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Evolution of the „development architecture“

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1 Evolution of the „development architecture“
Gabriele Köhler Development economist, Munich Visiting Fellow, IDS, Sussex Ludwig Maximilians University PhD-Program International Health Module I Munich, 12 December 2011 Key points: Understanding of the politics of development cooperation and the „development architecture“ End of „North South“ dichotomy – poverty, unemployment and casualisation of work, social exclusion, climate change, food price inflation, affect people in all countries MDGs – progress, lack of progress, and MDGs after 2015

2 Overview: Human development and poverty
Evolution of the development cooperation architecture The case for a bold vision: rights-based, universalist, transformative

3 1) Human development & poverty
Human development at aggregate level: slow but steady improvement Much of the optimism accompanying the MDGs is based on this trend.

4 Human Development Index, trends 1970-2010
At the aggregate level, the human development index – a composite index combining per capita income, longevity and literacy – has improved steadily – but very slowly, over the past 40 years. Most countries have moved up within their grouping of high – middle – low HDI, and some have managed to move into a higher HDI bracket – such as China, Tunisia, Laos and Nepal. Source: UNDP, Human Development Report 2010

5 Official list of MDG indicators, http://unstats. un. org/unsd/mdg/Host

6 UN: The Millennium Development Report 2011, New York 2011, S. 6 ff
UN: The Millennium Development Report 2011, New York 2011, S.6 ff. abgerufen am

7 Working poverty UN: The Millennium Development Report 2011, New York 2011, S.10 abgerufen am

8 Malnutrition UN: The Millennium Development Report 2011, New York 2011, S.12 abgerufen am

9 UN: The Millennium Development Report 2011, New York 2011, S. 6 ff
UN: The Millennium Development Report 2011, New York 2011, S.6 ff. abgerufen am

10 UN: The Millennium Development Report 2011, New York 2011, S. 24ff
UN: The Millennium Development Report 2011, New York 2011, S. 24ff. abgerufen am

11 UN: The Millennium Development Report 2011, New York 2011, S
UN: The Millennium Development Report 2011, New York 2011, S.28 abgerufen am

12 UN: The Millennium Development Report 2011, New York 2011, S
UN: The Millennium Development Report 2011, New York 2011, S.20 abgerufen am

13 Economic, fiscal, climate crises
at least 100 million more people hungry and undernourished an estimated 64 million more people in income poverty 205 million people unemployed at least 55,000 more children likely to die each year from 2009 to 2015 175 million children affected by climate change Moreover, chronic poverty and social exclusions are exacerbated by the impact of the crises – food and fuel price rises, financial and economic crises, the ensuing fiscal crises which have intensified since 2008. As a result of the 2008 ff crises, hunger, already massive – with an estimated 900 million to 1 billion people living with daily hunger, has increase; formal sector unemployment is rising: child poverty is worsening. Data sources: International Labour Organization (ILO), World Social Security Report , p. 33. World Bank, The World Bank Group’s Response to the Global Economic Crisis, 2010, p. 11 ILO, Global Employment Trends 2011: The challenge of a jobs recovery, 2011, p. 12. Jessica Espey and Maricar Garde, The global economic crisis: Balancing the books on the backs ofthe world’ s most vulnerable children?, Save the Children, 2010, p.8. Ronald Mendoza, “Inclusive Crises, Exclusive Recoveries, and Policies to Prevent aDouble Whammy for the Poor”, Social and Economic Policy Working Paper, UNICEF Policy andPractice, 2010, p. 18. Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO), The State of Food Insecurity in theWorld: Economic Crises, Impacts and Lessons Learned, 2009, p. 4. Human Rights Council Report of the Independent Expert on the question of human rights and extreme poverty, Magdalena Sepúlveda Carmona. A/HRC/17/ March Unicef 2011 on climate change and children. 13 February 2009 – The spreading global economic crisis is set to trap up to 53 million more people in poverty in developing countries this year on top of the million driven into poverty in 2008 by soaring food and fuel prices, bringing the total of those living on less than $2 a day to over 1.5 billion, according to the World Bank.. UN news.

14 Reducing child mortality – a moral and environmental imperative
Hans Rosling Tedtalk From Ted website. TED is a nonprofit devoted to Ideas Worth Spreading. It started out (in 1984) as a conference bringing together people from three worlds: Technology, Entertainment, Design. Since then its scope has become ever broader. Along with two annual conferences -- the TED Conference in Long Beach and Palm Springs each spring, and the TEDGlobal conference in Edinburgh UK each summer -- TED includes the award-winning TEDTalks video site, the Open Translation Project and TED Conversations, the inspiring TED Fellows and TEDx programs, and the annual TED Prize.

15 Predominant ideology:
2.) Evolution of development architecture Phase I: Colonial administration(1900s – 1950s) Predominant ideology: Spreading „progress“ and „civilisation“ Driving forces: Colonial regimes for economic gain Colonial regimes for resources Colonial regimes for power Exploitative interaction with extreme political violence and economic oppression. Colonialism can be seen as precursor of the “development” architecture. There were the colonial administrations with the purpose of exploiting and managing the colonies. There was also a large activity of research, investigations, reports and studies, as well as training for the colonial administrators, for example for the British colonial admininistration staff at British universities such as Oxford, which began even before World War I and was maintained through till the late 1940s. (Hevinden, Meredith: Colonialism and Development, New York, 1993). Some of this research was done by academics with a broad range of themes explored – from sociology and gender relations to engineering, crop culture, or irrigation systems. In the late 1940s, the economics profession began analysing underdeveloped economies and speaking of a distinct development economics (see Meier et al). The UN began its development economic related research in the 1950s.

16 Predominant ideology:
2.) Evolution of development architecture Phase II: Independence movements & „development aid“ ( ) Predominant ideology: Transfer capital and technology to the capital-deficient South – economistic approach to development Keynesian economics State led growth Driving forces: independence movements in the South post-war recovery, affluence, guilt in the North – Re- nascent globalisation As the countries in Africa and Asia became independent, the relationships with the North change fundamentally. The independence movements were concerned with nation building and often introduced economic governance informed by a mixture of Keynesian economics and Soviet planning. It is notable that development aid in an institutionalised fashion, with “aid” offices within ministries of foreign affairs or dedicated development agencies, began almost simultaneously in all industrialised countries - the US, Europe and Japan - around 1960. OECD (Development Assistance Committee (DAC) was created in It is the organisation of the OECD donors and co-ordinates research and is a venue to discuss donor policies. The DAC also leads the subsequent monitoring and evaluation processes regarding what is now termed aid effectiveness. Furthermore the DAC now reaches out to non-DAC or “emerging donors”. The UN declared a Development Decade in 1960 centred on economic growth and transfers of capital and know how from the developed to the developing countries. There was a Second and Third Development Decade for the 1970s and 1980s.The are also decades on poverty eradication which were an outcome of the World Social Summit - (1st UN Decade on Poverty Eradication and 2nd UN Decade on Poverty Eradication (United Nations. General Assembly. Fifty-first session Agenda item 96 f. Resolutions adopted by the General Assembly . First United Nations Decade for the Eradication of Poverty. A/RES/51/178 . 16 Dec 1996). The development decades in some ways have been “replaced” by the more catchy Millennium Declaration and the MDG agenda.

17 2.) Evolution of development architecture Phase III: structural adjustment (1980s – 1989/1990 and beyond) Predominant ideology: Overstating role of marktes, downplaying the role of the state, intervening in developing country governments‘ policy space Driving forces: Economic and political strength of the developed countries Interest in „South“ for markets, production – global value chains Debt crisis in the South Indebtedness of the South after the oil price crises of the 1970s and because their exports were locked into low value-added, price-volatile commodity exports and the import of costly manufactured goods. The trade structure – see the terms of trade debate and structural inequalities raised by Prebish, Singer and UNCTAD - and balance of payment problems and debt crises were a lever for the North to put pressure on the South.

18 Predominant ideology:
2.) Evolution of development architecture Phase IV: Cooperation as “partnerships” (1990s – 2000) Predominant ideology: End of the „cold war“ : rebalancing of power Seeming collapse of state-led development Series of UN global summits - Social development theme Driving forces: greater economic dependence of the North on the South Emerging South North trade and investment The UN convened a series of global conferences and summits throughout the 1990s, many with a focus on social development. The ones on social development, women and children were especially influential for the Millenium Declaration and MDG agenda. Conference subjects: Children (1990) Education for All (1990, 2000) Least Developed Countries (1990, 2001 – Brussels – adopted Brussels Programme of Action, and May 2011 Turkey – with a New International Development Architecture proposed) Drug issues (1990, 1998) Food Security (1992, 1996) Sustainable Development (1992, 2002) Human Rights (1993, 2001) Population and Development (1994) Small Island Developing States (1994, 2005) Natural Disaster Reduction (1994, 2005) Advancement of Women (1995, 2005) Social Development (1995) Human Settlements (1996, 2001) Youth (1998) Millennium Summit (2000, 2005) HIV/AIDS (2001) Financing for Development (2002) Ageing (2002) Landlocked and Transit Developing Countries (2003) Information Society (2003, 2005) World Conference against racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance (2002) Source :

19 2. ) Evolution of development architecture Phase V:
2.) Evolution of development architecture Phase V: MDGs; Aid Effectiveness (2000 – 2008) Predominant ideologies: push for human development focus on social development – different from economistic approaches of the 1960s development onus on the South the „bad governance“ discourse Driving forces: economic & political polarisation Stalled progress on human development; Slow economic growth – or jobless growth; Multiple social exclusions; Accelerating domestic conflicts; Climate change and accelerating frequency of disasters Millennium Declaration and its operationalisation in the MDGs: remarkable degree of cohesion on development agenda in terms of objectives to be pursued and targets and even the indicators to measure progress, Used by many developing country governments in their planning statgies, by the IFIs in Poverty Reduction Strategies, and by the OECD DAC donors. Followed by Paris Declaration of Aid Effectiveness 2005 with a series of follow up conferences.

20 2.) Evolution of development architecture Phase VI: Multi-polar development since 2008
Drivers G-20, pushing „G-192“ aside Emerging economies: BRIC(S) and BASIC with export success, outward investment, sovereign funds New bilateral donors changing the donor landscape Private foundations - more grants available Predominant ideologies “Pluri-pragmatism” One size fits all versus national ownership & policy space Growth and human development Overemphasis on evidence based policy-making versus grand design and visions of social justice Where do we stand in the late 2000s? 2008 can be seen as the beginning of a new phase in the development architecture, characterised by multi-polar” contradictory process and a “post-modern” ideology, also with contradictory positions coexisting. Broadly speaking, 3 sets of countries has emerged: the “developed”, “emerging” – used to be called “tiger economies”, and the “least developed countries” (LDCs). The BRICs – a term coined by Jim O’Neill of Goldman Sachs in 2001 – to refer to a group of economically promising countries – Brazil, Russia, India, China, and sometimes South Africa which interestingly – through the concept was developed by a consultancy company – decided to meet periodically in this grouping. BASIC – Brazil, South Africa, India, China constituted in 2009 around the Copenhagen Climate Summit. New development aid players: emerging economies and private foundations New donors operating outside MDG agenda or human rights Special funds skewing priorities, creating silos and inefficiencies Countries such as Korea, Malaysia, China, India, Venezuela, and many others, as well as the recent EU member states in Eastern Europe are becoming ODA donors, but on different terms, with a different set of objectives and values as the OECD DAC members. Divergent trends: an engagement for equity and social inclusion and participation coming from the multilateral system, juxtaposed with problematic developments with emerging donors not in tune with human rights or sustainable development concerns, and some developing countries buying natural resources and land from the poorest countries in an unequal exchange – some say with neocolonial dimensions - in a search for food security and fuel substitutes. See research by the Special Rapporteur of the OHCHR on the right to food, or the April 2011 IDS conference on land grabs.

21 The new geography of growth and poverty
lundi 27 mars 2017 The new geography of growth and poverty Over the last decade, developing countries have enjoyed a revival in their economic fortunes after some 20 years of missed opportunities and disappointing performance. In the 2000s, as many as 83 developing countries managed to double OECD per capita growth rates, compared to only 12 countries in the 1990s. Source: Authors' elaboration based on World Bank (2011), World Development Indicators, World Bank, Washington, DC

22 The new geography of growth and poverty
lundi 27 mars 2017 The new geography of growth and poverty Today, nearly 1 billion out of the 2 billion people living on USD 10 to USD 100 a day in the world – the global middle class – live in converging countries. This number is projected to exceed more than 3 billion in 2030. At the same time, these converging countries are home to most of the world’s poor. Thus poverty can no longer be explained primarily by differences between countries. Instead we also have to look at in-country differences between regions, groups and individuals. Source: Authors' elaboration based on World Bank (2011), World Development Indicators, World Bank, Washington, DC

23 Countries of the world estimated GDP in purchasing power parity, 2010
The world re-sized by economic power, measured in GDP PPP ...

24 G 20 countries: Circa 90 per cent of global GNP
80 per cent of world trade Two-thirds of the world's population. ( Source: .... which roughly corresponds to the G20 grouping. G20 established in 1999 compromising the finance ministers and central bank governors of the G7, plus Russian Federation, plus 12 other key countries. It gained momentum in 2008 when it started meeting at head of state level to respond to the massive financial crisis. Additional members of the G20: European Union Presidency European Central Bank Managing Director of the IMF President of the World Bank The Chairman of the Bank/Fund Development Committee UN Secretary General invited as an observor at the more recent meetings Source:

25 G20 Seoul development consensus action points
infrastructure, private investment and job creation, human resource development, trade, financial inclusion, growth with resilience, food security, domestic resource mobilization, knowledge sharing Principles: highlight human rights but reliance on economic growth Source Seoul consensus G20 Seoul Summit. In 2010, the G20, meeting in the Republic of Korea, adopted a development strategy. Interesting here the prominent role accorded to economic infrastructure, seen by many to have been neglected in the MDGs agenda. The points on job creation, human resource development and growth with reslilience - which is largely about social protection –can be seen as a deepening of the MDGs on employment, youth employment, and education. Finally food security has gained the prominence it deserves. However, the Seoul consensus is built on a ideology of private sector led growth, which surprises since the MICs among the G20 countries had growth strategies that relied heavily on the developmental state.

26 Country level innovations:
Progressive, rights-based, universalistic policies Rights to education, health, school meals, food, Right to work – employment – decent work Right to information Right to social protection Rediscovery of the role of the state Some authors see a “development revolution” in the South (e.g. Hanlon et al 2010), given the broad range of policy innovations of the past few years. The rights-based decent work agenda is spreading more slowly, but social protection has seen a vast expansion in recent years– Brazil, Mexico, many African countries, China, Indonesia, Thailand, most of South Asia with India in a policy leader role – are cases in point.

27 Some South Asian policy responses
Social protection policy environment Some South Asian policy responses Direct food transfers Social Assistance Job Creation Affirmative action Human rights Universal old age pension (NPL) Benazir Income Support Program (PAK) Child benefit (NPL) Unorganized sector health insurance (IND) National Rural Employment Guarantee (IND) Employment Generation for hard core poor (BGD) Karnali Employment Program (NPL) Employment generation for rural unskilled workers (PAK) Secondary school stipend for girls (BGD) Education for all (NPL) Child grants for girls (IND) Rural development and community based interventions (IND) Right to food/National Food Security Act (IND) Mid-day meal (IND) Right to education (all) Right to work (IND) Right to health services (all) Right to information (IND, BGD, NPL) Cooked school meals (IND) Subsidized PDS (IND, NPL, BGD) Subsidized grain prices Source Köhler

28 New economic realities – poverty and vulnerability in South and North
Losers of globalisation – the informal economy, the poor, migrants, the socially excluded, children, women, people with disabilities Winners: high growth economies, successful private sector, emerging economies, private donors taking on the development agenda Informal economy with ever increasing casualisation of labour in global and local production chains

29 Health is one example of the fragmenting character of the new aid architecture – independent funds, bilaterals and private entities dwarf the core technical multilateral institution for health issues, the WHO, in terms of funding. Philanthropic foundations: there are currenty 120 special funds into which bilateral donors and foundations are contributing, partly fuelled by new rich. One example: the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. While philanthropy can be welcomed from its intentions, it creates silos, does not underly the parliamentary processes applied to expenditures financed from tax revenues, and creates a sort of privatist donor community. In the recipient countries, it creates additional management issues and reinforces a silo and skewed approach to identifying priorities and planning for them. For comparison: the total of the UN regular budget for is US$ 5 billion plus US$9 billion extrabudgetary funds (UN Budget at

30 G20 replacing “G192”, undermining the UN
New colonialism MICs – landgrab, collusion with corrupt governments – social and environmental sell-outs, ODA driven by security or commercial interests G20 replacing “G192”, undermining the UN “G 192” – the 192 member states of the UN – taken as a metaphor for the global community – which, in theory, is the more legitimate group to discuss and decide on global economic, social and political development policies. The UN General Assembly would be the venue for this. It can be remarked however, that governments do not necessarily represent peoples, and some analysts have proposed some type of global senate of parliamentarians.

31 Converging North and South
MDG outcomes worst among socially excluded groups – in North and South Income gap widening Human development gap widening within countries

32 3. The case for a bold vision
These are examples for policies that would move in the direction of rights-based transformative policy formulation: - on overcoming income poverty …

33 Development decades OECD Idea Factory New Paradigms for Development snapshots from a co-operation experiment inside the OECD Forum 2011

34 Development decades OECD Idea Factory New Paradigms for Development snapshots from a co-operation experiment inside the OECD Forum 2011

35 The case for a bold vision
Improve – enhance - transform - human development outcomes Social justice – Equitable inclusive human development Human development is meant in the broad and the deep sense.

36 Deepening the MDG agenda
clearer conceptual basis more explicitly policy-oriented bolder, more openly progressive policy stance Deepening the MDG agenda

37 Beyond 2015: deepening the MDGs
human rights dimensions, human dignity, and choice income and and wealth inequalities social exclusion and poverty in multidimensional mode applicable to all societies all MDGs– food, employment, poverty, education, child & maternal health, HIV-Aids etc, gender equality, environment violence and conflict ecological destruction and climate change subjective perceptions political and personal security “bottom up” participatory decision making employment/decent work and asset access/social protection policy focus+ : ”heterodox”; from the South good governance solidarity universalism/social contracts domestic resource mobilisation Universality and inclusiveness Building resilience and reducing vulnerability Building national economies/subnational/national/global coherence Source: building on Melamed 2011; Koehler, Gasper, Jolly, Simane 2011

38 The case for a bold vision: Next steps?
Normative umbrella of international development cooperation: Universal Declaration of Human Rights Recapture UN’s lead role in advocating for universal human rights and social justice Influence the discussions on “post 2015” At one time, the UN was “ahead of the curve” (Jolly et al/ UN history project). It needs to get there again by promoting transformational social justice values and project the same dynamic for progressive change for universal human rights that it displayed at its founding and when the Universal Declaration of Human Rights was conceptualised and presented. In 2015, the MDG agenda will be reviewed and either extended, deepened or replaced. The innovations need to come from the South and build on the progressive, rights based policy orientation of many “developing countries”, to create a genuinely rights based agenda for global development in South and North. One will need to find a good multidimensional concept. Ideas to inject into the discussions – which need to be led by the South - include, inter alia: the notion of human security, building on the ideas of promoting freedom from fear and freedom from want, which evolved into key domains of human security – food and nutrition, income and employment, health, education, access to water and sanitation, political security, social inclusion – and a combination of objective factors of human security and subjective plane of perceptions; or the notion of “3-dimensional wellbeing” conceptualised at the IDS by Andy Sumner and Allister McGregor; or “MDGs plus”; and others.

39 The 99% movement

40 References Jonnathan Glennie, 2011, The OECD should give up control of the aid agenda. Guardian. 28 April 2011 Richard Jolly, Louis Emmerij, Thomas Weiss 2001, Ahead of the Curve? UN ideas and global challenges. Indiana University Press Joseph Hanlon, Armando Barrientos, David Hulme, 2010, Just give money to the poor. The development revolution from the global South. Kumarian Press Naila Kabeer, Can the MDGs provide a pathway to social justice. The challenge of intersecting inequalities. IDS and UN MDG Achievement Fund Gabriele Köhler, Development interventions: A parade of paradigms. In: Gabriele Köhler, Charles Gore et al, Questioning development. Essays in the theory, policies and practice of development interventions. Metropolis Verlag: Marburg 1996 Gabriele Köhler, Policies towards social inclusion. Global Social Policy. April 2009: pp , Sage publications Robert Marten, Jan Martin Witte 2008, Transforming Development? The role of philanthropic foundations in international development cooperation. Global Public Policy Institute. GPPi Research Paper Series No. 10 (2008) Accessed 25 Nov 2010 Dane Rowlands Emerging Donors in International Development Assistance: A Synthesis Report. Norman Paterson School of International Affairs. Carleton University. Accessed 25 Nov 2010 Andy Sumner GLOBAL POVERTY AND THE NEW BOTTOM BILLION: WHAT IF THREE-Quarters of the poor live in MIDDLE-INCOME COUNTRIES? WORKING PAPERIDS.

41 References Gabriele Köhler, Development interventions: A parade of paradigms. In: Gabriele Köhler, Charles Gore et al, Questioning development. Essays in the theory, policies and practice of development interventions. Metropolis Verlag: Marburg 1996 (for period up to 1995) (can be made available as a pdf) UN General Assembly, 2010, Outcome document of the High-level Plenary Meeting of the 65th session of the General Assembly on the Millennium Development Goals. September A/64/L-72. Jens Martens, 2011, Thinking ahead. Development Models and Indicators of Well-being Beyond the MDGs. Friedrich Ebert Foundation and Global Policy Forum Europe.www.fes-globalization. UNDP. Human Development Report UNRISD, Combating Poverty and Inequality: Structural Change, Social Policy and Politics UN General Assembly, Outcome document of the High-level Plenary Meeting of the 65th session of the General Assembly on the Millennium Development Goals. September A/64/L-72. WHO, World Health Report Primary health care, now more than ever. accessed 22 Nov 2010 accessed 22 Nov 2010 accessd 23 Nov 2010


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