Data quality measures Content description –ISO19109: Rules for application schema –ISO19110: Feature cataloguing methodology –ISO19126: Feature concept dictionaries and registers –ISO19131: Data product specification Schemas –ISO19103: Conceptual schema language –ISO19107: Spatial schema –ISO19108: Temporal schema –ISO19115/-2/19: Metadata –ISO19123: Schema for coverage geometry and functions –ISO : Simple feature access - Common architecture –ISO19133: Tracking and navigation –ISO19134: Multimodal routing and navigation –ISO19141: Moving features …

14 ISO/TC 211 Values of ontology and Semantic Web Interoperability across domains Automatic machine reasoning and inference From information description to knowledge description Focus on online access of information and knowledge (as opposed to offline access) Expose ISO/TC 211 to other communities that are not aware of the spatial domain Interrelating different concepts (such as different keywords for similar concepts in metadata) Associates (similar/different) concepts between domains

15 ISO/TC 211 Relevant issues for ISO/TC211 (1) Review of the reference model (ISO19101:2002) –from information to knowledge, i.e. a new way to see information from a semantic perspective Develop rules for application ontologies Introduction of ontologies as part of product specification applications Developing content is becoming more and more an important issue with respect to ISO/TC 211 –Pragmatic orientation –Development of top level ontologies which allow ontology mapping between domains

16 ISO/TC 211 Relevant issues for ISO/TC211 (2) Reasoning and inference –Spatial operator in ISO19107:2003/ISO :2004, could they be defined and used as part of semantic Web languages (RDF, RDF-S, and OWL) –Semantic operators about the semantic similarity with respect to concepts, definition and use as part of semantic Web languages (RDF, RDF-S, and OWL) –Translation of ISO/TC 211 UML models in a Semantic Web language (ex. OWL) Investigate tools and methodologies for developing ontologies

17 ISO/TC 211 Recommendation 1 Review of the ISO/TC 211 reference model A review of ISO19101:2002 Geographic Information – Reference Model becomes essential to address more clearly the issues of semantic interoperability of geographic information, ontology, and Semantic Web.

18 ISO/TC 211 Recommendation 2 Cast ISO/TC 211 standards so they can benefit from and support the Semantic Web a)OWL as complementary to UML: ISO/TC 211 shall recognize OWL-DL as a complementary language to UML for the description of ISO/TC 211 concepts to benefit from and support the Semantic Web. b)OWL ontology rules: ISO/TC 211 shall initiate a new work item to elaborate rules for consistent derivation of OWL-DL ontologies from the ISO/TC 211 UML models for ISO19103, application schemas, and ISO/TC 211 other UML models. This work should consider the exploratory works presented in annex A. Conformance clauses shall be defined carefully to ensure the quality of the OWL-DL ontologies. c)OWL-DL ontology derivation: ISO/TC 211 shall initiate the derivation of OWL-DL ontologies equivalent to ISO/TC 211 UML models using the rules in (b). Further, ISO/TC 211 shall made these OWL-DL ontologies freely available on the ISO/TC 211 Web site to support Semantic Web applications. Additionnally, awareness of these ontologies shall be developed, so they should be posted on ontology registries (e.g. "swoogle).

19 ISO/TC 211 Recommendation 3 Developing content ontologies ISO/TC 211 shall encourage high level content definition. This shall be done by the definition of high level ontologies. These high level ontologies would serve as a basic framework to define ontologies at greater level of details and will allow mapping of concepts between application ontologies within a given domain as well as interrelate concepts across domains. All content ontologies shall be accessible in OWL-DL and made accessible on the ISO/TC 211 Web site.

20 ISO/TC 211 Recommendation 4 Service ontology ISO/TC 211 shall initiate the revision of ISO19119:2005 geographic information - Services to enhance service metadata in order to support discovery of Web services on the Semantic Web. The work item shall decide which way would be preferable for ISO/TC 211 to describe Web Services: OWL-S, WSML, or another.

21 ISO/TC 211 Recommendation 5 Semantic operators ISO/TC 211 shall initiate a new work item to define semantic proximity operators between concepts associated with geometric and temporal representations. These operators will complement the current suites of geometric and temporal operators as defined in ISO19107:2003, ISO19108:2002, ISO :2004, and ISO19141:2008.

22 ISO/TC 211 ISO/TC 211 revision of its reference model ISO19101:2002 –defines the framework for standardization in the field of geographic information; and –sets forth the basic principles by which standardization in GI takes place. The ISO19101rev project will update and revise the standard by –revisiting the definition of interoperability in the geographic information context, –precising the role of semantics, –including the role of the Web, –updating relationships between standards, –introducing the support of Semantic Web, –addressing any newly submitted comments/clarifications, and –harmonizing with related standards that have been revised and/or developed in ISO/TC 211 since ISO19101 was published.

23 ISO/TC 211 New issues for Computer science, geographic information, Web, mobility and ubiquitous computing have progressed tremendously during the last 10 years or so GeoWeb has become a reality from the development of the reference model –webServices (WMS, WFS, etc.) –XML encodings (GML, KML, etc.) –Registries and registers –Etc. Semantic interoperability, Semantic Web, and Geosemantic Web –Knowledge –Ontologies –Inferencing –OWL (ontology encoding) –Content standards ( , 19152)

24 ISO/TC 211 Other ISO/TC 211 reference models … Should we integrate them? Introduce them?

25 ISO/TC 211 Candidate terms, symbols and abbreviations Base standard Knowledge Ontology Web Semantic Web Reasoning Description logic XML OWL WWW / Web DL

26 ISO/TC 211 Additional issues Relationships and similarities between –Ontology –GFM –Application schema –Feature catalogue Data description is currently a component of data administration –Is it still true or is it more an inherent component of data that allow reasoning capabilities?

27 ISO/TC 211 ISO19101 current definitions of interoperability Definition of interoperability –ability of a system or system component to provide information sharing and inter-application co-operative process control Definition of semantic interoperability –Semantic interoperability refers to applications interpreting data consistently in the same manner in order to provide the intended representation of the data. Semantic interoperability may be achieved using translators to convert data from a database to an application.

28 ISO/TC 211 Semantic interoperability UML vs. other languages (OWL???) ISO series uses UML –for conceptual schema language for specification of the normative parts of the ISO series of standards –To satisfy the goal of ISO/TC 211, to create a framework to enable syntactic interoperability and to support semantic interoperability

29 ISO/TC 211 Reality, conceptual schema and ontology Ontology in philosophy: there is only one ontology; description of the world in itself OWL Ontology in AI : A formal representation of phenomena with an underlying vocabulary including definitions and axioms that make the intended meaning explicit and describe phenomena and their interrelationships Global, Domain, and Application ontology (application schema level)

30 ISO/TC 211 Conclusion The Semantic Web brings a new vision and technologies, which enhance interoperability across disciplines Ontology is an underpinning in the Semantic Web vision Adherence to the Semantic Web by ISO/TC 211 would –allow smarter geographic information interoperability between different data sources –allow ISO/TC 211 standards to reach a wider community and to support a broader variety of applications –requires ISO/TC 211 additional work: review of reference model, providing UML models in OWL ontologies, etc. ISO/TC 211 playing a more significant role with respect to content standardization

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