2Outline Introduction PT19150 Scope and objectivesOutcomes and recommendationsISO/TC 211 revision of its reference modelConclusion
3IntroductionISO/TC 211 has progressed significantly with respect to syntactic interoperability of geographic informationEncoding of geographic informationSpatial and temporal primitivesMethodology to catalogue featuresRules for application schemasMetadataDescription of coordinate reference systemsBy coordinatesBy geographic identifiersService interfacesLocation-based services for navigation
4Introduction High level of structure in terms of data; Simplify largely the sharing and the use of geographic information;Significant contribution to support the direct access of geographic information from the Internet and the Web.
5IntroductionThe Web has progressed significantly towards the Semantic Web;The Web could be seen as a tremendous worldwide open database;Same geographic features may be described differently according to the specific context making difficult to benefit from the richness of the various representations;The semantic issue needs to be addressed more rigorously in the ISO19100 suites of standards to improve the interoperability of geographic information.
6PT19150 Scope and Objectives Preliminary work tocollect and compile information, andto investigate how ontology and semantic web approaches can benefit ISO/TC 211 objectivesAt the end, recommendations will be provided to the TC for further actions.
7Meetings 1st meeting: UN FAO HQ, Rome, Italy, May 28-29, 2007 2nd meeting: Xi’an, China, October 30, 20073rd meeting: Copenhagen, Denmark, May 27, 20084th meeting: Tsukuba, Japan, December 2, 2008Final report has been submitted to ISO/TC 211 recently
8Project Team Outcomes Review ISO/TC 211 objectives Reach a common understanding of what is intended bySemantic WebOntology(ies)Review of ISO/TC 211 related worksList of relevant issues for ISO/TC 211Values of ontology and Semantic WebRecommandations
9ISO/TC 211 ObjectivesDevelop a family of international standards on geographic informationTo support the understanding and usage of geographic informationTo increase the availability, access, integration, and sharing of geographic information, i.e. to enable interoperability of geospatially enabled computer systems and dataTo support the establishment of geospatial data infrastructures on local, regional and global level
10Interoperability of Geographic Information Trough Communication (Communication channel)“Factories within Kyoto?”-Building (factory) -Factory -Administrative -Kyoto area (Kyoto)|S|= TRequest recognition from database’s geographic conceptsthen search of corresponding geographic information.User’s request with his own concepts in memory(e.g. Factory, Mill, Plant, etc.)-Factory-Kyoto-Factory-KyotoProviderUserAdministrative area (Kyoto)Building (factory)<Factory><name>FactoryA</name>…<Factory><name>FactoryA</name>…Interoperability =correspondence of received data with the initial request.= T|S|-FactoryA-EPSG:21418,(Communication channel)<Factory><name>FactoryA</name><location><GPL_CoordinateTuple> <tupleCrsName="urn:EPSG::21418">…
11Semantic WebFrom a Web of documents for humans to a Web of data and information processable by computers
12OntologyA formal representation of phenomena with an underlying vocabulary including definitions and axioms that make the intended meaning explicit and describe phenomena and their interrelationshipsA foundation for the success of the Semantic WebMeaning of data in a format that machine can understandData derived its semantics from ontologyTo support integration of heterogeneous data across communities
13ISO/TC 211 Related Works Terminology Content description Schemas … ISO19104: TerminologyISO19135: Procedures for registration of geographic information itemsISO19127: Geodetic codes and parametersISO19138: Data quality measuresContent descriptionISO19109: Rules for application schemaISO19110: Feature cataloguing methodologyISO19126: Feature concept dictionaries and registersISO19131: Data product specificationSchemasISO19103: Conceptual schema languageISO19107: Spatial schemaISO19108: Temporal schemaISO19115/-2/19: MetadataISO19123: Schema for coverage geometry and functionsISO : Simple feature access - Common architectureISO19133: Tracking and navigationISO19134: Multimodal routing and navigationISO19141: Moving features…
14Values of ontology and Semantic Web Interoperability across domainsAutomatic machine reasoning and inferenceFrom information description to knowledge descriptionFocus on online access of information and knowledge (as opposed to offline access)Expose ISO/TC 211 to other communities that are not aware of the spatial domainInterrelating different concepts (such as different keywords for similar concepts in metadata)Associates (similar/different) concepts between domains
15Relevant issues for ISO/TC211 (1) Review of the reference model (ISO19101:2002)from information to knowledge, i.e. a new way to see information from a semantic perspectiveDevelop rules for application ontologiesIntroduction of ontologies as part of product specification applicationsDeveloping content is becoming more and more an important issue with respect to ISO/TC 211Pragmatic orientationDevelopment of top level ontologies which allow ontology mapping between domains
16Relevant issues for ISO/TC211 (2) Reasoning and inferenceSpatial operator in ISO19107:2003/ISO :2004, could they be defined and used as part of semantic Web languages (RDF, RDF-S, and OWL)Semantic operators about the semantic similarity with respect to concepts, definition and use as part of semantic Web languages (RDF, RDF-S, and OWL)Translation of ISO/TC 211 UML models in a Semantic Web language (ex. OWL)Investigate tools and methodologies for developing ontologies
17Recommendation 1 Review of the ISO/TC 211 reference model A review of ISO19101:2002 Geographic Information – Reference Model becomes essential to address more clearly the issues of semantic interoperability of geographic information, ontology, and Semantic Web.
18Recommendation 2Cast ISO/TC 211 standards so they can benefit from and support the Semantic WebOWL as complementary to UML: ISO/TC 211 shall recognize OWL-DL as a complementary language to UML for the description of ISO/TC 211 concepts to benefit from and support the Semantic Web.OWL ontology rules: ISO/TC 211 shall initiate a new work item to elaborate rules for consistent derivation of OWL-DL ontologies from the ISO/TC 211 UML models for ISO19103, application schemas, and ISO/TC 211 other UML models. This work should consider the exploratory works presented in annex A. Conformance clauses shall be defined carefully to ensure the quality of the OWL-DL ontologies.OWL-DL ontology derivation: ISO/TC 211 shall initiate the derivation of OWL-DL ontologies equivalent to ISO/TC 211 UML models using the rules in (b). Further, ISO/TC 211 shall made these OWL-DL ontologies freely available on the ISO/TC 211 Web site to support Semantic Web applications. Additionnally, awareness of these ontologies shall be developed, so they should be posted on ontology registries (e.g. "swoogle“).
19Recommendation 3 Developing content ontologies ISO/TC 211 shall encourage high level content definition. This shall be done by the definition of high level ontologies. These high level ontologies would serve as a basic framework to define ontologies at greater level of details and will allow mapping of concepts between application ontologies within a given domain as well as interrelate concepts across domains. All content ontologies shall be accessible in OWL-DL and made accessible on the ISO/TC 211 Web site.
20Recommendation 4 Service ontology ISO/TC 211 shall initiate the revision of ISO19119:2005 geographic information - Services to enhance service metadata in order to support discovery of Web services on the Semantic Web. The work item shall decide which way would be preferable for ISO/TC 211 to describe Web Services: OWL-S, WSML, or another.
21Recommendation 5 Semantic operators ISO/TC 211 shall initiate a new work item to define semantic proximity operators between concepts associated with geometric and temporal representations. These operators will complement the current suites of geometric and temporal operators as defined in ISO19107:2003, ISO19108:2002, ISO :2004, and ISO19141:2008.
22ISO/TC 211 revision of its reference model defines the framework for standardization in the field of geographic information; andsets forth the basic principles by which standardization in GI takes place.The ISO19101rev project will update and revise the standard byrevisiting the definition of interoperability in the geographic information context,precising the role of semantics,including the role of the Web,updating relationships between standards,introducing the support of Semantic Web,addressing any newly submitted comments/clarifications, andharmonizing with related standards that have been revised and/or developed in ISO/TC 211 since ISO19101 was published.
23New issues for 19101Computer science, geographic information, Web, mobility and ubiquitous computing have progressed tremendously during the last 10 years or soGeoWeb has become a reality from the development of the reference modelwebServices (WMS, WFS, etc.)XML encodings (GML, KML, etc.)Registries and registersEtc.Semantic interoperability, Semantic Web, and Geosemantic WebKnowledgeOntologiesInferencingOWL (ontology encoding)Content standards ( , 19152)
25Candidate terms, symbols and abbreviations Base standardKnowledgeOntologyWebSemantic WebReasoningDescription logicXMLOWLWWW / WebDL
26Additional issues Relationships and similarities between OntologyGFMApplication schemaFeature catalogueData description is currently a component of data administrationIs it still true or is it more an inherent component of data that allow reasoning capabilities?
27ISO19101 current definitions of interoperability Definition of interoperabilityability of a system or system component to provide information sharing and inter-application co-operative process controlDefinition of semantic interoperabilitySemantic interoperability refers to applications interpreting data consistently in the same manner in order to provide the intended representation of the data. Semantic interoperability may be achieved using translators to convert data from a database to an application.
28Semantic interoperability UML vs. other languages (OWL???) ISO 19100 series uses UMLfor conceptual schema language for specification of the normative parts of the ISO 19100 series of standardsTo satisfy the goal of ISO/TC 211, to create a framework to enable syntactic interoperability and to support semantic interoperability
29Reality, conceptual schema and ontology Ontology in philosophy: there is only one ontology; description of the world in itselfOntology in AI : A formal representation of phenomena with an underlying vocabulary including definitions and axioms that make the intended meaning explicit and describe phenomena and their interrelationshipsGlobal, Domain, and Application ontology (application schema level)OWL
30ConclusionThe Semantic Web brings a new vision and technologies, which enhance interoperability across disciplinesOntology is an underpinning in the Semantic Web visionAdherence to the Semantic Web by ISO/TC 211 wouldallow smarter geographic information interoperability between different data sourcesallow ISO/TC 211 standards to reach a wider community and to support a broader variety of applicationsrequires ISO/TC 211 additional work: review of reference model, providing UML models in OWL ontologies, etc.ISO/TC 211 playing a more significant role with respect to content standardization