Presentation on theme: "1 International Terminology in Romani Language Hristo Kyuchukov University of Veliko Tarnovo, Bulgaria."— Presentation transcript:
1 International Terminology in Romani Language Hristo Kyuchukov University of Veliko Tarnovo, Bulgaria
2 Content Roma and Romani Language Romani bilingualism Standardization of Romani Language Strategies for creating a standard common terminology on International level New Terminology in Romani Conclusion
3 Roma and Romani Language Who are the Roma?- people with Indian origin who left India some 1 000 years ago. The total number of Roma in Europe is approximately 8 millions. What is the Romani Language?- Indian based language-formed outside of India. Not standardized language. Influenced by Armenian, Greek, Romanian and Slavic languages. Two main dialect groups- Vlax and non-Vlax (influence of Romanian language)
4 Romani Bilingualism Roma are bilinguals and multilinguals- they speak at least 2 Romani dialects and the official language of the country as well as some of the international languages as English, Spanish, French or German Alan Patten (2003:297) two principles of bilingualism: The principle that citizens should enjoy the same set of language rights no matter where they are in the country is commonly referred to as the personality principle. The opposing principle, that language rights should vary from region to region according to local conditions, is generally labeled the territoriality principle.
5 Standardization of Romani Language In 1971 in London- the First Congress of the International Romani Union (IRU). Linguists from allover the world came together to discuss the issues of Roma rights including the Roma language rights. It was taken a decision to have a common orthography for all countries where Roma are situated. In 1990 in Warsaw- the Fourth Congress of IRU. Decision taken for standardization of Romani in different parts of the world. I.Hancock (1975, 1977 and 1995) E. Ljungberg (1977, 1984) M. Corthiade (1987) M. Hubschmanova and J. Neustupny (1996) H. Kyuchukov(1993, 2003)
6 Levels of the Standardization of Romani According to the territoriality principle of A. Patten three levels of standardization: I level: Standardization of Romani for Roma in a particular country- Czech Republic, Sweden or Romania. It means a particular orthography and loan-words in Romani language from the majority contact languages. II level: Standardization of Romani on Regional level- Balkan countries- Bulgaria, Macedonia, Kosova and Serbia. III level: Standardization of Romani for international purposes for communication between Roma from different parts of the world.
7 Meetings and Conferences Country level- Stockholm Conference- January, 2007- International experts help the country to start education in Standard Romani Regional level- Skopje Conference – December, 2006 - Experts form neighboring countries discuss issue of cross-border communication between countries where Roma have same dialect International level- Strasbourg Conference- May, 2007-Standardization of Romani in such a level which allows to teach Romani with same methodology
8 The practical side of the Standardization process On National level – one of the most popular Romani variety is chosen and it is used as a mean of communication, for publications and etc. The terminology chosen is the most comprehensive for all other groups. On Regional level – the similar varieties which exist in neighboring countries are used for standardization. The common terminology is used as a base (usually from a language which was in a contact with Romani in early stage of its development, for example from Turkish) In Balkan countries where most of the Roma are Muslim and at the same time Turkish speaking the common terminology is form Turkish.
9 Example for a Regional level standardization of Terminology H. Kyuchukov (1998) shows different lexico- semantic groups from Turkish: Names of plants, flowers, fruits and vegetables; Names of animals; Words from the nature; Names of minerals; Names of foods and drinks; Names of plays and musical instruments
10 Strategies for creating a standard common terminology on International level Using loan-words from Armenian and Greek, which are the same in all varieties around the world. Roma in their way from India to Europe come in contact with Armenian and Greek in early12 c. Examples from Armenian: Parts of human body: čekat (forehead); morči (skin); koč (knee) ogi (soul) Names of vegetables and fruits: dudum (pampkin) Names of foods: bokoli ( small flat loaf); xumer (dough) Names of animals: grast (horse); khuro (young horse); rikono (puppy)
11 Continuation of the Strategies Examples from Greek ( P. Bakker & H. Kyuchukov, 2000) Metallurgical terms: amoni (anvil); kakavi (kettle); petalo (horseshoe); karfin (nail); sviri (hammer)
12 Standardization of Romani on International level A group of Roma activists and linguists interested in Romani language have been working for last 17 years in different countries and there is some new developments. The levels which the group of scholars accepted are the following: Creating of a common Romani language on oral level- speakers of different Romani dialects from different parts of the world, coming together on international events find ways to communicate; Creating a common orthography; Creating a common grammar; Creating a common lexicon
13 Methodology Analyzes of documents from international meetings written in Standard Romani. Special attention is paid to English-root terminology, and trends for creation of new terminology in Romani are observed.
14 New Terminology in Romani Mainly English terminology with added suffixes from Romani: -o; -ja Examples: (Nouns) telefonophoneleksikonospecialisto compjutro computerautorominoriteto treno trainseriozoelemento prezidento presidentprincipovarianto regionomediatorodialekto karakteronivelodeficito seminarodikcionaroproceso fondoalternativokongreso faktoromandato testo problemointernetoleksikono analizosistemo
18 Continuation of NTR -cija; -cije (-zija; -zije) Examples: (Nouns +Verbs) Verbs fondacijarelacija unifikacija kondicijavariacija standartizacija edukacija populacija grafizacija organizacija funkcija komunikacija deklaracijakooperacijaparticipacija rezoljucijadeskripcijakonzervacija konferencijainstitucijaizolaciij tradicijainformacijaratifikacija generacijapropozicijakolaboracija konkluzija kompilacija deskripcija konvergencija
19 Continuation of NTR Non-classified: specifika lingvistika analiza/analizo sistema/sistemo baza logika forma literatura leksika fonetika psihologija
20 Conclussion These types of terminologies are effective and they are used by interpreters during international meetings at CE and EU, in publications by International organizations, in school textbooks and academic books and dictionaries.