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Good practices and new initiatives on social security policy

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1 Good practices and new initiatives on social security policy
Gabriele Köhler Development economist Visiting Fellow, Vulnerability and Poverty Reduction Team, IDS Sussex ILO/ITC Academy on Social Security: A Modular Approach for Individual Learning Needs Elective course 8 Summary day (“wrap up”) Turin, September 2012 Thank you to Milda Aleknonyte for research assistance.

2 Overview: 2) Rights, principles, frameworks
1) The current international development situation 2) Rights, principles, frameworks 3) Good practices and new initiatives on social protection policies 4) Summary: Innovative social protection and a vision towards & beyond “2015”

3 Social Security Scheme
Social Protection Social Insurance Social Security Scheme (Contributory Schemes) Social Assistance (Non-Contributory Schemes/Programmes)

4 The current international development situation –
the rationale for social protection

5 Human development at aggregate level:
Current international development situation: human development/income poverty/inequity Human development at aggregate level: slow but steady improvement Human development based on the human development index, developed by UNDP since early 1990s. Much of the optimism accompanying the MDGs is based on this trend.

6 Human Development Index, trends 1970-2010
At the aggregate level, the human development index – a composite index combining per capita income, longevity and literacy – has improved steadily – but very slowly, over the past 40 years. Most countries have moved up within their grouping of high – middle – low HDI, and some have managed to move into a higher HDI bracket – such as China, Tunisia, Laos and Nepal. Source: UNDP, Human Development Report 2010

7 Overall, since 1980, the global number of people living in extreme poverty has declined from roughly 1.9 billion to 1.3 billion persons. This is positive of course, and again, much of the optimism accompanying the MDGs is based on this trend. Source: UN _DESA 2009

8 But increased number of poor in several regions
Current international development situation: human development/income poverty Absolute number and share of extremely poor people has declined since 1990 globally But increased number of poor in several regions It is positive that poverty globally has decreased. However the poverty line of $1,25 per person per day is extremely low, a one- dimensional understanding of poverty, and a level so minimal it is a slap in the face of human dignity.

9 Income inequality and poverty (OECD)
Source: OECD. (2008) “Growing Unequal? INCOME DISTRIBUTION AND POVERTY IN OECD COUNTRIES,“ OECD publications:

10

11 “Vulnerable” employment
Source: ILO 2012 Highest shares of vulnerable employment in South Asia – 78.5%, Subsaharan Africa – 75.8%, and Southeast Asia and Pacific – 61.8% ILO 2012: 22). - The “vulnerable employment” indicator, defined as the sum of own-account workers and unpaid family workers, provides valuable insights into trends in overall employment quality, as a high share of workers in vulnerable employment indicates widespread informal work arrangements, whereby workers typically lack adequate social protection and social dialogue mechanisms. Vulnerable employment is also often characterized by low pay and difficult working conditions in which workers’ fundamental rights may be undermined. (ILO, Global Employment Trends The challenge for a jobs recovery, 2011: 21 f) The vulnerable employment indicator is one of the official Millennium Development Goals (MDG) employment indicators, under “Goal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger”, together with the employment-to-population ratio, labour productivity growth rate and the share of the working poor in total employment. For a full list of indicators, see: The MDG employment indicators are described in detail in ILO: Guide to the new Millennium Development Goals Employment Indicators (Geneva, 2009); 23). As noted in the Global Employment Trends 2010 report, the vulnerable employment indicator has some limitations: (1)wage and salary employment is not synonymous with decent work, as workers may carry a high economic risk despite the fact that they are in wage employment; (2) the unemployed are not included in the indicator, though they are vulnerable; (3) a worker may be classified in one of the two vulnerable status groups but still not carry a high economic risk, especially in the developed economies.

12 Working poverty trends
One in 5 people working are estimated to be living in extreme poverty., defined as less than $1.25 per person per day (ILO 2012: 41). The working poor are defined by the ILO as those who work and belong to poor households (Majid, Nomaan “The size of the working poor population in developing countries”. Employment Paper 2001/16. (Geneva, ILO). The first ILO estimates of working poverty were published in 2000 by Nomaan Majid as background work for the 2001 World Employment Report and included the aggregate numbers of working poor in the world and by region for 1986 and In 2002, Stefan Berger and Claire Harasty produced new estimates of working poverty for the years 1990 and 2000 and also estimated the GDP growth needed to reduce by half the share of working poor in total employment between 2000 and (Kapsos, Steven “Employment Strategy Papers Estimating growth requirements for reducing working poverty: Can the world halve working poverty by 2015?”. Employment Paper 2004/14. (Geneva ILO).)

13 Working poverty trends
The working poor are defined by the ILO as those who work and belong to poor households (Majid, Nomaan “The size of the working poor population in developing countries”. Employment Paper 2001/16. (Geneva, ILO). The first ILO estimates of working poverty were published in 2000 by Nomaan Majid as background work for the 2001 World Employment Report and included the aggregate numbers of working poor in the world and by region for 1986 and In 2002, Stefan Berger and Claire Harasty produced new estimates of working poverty for the years 1990 and 2000 and also estimated the GDP growth needed to reduce by half the share of working poor in total employment between 2000 and (Kapsos, Steven “Employment Strategy Papers. Estimating growth requirements for reducing working poverty: Can the world halve working poverty by 2015?”. Employment Paper 2004/14. (Geneva ILO).)

14 Lack of decent work Photo: Men and women queue for passport applications at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Kathmandu, Nepal – presumably many among them are distress migrants. © chandra Shekhar Karki Source: Amnesty International FALSE PROMISES . Exploitation and forced labour of Nepalese migrant workers. London

15 Share of Working Children, ages 5-11 & 5-14 in percent of age cohort
Source ILO IPEC. This table shows: data on the share of children who are working as a share of all children in the age groups 5-11 and It illustrates several things – the magnitude oft the problem; the fact hat child labour starts at a very young age; and also, with respect to data, that there are few data available : few countries and few recent figures. Most child labour goes unrecorded. The next slide shows that in most countries, more girls than boys start work at a very early age – example of Brazil.

16 Where are we talking about – a vast region with over 1 billion population
Source:

17 manifest in every society
Social exclusions – manifest in every society GENDER Income/economic class Ethnicity Religion Language Caste/clan Geographic location/urban vs rural Citizenship and migration status Health condition/communicable/visible diseases Ability/disability Menstruation Sexual orientation Looks Recurrent emergency situations Conflict situation Age Social exclusion along the vectors of gender, ethnicity, religious affiliation, language group, caste, disability, geographical location, age, and other vectors is found in different manifestations in all societies. It is an important indicator of the necessity of inclusive social protection measures.

18 Huge disparities based on different forms of social exclusion are evident even within one city of a high-income country – London: male life expectancy is 5 years less in the poor Eastern districts than in the affluent West of the city. Source: London Health Observatory

19 Natural disasters (1980-2011) 19 Total
Source: Münchner Rückversicherungs Gesellschaft. NatCal, Link: Geophysical events (earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanoes) Metrological events (Storms) Hydrological events (floods, land mass movements) Climatological events (temperature extremes, droughts, forest fires) 19

20 Global trends in armed conflicts (1946-2011)
Source: Graph is made based on this table: The table lists 326 episodes of armed conflict (including 31 ongoing cases) that comprise a comprehensive accounting of all forms of major armed conflicts in the world over the contemporary period: "Major episodes of political violence" involve at least 500 "directly-related" fatalities and reach a level of intensity in which political violence is both systematic and sustained (a base rate of 100 "directly-related deaths per annum"). Episodes may be of any general type: inter-state, intra-state, or communal; they include all episodes of international, civil, ethnic, communal, and genocidal violence and warfare. Episodes are coded on a scale of one to ten according to an assessment of the full impact of their violence on the societies that directly experience their effects. The effects of political violence and warfare include fatalities and casualties, resource depletion, destruction of infrastructure, and population dislocations, among other things such as the psychological trauma to individuals and adverse changes to the social psychology and political culture of affected social identity groups. The resulting categories represent standardized event magnitudes based on levels of societal affect (i.e., a measure of the general magnitude that a society's normal networking and functioning is affected by violent disruption); the scaled categories are considered comparative units of measurement. Global and regional trends in warfare are visualized graphically by aggregating the coded scores for all ongoing episodes of major armed conflict in a given year. 20

21 Refugees and Displaced Populations (1964-2008)
Source:

22 In brief: some numbers for reflection…
Almost 1 billion people live with hunger 1.2 billion people survive with less than $1.25 per person per day 2.5 billion people have less than $2.50 per day 1.5 billion in vulnerable employment 200 million international migrants 740 million people are internal migrants 26 million people internally displaced because of conflict or climate change 14 million refugees living outside their country of citizenship 45 million youth entrants to labour market annually 175 million children affected by climate change Moreover, chronic poverty and social exclusions are exacerbated by the impact of the crises – food and fuel price rises, financial and economic crises, the ensuing fiscal crises which have intensified since 2008. As a result of the 2008 ff crises, hunger, already massive – with an estimated 900 million to 1 billion people living with daily hunger, has increase; formal sector unemployment is rising: child poverty is worsening. Data sources: International Labour Organization (ILO), World Social Security Report , p. 33. World Bank, The World Bank Group’s Response to the Global Economic Crisis, 2010, p. 11 ILO, Global Employment Trends 2011: The challenge of a jobs recovery, 2011, p. 12. Jessica Espey and Maricar Garde, The global economic crisis: Balancing the books on the backs ofthe world’ s most vulnerable children?, Save the Children, 2010, p.8. Ronald Mendoza, “Inclusive Crises, Exclusive Recoveries, and Policies to Prevent aDouble Whammy for the Poor”, Social and Economic Policy Working Paper, UNICEF Policy andPractice, 2010, p. 18. Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO), The State of Food Insecurity in theWorld: Economic Crises, Impacts and Lessons Learned, 2009, p. 4. Human Rights Council Report of the Independent Expert on the question of human rights and extreme poverty, Magdalena Sepúlveda Carmona. A/HRC/17/ March Unicef 2011 on climate change and children. 13 February 2009 – The spreading global economic crisis is set to trap up to 53 million more people in poverty in developing countries this year on top of the million driven into poverty in 2008 by soaring food and fuel prices, bringing the total of those living on less than $2 a day to over 1.5 billion, according to the World Bank.. UN news.

23 Health protection – legal provision
Source ILO World Social Security Report 2010 p 41

24 Social protection in case of unemployment
Source ILO World Social Security Report 2010 p 58

25 Maternity benefits Source ILO World Social Security Report 2010 p 70

26 Old age pension coverage
Source ILO World Social Security Report 2010 p 47

27 2) Rights, principles, frameworks

28 QUICK QUIZ: What is this text? When was it written?
Everyone, as a member of society, has the right to social security and is entitled to the realization, through national effort and international co-operation and in accordance with the organization and resources of each State, of the economic, social and cultural rights indispensable for his dignity and the free development of his personality. Everyone has the right to work, to free choice of employment, to just and favourable conditions of work and to protection against unemployment. Everyone, without any discrimination, has the right to equal pay for equal work. Everyone who works has the right to just and favourable remuneration ensuring for himself and his family an existence worthy of human dignity, and supplemented, if necessary, by other means of social protection. Everyone has the right to form and to join trade unions for the protection of his interests. Everyone has the right to rest and leisure, including reasonable limitation of working hours and periodic holidays with pay. This text is from … the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. What year was it adopted? The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which was adopted by the UN General Assembly on 10 December 1948, was the result of the experience of the Second World War. With the end of that war, and the creation of the United Nations, the international community vowed never again to allow atrocities like those of that conflict happen again. World leaders decided to complement the UN Charter with a road map to guarantee the rights of every individual everywhere. The document they considered, and which would later become the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, was taken up at the first session of the General Assembly in 1946.  The Assembly reviewed this draft Declaration on Fundamental Human Rights and Freedoms and transmitted it to the Economic and Social Council "for reference to the Commission on Human Rights for consideration in its preparation of an international bill of rights." The Commission, at its first session early in 1947, authorized its members to formulate what it termed "a preliminary draft International Bill of Human Rights". Later the work was taken over by a formal drafting committee, consisting of members of the Commission from eight States, selected with due regard for geographical distribution. SOURCE:

29 The Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Eleanor Roosevelt, one of the drafters of the UDHR, holding up a first copy.

30 Right to Social Protection
Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948): Article 22: Everyone, as a member of society, has the right to social security. ILO Convention 102: Social Security (Minimum Standards) Convention, 1952 (No. 102) Outlines rights to benefits for residents of a country Source: Köhler

31 Right to Social Protection
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (1966): Article 9: The States Parties to the present Covenant recognize the right of everyone to social security, including social insurance. The Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989): Article 26: States Parties shall recognize for every child the right to benefit from social security, including social insurance, and shall take the necessary measures to achieve the full realization of this right in accordance with their national law. Source: Köhler

32 Normative frameworks: recent UN trends
Global Social Floor Initiative since 2001 – ILO Recommendation on Social Protection for all. Rec 202 (ILC June 2012) World Health Assembly return to Alma Ata vision of primary health care for all Right to food, FAO Committee on World Food Security, May 2012 adopted Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests in the Context of National Food Security There are also encouraging developments internationally in UN fora in terms of a rights-based agenda – examples include decisions of the governing bodies of the FAO and WHO, and the movement for an international recommendation at the ILO on social protection for all. In May 2012, Voluntary Guidelines seek to improve governance of tenure of land*, fisheries and forests adopted. “They seek to do so for the benefit of all, with an emphasis on vulnerable and marginalized people, with the goals of food security and progressive realization of the right to adequate food, poverty eradication, sustainable livelihoods, social stability, housing security, rural development, environmental protection and sustainable social and economic development. All programmes, policies and technical assistance to improve governance of tenure through the implementation of these Guidelines should be consistent with States’ existing obligations under international law, including the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and other international human rights instruments. “http://www.fao.org/nr/tenure/voluntary-guidelines/en/ A more rights-based understanding of the MDGs is also emerging, and the role of the OHCHR deserves special mention as the reports of the special rapporteurs/experts are well researched, independent but engaged and critical analyses, and becoming increasingly influential.

33 Normative frameworks: recent UN trends
MDGs 2010: more emphasis on equity, inclusion, human rights OHCHR Special rapporteurs on human rights – including right to food and right to highest attainable standards of health Rio + 20 Summit: outcome document: The Future We Want refers to social protection There are also encouraging developments internationally in UN fora in terms of a rights-based agenda – examples include decisions of the governing bodies of the FAO and WHO, and the movement for an international recommendation at the ILO on social protection for all. In May 2012, Voluntary Guidelines seek to improve governance of tenure of land*, fisheries and forests adopted. “They seek to do so for the benefit of all, with an emphasis on vulnerable and marginalized people, with the goals of food security and progressive realization of the right to adequate food, poverty eradication, sustainable livelihoods, social stability, housing security, rural development, environmental protection and sustainable social and economic development. All programmes, policies and technical assistance to improve governance of tenure through the implementation of these Guidelines should be consistent with States’ existing obligations under international law, including the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and other international human rights instruments. “http://www.fao.org/nr/tenure/voluntary-guidelines/en/ A more rights-based understanding of the MDGs is also emerging, and the role of the OHCHR deserves special mention as the reports of the special rapporteurs/experts are well researched, independent but engaged and critical analyses, and becoming increasingly influential.

34 OHCHR Special Rapporteurs/Independent Experts on human rights
right to education; human rights and extreme poverty; right to food; right to adequate housing; access to safe drinking water and sanitation; against violence against women; physical and mental health; economic policies and debt; TNCs; and other substantive normative areas. What is especially relevant here: the 2011 report of the special rapporteur on HR and extreme poverty made a very strong case for social protection. “The mission of the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights is to protect and promote human rights for all. OHCHR aims to ensure implementation of universally recognized human rights norms, strengthen the United Nations human rights programme, and provide the United Nations treaty monitoring bodies and special mechanisms established by the Commission on Human Rights with the highest support.” Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights: Special Rapporteurs and independent experts are a „special procedures“ mechanism of the OHCHR. They are playing an increasingly prominent role and are moving from more legally-oriented themes to economic and social development. The list includes: on extrajudicial, summary or arbitrary executions (1982) on freedom of religion or belief (1986-) on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography (1990-) on contemporary forms of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance (1993-) on the promotion and protection of the right to freedom of opinion and expression (1993-) on violence against women, its causes and consequences (1994-) on the independence of judges and lawyers (1994-) on torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment (1995-) on the adverse effects of the illicit movement and dumping of toxic and dangerous products and wastes on the enjoyment of human rights (1995-) on the right to education (1998-) on the question of human rights and extreme poverty (1998-) on adequate housing as a component of the right to an adequate standard of living (2000-) on the right to food (2000-) on the right of everyone to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health (2002-) of the Secretary-General on the situation of human rights defenders (2000-) on the situation of human rights and fundamental freedoms of indigenous people (2001-) of the Secretary-General on the human rights of internally displaced persons (2004-) on the human rights of migrants (1999-) on minority issues (2005-) on human rights and international solidarity (2005- on the effects of economic reform policies and foreign debt on the full enjoyment of human rights, particularly economic, social and cultural rights (2000-) on the promotion and protection of human rights while countering terrorism (2005-) on trafficking in persons, especially in women and children (2004-) on human rights and transnational corporations and other business enterprises (2005-) international solidarity or minority issues in (2005) water and sanitation (2008) TNCs (2009). In 2010, there were 41 Special Procedures (33 thematic mandates and eight mandates relating to countries or territories) with currently 55 mandate holders. See OHCHR Facts and Figures 2010.

35 Social protection: UNICEF
the set of public and private policies and programmes aimed at preventing, reducing and eliminating economic and social vulnerabilities to poverty and deprivation. Principles of child-sensitive social protection Avoid adverse impacts on children, and reduce or mitigate social and economic risks that directly affect children's lives. Intervene as early as possible where children are at risk Consider the age- and gender-specific risks and vulnerabilities of children throughout the life- cycle. Mitigate the effects of shocks, exclusion and poverty on families Make special provision to reach children who are particularly vulnerable and excluded Consider the mechanisms and intra-household dynamics Include the voices and opinions of children, their caregivers and youth Sources: UNICEF Socio-economic Policies for Child Rights with Equity. Web-based course, Advancing Child-Sensitive Social Protection Joint statement by DFID, HelpAge International, Hope & Homes for Children, Institute of Development Studies, International Labour Organization, Overseas Development Institute, Save the Children UK, UNDP, UNICEF, the World Bank and World Vision.

36 Social protection: World Bank
Social protection and labor systems, policies, and programs help individuals and societies manage risk and volatility and protect them from poverty and destitution—through instruments that improve resilience, equity, and opportunity. Social protection and labor practice will help countries move from fragmented approaches toward more coherent systems for social protection and labor, and help to make these more responsive, productive and inclusive. Source RESILIENCE, EQUITY, AND OPPORTUNITY. The World Bank’s Social Protection and Labor Strategy 2012– Washington April page I; III.

37 Social protection: ADB
a basic human right and a social necessity to combat poverty and inequality. promotes human well-being, inclusive growth, political stability, and social cohesion can reduce inequality, including that between the sexes. is critical for achieving the MDGs. is a key pillar of inclusive growth is affordable. is an investment to lift and keep people out of poverty. contributes to gender equity Source Sri Wening Handayani, 2010.Enhancing Social Protection in Asia and the Pacific. The Proceedings of the Regional Workshop. Asian Development Bank. Manila. . Pages 4-5 The definition also says: The economic crisis revealed new vulnerabilities and the inability of states, communities, and households to absorb livelihood and other shocks, and to reduce vulnerability to future shocks. Existing social protection frameworks rarely include social exclusion as a source of such vulnerability.

38 Social protection: EU 2012 a human right
social justice and equity, rather than growth target the poor - obligation of authorities towards their citizens investment in present citizenry and future generations reduce the vulnerability and poverty of those excluded or marginalised from economic activity; serve as an important instrument of investment in human capital a multidimensional concept that should be integrated with political, economic and social goals Source: Social protection in EU development cooperation. Report prepared for the EU by Simon Commander, Mark Davies, and Constantine Zaman. Brussels page 5.

39 Social protection: MDGs 2010

40 Social protection: ILO
“…a set of public initiatives that provide income or consumption transfers to the poor, protect the vulnerable against livelihood risks, enhance the social status and promote the rights of the marginalised, with the overall objective of reducing their economic and social vulnerability.” (ILO) Add Source

41 ILO Convention 102: Social Security (Minimum Standards) Convention, 1952 (No. 102)
flagship of all ILO social security Conventions international instrument, based on basic social security principles establishes worldwide-agreed minimum standards for all nine branches of social security medical care; sickness benefit; unemployment benefit; old-age benefit; employment injury benefit; family benefit; maternity benefit; invalidity benefit; survivors' benefit.

42 Regional and global consultation process
General discussion on social security during 90th Session of the ILC Launch of the Global Campaign on Social Security and Coverage for All Regional meeting on the future of social security in Latin America (Santiago de Chile) Regional meetings in the Arab States (Amman), and Asia and Pacific (New Delhi) 8th European Regional Meeting (Lisbon) Arab Employment Forum (Beirut) Tripartite Meeting of Experts on Strategies for the Extension of Social Security Coverage 2nd African Decent Work Symposium, Yaoundé, (Yaoundé Tripartite Declaration on the Imple-mentation of the Social Protection Floor) Recurrent Discussion on Social Protection (Social Security), 100th Session of the ILC 2001 2003 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Social security: A new consensus Policy consultation: Social Security for All: Investing in Global and Economic Development Policy briefings: Social Health Protection , Social Security Standards, Affordability of Basic Social Security Social Protection Floor Initiative reflected in Global Jobs Pact and endorsed by UN CEB Independent evaluation of the ILO´s strategy to extend the coverage of social security World Social Security Report 2010/11

43 Social Protection floors
The objective is to build towards higher levels of protection, than simply the ground floor level. The metaphor that emerged is that of a “social security staircase”. As economies grow and fiscal space is created, social protection systems can and should move up the ‘staircase’, extending the scope, level and quality of benefits and services provided. Source:

44 Outcomes can be guaranteed through different means
ILO’s two-dimensional strategy for the extension of social security: Building comprehensive social security systems individual/household income Social Protection Floor: Access to essential health care and basic income security for all Social security benefits of guaranteed levels Voluntary insurance under government regulation level of protection high low Vertical dimension: progressively ensuring higher levels of protection, guided by Convention No.102 and more advanced standards floor level Outcomes can be guaranteed through different means Horizontal dimension: Guaranteeing access to essential health care and minimum income security for all, guided by Recommendation No. 202

45 ILO’s two-dimensional strategy for the extension of social security: Building comprehensive social security systems individual/household income Social Protection Floor: Access to essential health care and basic income security for all Social security benefits of guaranteed levels Voluntary insurance under government regulation level of protection high low extension strategy Vertical dimension: progressively ensuring higher levels of protection, guided by Convention No.102 and more advanced standards floor level Social Protection Floor Recommendation, adopted at ILC 2012 Outcomes can be guaranteed through different means – there is no one-size-fits-all Horizontal dimension: Guaranteeing access to essential health care and minimum income security for all, guided by Recommendation No. 202

46 Beyond social protection: the decent work agenda
Keynesian approach – active labour market policies & fiscal space Rights-based – emphasis on productive employment, core labour standards, social dialogue Beyond social protection: the decent work agenda Source: ILO, A Global Jobs Pact. Recovering from the crisis. Adopted by the International Labour Conference at its 98th session, Geneva, 19 June 2009.ILO Geneva. See page V Fundamental conventions: freedom of association, right to organise, collective bargaining, social security minimum wage,

47 Rights – 3 Principles Inclusion, equality - universality
Every human being is equally entitled to social protection This implies universal programmes 2. Citizenship and participation Involves negotiating specific entitlements that all citizens can claim such as free education ‘Social contract’ between the states and its citizens Some countries apply SP to all residents. 3. Obligation and accountability Ability and willingness of the state to deliver SP under its human rights obligations Requires transparency and accountability – good governance and administrative capacity 1. If not feasible then advocates progressive realisation of economic and social rights Adequate steps need to be taken in the direction of full coverage 2. To achieve these entitlements however, citizens need to be informed of their rights and entitlements, and to develop the capabilities to claim them – [participation] Citzenship – issue could be for those not citizens e.g. migrants Source IDS Centre for Social Protection

48 Social insu rance Social assistance Special situations Poverty allev
iation Health access Education access Em- ploy ment access Emer gencies Adap tive climate change Social exclu sion Old age Social pensions Incen tives for agriculture Maternity and young children Family benefits Subsidies Education grants Cash for work Geog raphical targe ting; Educa tion grants Poverty, Un/under-employ-ment Basic income grants Social insurance Public works Assets/ supplies; Food for work Source : builds on Köhler, Stirbu. Cali, UNICEF ROSA 2009

49 Typology of social protection
Armando Barrientos. Manchester University. Data base on social protection Social Transfers and Chronic Poverty. A Policy Analysis Research Project. accessed autumn 2011http://www.sed.manchester.ac.uk/images/sed/idpm/socialtransfers/typology.gifhttp://www.sed.manchester.ac.uk/images/sed/idpm/socialtransfers/typology.gif

50 Transformative Social Protection
Transformation a structural problem: people are chronically poor and vulnerable because they are Systemically disadvantaged Transformative measures seek to address vulnerabilities arising from social inequity and exclusion Directly: Minimum wage legislation & workers’ rights Access to productive assets and capital Indirectly: Making social protection transfers transformative e.g. cash transfers aimed at addressing marginalisation Source IDS Centre for Social Protection

51 Economic opportunities Social transformation
Comprehensive Framework for Social Protection Promotive Economic opportunities Transformative Social transformation Preventive Insurance mechanisms Provides us a comprehensive framework for SP Source IDS Centre for Social Protection Rachel Sabates-Wheeler/ Stephen Devereux. IDS Protective Social assistance

52 DISCUSSION I What are the social protection programmes in your country? What are their vision, objectives, key design elements, scale, outcomes, uniqueness Social security Social assistance Special situations Task: Individual reflection/quick list (5 minutes) Pair discussion (10 minutes) Collect in plenary (10 minutes) Debate and summary (5 minutes)

53 3) Good practices and new initiatives on social security policy
Source IDS Centre for Social Protection

54 Latin America Many countries in Latin America run large conditional cash transfer programmes to address income poverty Conditionalities – aiming to produce behavioural change and achieve direct and indirect outcomes. E.g, health and education non-income effects Source IDS Centre for Social Protection

55 Conditional Cash Transfers in Latin America
Argentina Programa Familias Bolivia Beca Futuro Brazil Bolsa Familia, Bolsa Escola Chile Chile Solidario Colombia Familias en Accion Program Costa Rica Programa Superemonos Ecuador Bono de Desarrollo Humano El Salvador Red Solidaria Honduras Programa de Asignacion Familiar Mexico Progresa, Oportunidades Nicaragua Red de Proteccion Social Source IDS Centre for Social Protection

56 Brazil: Bolsa famila 2003 reached 3.6 million families with a budget of US$ 1.1 billion 2007 reaching 100% of its target of 11.1 million families (about 45 million people or a quarter of the country’s population) with a budget of over US$4.1 bn 2008: government’s expenditures with the programme were estimated at US$6 bn The programme raised participants’ income by 21% but by itself not enough to lift families out of poverty 19% reduction in poverty severity (the degree to which poor families fall below the poverty line) and a 21% fall in the Gini (income inequality) index between 1995 and 2004. increasing food and nutrition security in the country: 76% of the transfers spent on food, and families in the Bolsa Família programme have been able to improve their diets Bolsa Família accounts for less than 3% of direct government transfers, and only 0.5% to 0.8% of the country’s GDP Sources: Rocha, Cecilia. (2009) “Developments in National Policies for Food and Nutrition Security in Brazil,” in: Development Policy Review Vol: 27 (1): 51-66 Britto, 2008; FAO, 2006; MDS, 2007) Hall, 2006: 693-4; The Economist, 2008: 39-40 Ananias, 2008 Jaccoud, 2006: 36 (Soares et al., 2007: 4)

57 Africa Often a base of social security provisions for public sector workers and formal employees modelled on European systems Main features of the recent evolution: Mainly cash transfers and largely unconditional Number of pilot projects, few programmes at scale Includes for example social pensions, ‘productive’ safety nets and livelihood promoting measures (input subsidies) Some government driven, some donor-driven, some ‘hybrid’ government-donor partnerships Source IDS Centre for Social Protection

58 Unconditional Cash Transfers in Sub-Saharan Africa
Source IDS Centre for Social Protection

59 Ethiopia Productive Safety Nets Programme
Largest social protection programme in SSA. Two objectives: Smooth consumption and protect assets providing households with predictable and adequate transfers of cash and/or food Build community assets (e.g. roads, soil and water conservations structures, schools) though labour intensive public works Combined with ‘livelihood packages’ that protect and promote livelihoods and asset accumulation In combination, two programmes are expected to facilitate graduation of households into food security Source IDS Centre for Social Protection

60 South Africa: Grant for Older Persons:
a social pension, reaches around 2 million beneficiaries with a monthly benefit or around USD 70 to beneficiaries. Eligibility: South African citizens and permanent residents, males from age 63 years (age threshold coming down) and women from age 60 years Must comply with the means test Until the introduction of the Child Support Grant, the social pension constituted the most important source of support for poor households. It is tax financed and currently absorbs around 1.4 per cent of GDP. (South African Social Security Agency) and p. 5, 6 Old age grants are subject to a means test, so they have a different access and logic from the Indian schemes.

61 South Africa: Child Support Grant
Purpose: To assist families with child care and education expenses Has become crucial in light of pervasive poverty and because of vulnerabiltiy as a result of the HIV/AIDS pandemic Eligibility: applicant and child must reside in South Africa; applicant must be the primary care giver of the child/ children concerned; the child/children under 15 years; means tested  Limit of six non biological children; Source: (South African Social Security Agency )

62 South Asia South Asia Major shift towards a new SP agenda came in the course of new governments around 2005ff in most of the region´s countries Innovations in SP: Introducing social protection for the informal sector in India Social pensions in 4 countries Asset-based approaches (BRAC-type model) Making public employment programmes a right Source IDS Centre for Social Protection

63 Some South Asian policy responses
Social protection policy environment Some South Asian policy responses Direct food transfers Human rights Social Assistance Job Creation Affirmative action Cooked school meals (IND) Subsidized PDS (IND, NPL, BGD) Subsidized grain prices Universal old age pension (NPL) Benazir Income Support Program (PAK) Child benefit (NPL) Unorganized sector health insurance (IND) National Rural Employment Guarantee (IND) Employment Generation for hard core poor (BGD) Karnali Employment Program (NPL) Employment generation for rural unskilled workers (PAK) Secondary school stipend for girls (BGD) Education for all (NPL) Child grants for girls (IND) Rural development and community based interventions (IND) Right to food/National Food Security Act (IND) Mid-day meal (IND) Right to education (all) Right to work (IND) Right to health services (all) Right to information (IND, BGD, NPL)

64 National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme India
The Indian government passed the (Mahatma Gandhi) National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) in The MGNREGA guarantees, as a legal right, up to 100 days of employment on a public works site for one member per household, with reservations for women workers. In , according to the Ministry of Rural Development, 45 million households were provided employment and 2.2 trillion person days of employment were generated (Annual Report 2008/9). It is thus the largest employment scheme globally and critical for food security. The wages are at the daily minimum wage rate of each state, and there are some provisions for on-site, rudimentary child crèches if more than five children need care while their mother works. Rosters of the people employed and their wages received are published to ensure transparency and accountability. The transformative potential for these schemes lies in their rights appeal, the effective provision of alternative livelihoods during lean seasons, the competitive upside pressure exerted on agricultural wages during the high season, the social empowerment potential and the creation of indispensable rural and community infrastructure. The MGNREGA model has been replicated in some form in at least three other South Asian countries - Bangladesh, Pakistan and Nepal. .Source: Aniruddha Bonnerjee and Gabriele Köhler, The challenge of food and nutrition insecurity and policy innovations from the South. Paper prepared for EADI/DSA Conference, York, UK, September 2011. Expenditures: --Rs billion ($1.76 billion) in --Rs billion ($ 3.17 billion) in --Rs. 250 billion ($ 5 billion) in --Rs. 300 billion ($ 6 billion) allocated in The expenditure is around 0.5% of GDP; 3.3% of budget exp.; 10% of plan exp. Source: National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA): Indian Experience Prof. S.Mahendra Dev. Chairman, Commission for Agricultural Costs and Prices (CACP), Government of India found at:

65 Access to information Source: Writing on the Wall as Appropriate Technology for Transparency. Partnership for Transparency Fund. This is the “Transparency Wall” in Ranga Reddy village in Andhra Pradesh, India. The Hindu reports that the writing on the wall contains names of workers, how many days they have worked, and how much they have earned

66 Benazir Income Support Program (BISP)
2008 initial budget outlay of $500 million: largest direct cash grant scheme in Pakistan’s history 3.5 million economically distressed persons affected by poverty and inflation cash transfers of $13 per month paid every two months t poverty score card methodology (2010) National Database Registration Authority (NADRA) partnerships with private sector commercial banks

67 EAST ASIA/SOUTHEAST ASIA
Major shifts in SP came in the wake of the 1998 “Asian” crisis In the aftermath, many governments introduced new SP interventions These are now being scaled up and systematised Source: IDS Sussex

68 Indonesia: three clusters of poverty alleviation programmes
Cluster 1: Family-based integrated social assistance programs Unconditional cash transfer, conditional cash transfer, rice for poor, Scholarship for poor families, Health insurance for the poor Cluster 2: Community empowerment program Program Nasional Pemberdayaan Masyarakat (PNPM Mandiri), or Self Empowerment National Program Source: Nazara, Suahasil. Poverty alleviation in Indonesia: Progress and challenges. Social Protection Conference, Myanmar, June 2012. Cluster 3: Development of micro and small enterprises Kredit Usaha Rakyat (KUR), or People’s Credit Program

69 Indonesia: family-based social assistance programmes
Name BLT Unconditional Cash Transfer ( ) Raskin Rice for the Poor Jamkesmas Health Protection BSM Scholarship for the Poor PKH Conditional Cash Transfer Transfer Type Cash Subsidized Rice Health service fees waived Cash & Conditions Target group (HHs) Poor & near poor HHs Students from poor HHs Very poor HHs Number of beneficiaries 18.7 Mn HHs 17.5 Mn HHs 18.2 Mn HHs 8 Mn Students 1.5 Mn HHs Benefit level IDR 100,000 per month 15 kg rice per month Unlimited IDR 480,000 per year IDR 1,287,000 per year Key executing agency Ministry of Social Affairs (MoSA) Bureau of Logistics (BULOG) Ministry of Health (MoH) MoNE & MoRA MoSA Source: Nazara, Suahasil. Poverty alleviation in Indonesia: Progress and challenges. Social Protection Conference, Myanmar, June 2012.

70 Indonesia: national targeting system
The National Targeting System identifies and chooses beneficiaries (households, individuals, etc.) of targeted poverty reduction or social protection programs. Poor Not-Poor Past system: each program has its own list of targeting system Now gradually moves into unified targeting system Minimizing inclusion & exclusion errors Beneficiary of Programs Non-beneficiary of Programs Source: Nazara, Suahasil. Poverty alleviation in Indonesia: Progress and challenges. Social Protection Conference, Myanmar, June 2012.

71 Philippines: objectives of CCT
Selection Procedures of Target Households To raise the average consumption rate in food expenditure of poor households To increase the enrollment in and attendance rate of children in school To improve preventive health care among pregnant women and young children To reduce the incidence of child labor To encourage parents to invest in their children’s (and their own) human capital through investments in their health and nutrition, education, and participation in community activities Geographical Targeting Household Assessment (Enumeration) Source: Solloso, Ernestina Z.. Philippines conditional cash transfer program. Social protection conference: call to action. Myanmar, June 25-26th, 2012. Selection of Poor Beneficiaries using Proxy Means Test Eligibility Check

72 Philippines: key features & goals of CCT
Focused targeting Not a stand alone program/Utilizes Convergence Strategy Empowering of Women Promotive of Child Rights Builds Co-responsibilities/Social Contract Encourages Private-partnership-building Automated information System Mainstreamed into the general operation of the Department Social Assistance Provide assistance to the poor to alleviate their immediate needs (short term). Social Development Break the intergenerational cycle of poverty through investment in human capital i.e., education, health and nutrition (long term). Long-run poverty alleviation through investment in human capital. Source: Solloso, Ernestina Z.. Philippines conditional cash transfer program. Social protection conference: call to action. Myanmar, June 25-26th, 2012.

73 Philippines: CCT – Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program
7,107 Islands The Philippine CCT is a rights based program that focuses on human capital investment through provision of health and education cash grants to eligible poor households. It is one of the poverty reduction strategies of the national government to enable poor households to meet certain human development goals aimed at breaking intergenerational cycle of poverty. 92.3 M-Population Findings on National Social Protection System Fragmented and Uncoordinated Inadequately funded & short-lived Weak targeting system Inadequate coverage Difficult impact assessment 26.5 M. Pop Poor & poverty largely rural Source: Solloso, Ernestina Z.. Philippines conditional cash transfer program. Social protection conference: call to action. Myanmar, June 25-26th, 2012. 8 Years behind target in poverty reduction/Medium probability of halving poverty by 2015

74 Cambodia: Scope of the NSPS Focusing on the Poor and Vulnerable
Source: Chanphal, Ngy. Cambodia Experiences: Social Protection Floor. Social Protection Conference: Call to Action. Nay Pyi Taw, Myanmar, 25-26th of June, 2012.

75 Gradual progression towards comprehensive social protection, as per the NSPS long-term vision
NSPS Presentation 2. Expanded social protection Civil servants Formal Workers Near poor Poor Special Vulnerable Group Social protection for the poor and vulnerable Social safety net (non-contributory): Public works programmes (food or cash for work) Cash or in-kind transfers (conditional or non-conditional) Social subsidies (to facilitate access to health, education, housing, public utilities) Complementary social welfare services Social insurance (contributory) Pension Health insurance NSSF, NSSF-C (Social Security Fund) Micro-insurance Community-based health insurance (social health protection) 1. Basic social protection or Social Protection Floor Source: Chanphal, Ngy. Cambodia Experiences: Social Protection Floor. Social Protection Conference: Call to Action. Nay Pyi Taw, Myanmar, 25-26th of June, 2012.

76 Linking SP and Employment
Source: Chanphal, Ngy. Cambodia Experiences: Social Protection Floor. Social Protection Conference: Call to Action. Nay Pyi Taw, Myanmar, 25-26th of June, 2012.

77 Rights-based agenda advancing Emerging shifts:
4. Summary: Innovative social protection and a policy vision towards & beyond “2015” Paradigm has shifted: Surge in social protection over past 15 years, acknowledging inequities Rights-based agenda advancing Emerging shifts: Connecting social services access with income guarantees Combining employment and decent work with social protection Reasons include A disillusionment with the earlier development paradigms and development decades that were not overcoming poverty The interest in rights and empowerment and creating household independence The successes in Latin America´s cash transfers More recently role in many countries of social protection measures in the stimulus packages SP emerging in MDGs and post-MDGs discussions as a policy option Quiet revolution is a term acoined by Joseph Hanlon, Armando Barrientos, David Hulme, 2010, Just give money to the poor. The development revolution from the global South. Kumarian Press

78 New approaches to socio-economic policy: decent work agenda
formulated at ILO by governments, employers and workers understanding that work is a source of personal dignity, family stability, peace in the community, democracies that deliver for people economic growth that expands opportunities for productive jobs and enterprise development Source: Decent Work reflects priorities on the social, economic and political agenda of countries and the international system. In a relatively short time this concept has forged an international consensus among governments, employers, workers and civil society that productive employment and Decent Work are key elements to achieving a fair globalization, reducing poverty and achieving equitable, inclusive, and sustainable development. Progress also requires action at the global level. The Decent Work agenda offers a basis for a more just and sustainable framework for global development. The ILO works to develop “decent work”-oriented approaches to economic and social policy in partnership with the principal institutions and actors of the multilateral system and the global economy

79 Social protection innovations
Commonalities Tax financed Establishes entitle- ments for socially excluded groups Draws on and gives space to civil society and public action Designed by government w civil society content Citizenship based Rights based

80 The 8 Millennium Development Goals which in turn have 19 targets and 60 indicators. In 2008, decent work and reproductive health targets were added. See Official list of MDG indicators,

81 DISCUSSION II What is the relationship between social protection and achieving each of the MDGs? What would be the role of social protection, Rec 202 and other issues in the development agenda after 2015? Task: MDG goal discussion by tables : hunger, poverty, employment, child & maternal health, education (10 minutes) Collect comments in plenary (10 minutes) Short debate and summary and closing outlook (10 minutes)

82 Reading list Michelle Bachelet, 2011, Social Protection Floor for a Fair and Inclusive Globalization, report of the Advisory Group chaired by Michelle Bachelet convened by the ILO with the collaboration of the WHO. ILO. centre/news/WCMS_166292/lang--en/index.htm Armando Barrientos and Miguel Nino-Zarazua, Brooks World Poverty Institute, University of Manchester.. Social Transfers and Chronic Poverty. A Policy Analysis Research Project. Stephen Devereux and Rachel Sabates-Wheeler Transformative Social Protection, IDS Working Paper 232. Brighton: IDS. Stephen Devereux and Rachel Sabates-Wheeler, Debating Social Protection. Editorial Introduction. IDS Bulletin Vol 38 No 3. Pp DFID, 2011, Cash Transfers. Evidence Paper. DFID Policy Division. London. EU, Social protection in EU development cooperation. Report prepared for the EU by Simon Commander, Mark Davies, and Constantine Zaman. Brussels page 5. Margaret Grosh et al. 2008, For protection and promotion: the design and implementation of effective safety nets. World Bank, Washington DC Joseph Hanlon, Armando Barrientos, David Hulme, 2010, Just give money to the poor. The development revolution from the global South. Kumarian Press Sri Wening Handayani, 2010.Enhancing Social Protection in Asia and the Pacific. The Proceedings of the Regional Workshop. Asian Development Bank. Manila.. Naila Kabeer, 2010, Can the MDGs provide a pathway to social justice. The challenge of intersecting inequalities. IDS and UN MDG Achievement Fund.

83 ILO, 2011, World Social Security Report
ILO, 2011, World Social Security Report. Providing Coverage in times of crisis and beyond ILO, 2011, Social protection floors for social justice and a fair globalization. International Labour Conference, 101st Session, Report IV (1) . ILC.101/IV/1 Gabriele Koehler, 2009, Policies towards social inclusion. Global Social Policy: 9. pp , Gabriele Köhler, Marta Calì, Mariana Stirbu. Rethinking Poverty and Social Exclusion Responses in Post-Conflict Nepal: Child-Sensitive Social Protection. Children, Youth and Environments 19(2), Koehler, Gabriele Transformative Social Protection: Reflections on South Asian Policy Experiences. IDS bulletin. Special issue: Social Protection for Social Justice. Vol.42, Issue 6. Rachel Sabates-Wheeler, Rachel and Stephen Devereux, 2007, Social Protection for Transformation. IDS Bulletin Vol 38 No 3. Pp

84 UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs. 2010. Rethinking Poverty
UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs Rethinking Poverty. Report on the World Social Situation United Nations, New York. UN, Universal Declaration of Human Rights. (1948) UNDP Human Development Report UNRISD, Combating Poverty and Inequality: Structural Change, Social Policy and Politics. UN General Assembly, Outcome document of the High-level Plenary Meeting of the 65th session of the General Assembly on the Millennium Development Goals. September A/64/L-72. World Bank RESILIENCE, EQUITY, AND OPPORTUNITY. The World Bank’s Social Protection and Labor Strategy 2012–2022. Washington April

85 contact Gabriele Koehler


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